Category Theory and the Hippocampus
Author: Jaime Gómez Ramirez
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The purpose of the book is to advance in the understanding of brain function by defining a general framework for representation based on category theory. The idea is to bring this mathematical formalism into the domain of neural representation of physical spaces, setting the basis for a theory of mental representation, able to relate empirical findings, uniting them into a sound theoretical corpus. The innovative approach presented in the book provides a horizon of interdisciplinary collaboration that aims to set up a common agenda that synthesizes mathematical formalization and empirical procedures in a systemic way. Category theory has been successfully applied to qualitative analysis, mainly in theoretical computer science to deal with programming language semantics. Nevertheless, the potential of category theoretic tools for quantitative analysis of networks has not been tackled so far. Statistical methods to investigate graph structure typically rely on network parameters. Category theory can be seen as an abstraction of graph theory. Thus, new categorical properties can be added into network analysis and graph theoretic constructs can be accordingly extended in more fundamental basis. By generalizing networks using category theory we can address questions and elaborate answers in a more fundamental way without waiving graph theoretic tools. The vital issue is to establish a new framework for quantitative analysis of networks using the theory of categories, in which computational neuroscientists and network theorists may tackle in more efficient ways the dynamics of brain cognitive networks. The intended audience of the book is researchers who wish to explore the validity of mathematical principles in the understanding of cognitive systems. All the actors in cognitive science: philosophers, engineers, neurobiologists, cognitive psychologists, computer scientists etc. are akin to discover along its pages new unforeseen connections through the development of concepts and formal theories described in the book. Practitioners of both pure and applied mathematics e.g., network theorists, will be delighted with the mapping of abstract mathematical concepts in the terra incognita of cognition.
Author: Stefan Wermter,Ron Sun
Hybrid neural systems are computational systems which are based mainly on artificial neural networks and allow for symbolic interpretation or interaction with symbolic components. This book is derived from a workshop held during the NIPS'98 in Denver, Colorado, USA, and competently reflects the state of the art of research and development in hybrid neural systems. The 26 revised full papers presented together with an introductory overview by the volume editors have been through a twofold process of careful reviewing and revision. The papers are organized in the following topical sections: structured connectionism and rule representation; distributed neural architectures and language processing; transformation and explanation; robotics, vision, and cognitive approaches.
Linking Cognitive and Cerebral Aging
Author: Roberto Cabeza,Lars Nyberg,Denise C. Park
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This second edition of the popular Cognitive Neuroscience of Aging provides up-to-date coverage of the most fundamental topics in this discipline. Like the first edition, this volume accessibly and comprehensively reviews the neural mechanisms of cognitive aging appropriate to both professionals and students in a variety of domains, including psychology, neuroscience, neuropsychology, neurology, and psychiatry. The chapters are organized into three sections. The first section focuses on major questions regarding methodological approaches and experimental design. It includes chapters on structural imaging (MRI, DTI), functional imaging (fMRI), and molecular imaging (dopamine PET, etc), and covers multimodal imaging, longitudinal studies, and the interpretation of imaging findings. The second section concentrates on specific cognitive abilities, including attention and inhibitory control, executive functions, memory, and emotion. The third section turns to domains with health and clinical implications, such as the emergence of cognitive deficits in middle age, the role of genetics, the effects of modulatory variables (hypertension, exercise, cognitive engagement), and the distinction between healthy aging and the effects of dementia and depression. Taken together, the chapters in this volume, written by many of the most eminent scientists as well as young stars in this discipline, provide a unified and comprehensive overview of cognitive neuroscience of aging.
Author: Larry R. Squire
Publisher: Academic Press
Fundamental Neuroscience, 3rd Edition introduces graduate and upper-level undergraduate students to the full range of contemporary neuroscience. Addressing instructor and student feedback on the previous edition, all of the chapters are rewritten to make this book more concise and student-friendly than ever before. Each chapter is once again heavily illustrated and provides clinical boxes describing experiments, disorders, and methodological approaches and concepts. A companion web site contains test questions, and an imagebank of the figures for ready use in presentations, slides, and handouts. Capturing the promise and excitement of this fast-moving field, Fundamental Neuroscience, 3rd Edition is the text that students will be able to reference throughout their neuroscience careers! New to this edition: * 30% new material including new chapters on Dendritic Development and Spine Morphogenesis, Chemical Senses, Cerebellum, Eye Movements, Circadian Timing, Sleep and Dreaming, and Consciousness * Companion website with figures, web links to additional material, and test questions * Additional text boxes describing key experiments, disorders, methods, and concepts * Multiple model system coverage beyond rats, mice, and monkeys * Extensively expanded index for easier referencing
From Place Cells to Episodic Memory
Author: A. David Redish
Publisher: MIT Press
There are currently two major theories about the role of the hippocampus, a distinctive structure in the back of the temporal lobe. One says that it stores a cognitive map, the other that it is a key locus for the temporary storage of episodic memories. A. David Redish takes the approach that understanding the role of the hippocampus in space will make it possible to address its role in less easily quantifiable areas such as memory. Basing his investigation on the study of rodent navigation -- one of the primary domains for understanding information processing in the brain -- he places the hippocampus in its anatomical context as part of a greater functional system. Redish draws on the extensive experimental and theoretical work of the last 100 years to paint a coherent picture of rodent navigation. His presentation encompasses multiple levels of analysis, from single-unit recording results to behavioral tasks to computational modeling. From this foundation, he proposes a novel understanding of the role of the hippocampus in rodents that can shed light on the role of the hippocampus in primates, explaining data from primate studies and human neurology. The book will be of interest not only to neuroscientists and psychologists, but also to researchers in computer science, robotics, artificial intelligence, and artificial life.
Bridging the Gap Between Neuroscience, Psychoanalysis and Psychiatry
Author: Avi Peled
NeuroAnalysis investigates using the neural network and neural computation models to bridge the divide between psychology, psychoanalysis, and neuroscience when diagnosing mental health disorders and prescribing treatment. Avi Peled builds on Freud's early attempts to explain the neural basis of mental health by introducing neural computation as a bridging science to explain psychiatric disorders. Peled describes the brain as a complex system of interconnected units and goes on to suggest that conscious experience, feelings, and mood are emergent properties arising from these complex organisations. This model describes mental health disorders in terms of perturbation to the optimal brain organisation, and demonstrates how particular disorders can be identified through a specific breakdown pattern of the brain’s organisation. This fresh approach to the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders will interest students, professors, and researchers of psychoanalysis, neuroscience, and their related fields.
Integrating Connectionism and Cognitive Science
Author: Gary F. Marcus
Publisher: MIT Press
The Algebraic Mind revamps our understanding of models in cognitive neuroscience and helps to set a new agenda for the field."--Jacket.
Author: David Vernon
Publisher: MIT Press
This book offers a concise and accessible introduction to the emerging field of artificial cognitive systems. Cognition, both natural and artificial, is about anticipating the need for action and developing the capacity to predict the outcome of those actions. Drawing on artificial intelligence, developmental psychology, and cognitive neuroscience, the field of artificial cognitive systems has as its ultimate goal the creation of computer-based systems that can interact with humans and serve society in a variety of ways. This primer brings together recent work in cognitive science and cognitive robotics to offer readers a solid grounding on key issues.The book first develops a working definition of cognitive systems -- broad enough to encompass multiple views of the subject and deep enough to help in the formulation of theories and models. It surveys the cognitivist, emergent, and hybrid paradigms of cognitive science and discusses cognitive architectures derived from them. It then turns to the key issues, with chapters devoted to autonomy, embodiment, learning and development, memory and prospection, knowledge and representation, and social cognition. Ideas are introduced in an intuitive, natural order, with an emphasis on the relationships among ideas and building to an overview of the field. The main text is straightforward and succinct; sidenotes drill deeper on specific topics and provide contextual links to further reading.
Progress in Understanding and Opportunities for Action
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on the Public Health Dimensions of Cognitive Aging
Publisher: National Academies Press
For most Americans, staying "mentally sharp" as they age is a very high priority. Declines in memory and decision-making abilities may trigger fears of Alzheimer's disease or other neurodegenerative diseases. However, cognitive aging is a natural process that can have both positive and negative effects on cognitive function in older adults - effects that vary widely among individuals. At this point in time, when the older population is rapidly growing in the United States and across the globe, it is important to examine what is known about cognitive aging and to identify and promote actions that individuals, organizations, communities, and society can take to help older adults maintain and improve their cognitive health. Cognitive Aging assesses the public health dimensions of cognitive aging with an emphasis on definitions and terminology, epidemiology and surveillance, prevention and intervention, education of health professionals, and public awareness and education. This report makes specific recommendations for individuals to reduce the risks of cognitive decline with aging. Aging is inevitable, but there are actions that can be taken by individuals, families, communities, and society that may help to prevent or ameliorate the impact of aging on the brain, understand more about its impact, and help older adults live more fully and independent lives. Cognitive aging is not just an individual or a family or a health care system challenge. It is an issue that affects the fabric of society and requires actions by many and varied stakeholders. Cognitive Aging offers clear steps that individuals, families, communities, health care providers and systems, financial organizations, community groups, public health agencies, and others can take to promote cognitive health and to help older adults live fuller and more independent lives. Ultimately, this report calls for a societal commitment to cognitive aging as a public health issue that requires prompt action across many sectors.
Towards a New Learning Science
Publisher: OECD Publishing
This book examines how new scientific developments in understanding how the brain works can help educators and educational policy makers develop new and more efficient methods for teaching and developing educational policies.
Tracing the Road to Reality
Author: Plamen L. Simeonov,Leslie S. Smith,Andrée C. Ehresmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Perhaps the most distinct question in science throughout the ages has been the one of perceivable reality, treated both in physics and philosophy. Reality is acting upon us, and we, and life in general, are acting upon reality. Potentiality, found both in quantum reality and in the activity of life, plays a key role. In quantum reality observation turns potentiality into reality. Again, life computes possibilities in various ways based on past actions, and acts on the basis of these computations. This book is about a new approach to biology (and physics, of course!). Its subtitle suggests a perpetual movement and interplay between two elusive aspects of modern science — reality/matter and potentiality/mind, between physics and biology — both captured and triggered by mathematics — to understand and explain emergence, development and life all the way up to consciousness. But what is the real/potential difference between living and non-living matter? How does time in potentiality differ from time in reality? What we need to understand these differences is an integrative approach. This book contemplates how to encircle life to obtain a formal system, equivalent to the ones in physics. Integral Biomathics attempts to explore the interplay between reality and potentiality.
A Mysterious Relationship
Author: Michael A. Arbib
Publisher: MIT Press
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
A presentation of music and language within an integrative, embodied perspective of brain mechanisms for action, emotion, and social coordination.
Author: Birte U. Forstmann,Eric-Jan Wagenmakers
Two recent innovations, the emergence of formal cognitive models and the addition of cognitive neuroscience data to the traditional behavioral data, have resulted in the birth of a new, interdisciplinary field of study: model-based cognitive neuroscience. Despite the increasing scientific interest in model-based cognitive neuroscience, few active researchers and even fewer students have a good knowledge of the two constituent disciplines. The main goal of this edited collection is to promote the integration of cognitive modeling and cognitive neuroscience. Experts in the field will provide tutorial-style chapters that explain particular techniques and highlight their usefulness through concrete examples and numerous case studies. The book will also include a thorough list of references pointing the reader towards additional literature and online resources.
Attention, Memory, and Executive Control
Author: Aleksandra Gruszka,Gerald Matthews,Blazej Szymura
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
As cognitive models of behavior continue to evolve, the mechanics of cognitive exceptionality, with its range of individual variations in abilities and performance, remains a challenge to psychology. Reaching beyond the standard view of exceptional cognition equaling superior intelligence, the Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition examines the latest findings from psychobiology, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience, for a comprehensive state-of-the-art volume. Breaking down cognition in terms of attentional mechanisms, working memory, and higher-order processing, contributors discuss general models of cognition and personality. Chapter authors build on this foundation as they revisit current theory in such areas as processing effort and general arousal and examine emerging methods in individual differences research, including new data on the role of brain plasticity in cognitive function. The possibility of a unified theory of individual differences in cognitive ability and the extent to which these variables may account for real-world competencies are emphasized, and commentary chapters offer suggestions for further research priorities. Coverage highlights include: The relationship between cognition and temperamental traits. The development of autobiographical memory. Anxiety and attentional control. The neurophysiology of gender differences in cognitive ability. Intelligence and cognitive control. Individual differences in dual task coordination. The effects of subclinical depression on attention, memory, and reasoning. Mood as a shaper of information. Researchers, clinicians, and graduate students in psychology and cognitive sciences, including clinical psychology and neuropsychology, personality and social psychology, neuroscience, and education, will find the Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition an expert guide to the field as it currently stands and to its agenda for the future.
Structure, Function, and Dynamics
Author: Michael A. Arbib,Péter Érdi,J?nos Szent?gothai
Publisher: MIT Press
In "Neural Organization," Arbib, É rdi, and Szentá gothai integrate structural, functional, and dynamical approaches to the interaction of brain models and neurobiologcal experiments. Both structure-based "bottom-up" and function- based "top-down" models offer coherent concepts by which to evaluate the experimental data. The goal of this book is to point out the advantages of a multidisciplinary, multistrategied approach to the brain. Part I of "Neural Organization" provides a detailed introduction to each of the three areas of structure, function, and dynamics. "Structure" refers to the anatomical aspects of the brain and the relations between different brain regions. "Function" refers to skills and behaviors, which are explained by means of functional schemas and biologically based neural networks. "Dynamics" refers to the use of a mathematical framework to analyze the temporal change of neural activities and synaptic connectivities that underlie brain development and plasticity--in terms of both detailed single-cell models and large-scale network models. In part II, the authors show how their systematic approach can be used to analyze specific parts of the nervous system--the olfactory system, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia--as well as to integrate data from the study of brain regions, functional models, and the dynamics of neural networks. In conclusion, they offer a plan for the use of their methods in the development of cognitive neuroscience.
Reviews of Current Research and Theories
Author: Jan de Houwer,Dirk Hermans
Publisher: Psychology Press
Emotions are complex and multifaceted phenomena. Although they have been examined from a variety of perspectives, the study of the interaction between cognition and emotion has always occupied a unique position within emotion research. Many philosophers and psychologists have been fascinated by the relationship between thinking and feeling. During the past 30 years, research on the relationship between cognition and emotion has boomed and so many studies on this topic have been published that it is difficult to keep track of the evidence. This book fulfils the need for a review of the existing evidence on particular aspects of the interplay between cognition and emotion. The book assembles a collection of state-of-the-art reviews of the most important topics in cognition and emotion research: emotion theories, feeling and thinking, the perception of emotion, the expression of emotion, emotion regulation, emotion and memory, and emotion and attention. By bringing these reviews together, this book presents a unique overview of the knowledge that has been generated in the past decades about the many and complex ways in which cognition and emotion interact. As such, it provides a useful tool for both students and researchers alike, in the fields of social, clinical and cognitive psychology.
From Brain to Behavior
Author: Mark A. Gluck,Eduardo Mercado,Catherine E. Myers
Publisher: Macmillan Higher Education
With its modular organization, consistent chapter structure, and contemporary perspective, this groundbreaking survey is ideal for courses on learning and memory, and is easily adaptable to courses that focus on either learning or memory. Instructors can assign the chapters they want from four distinctive modules (introduction, learning, memory, and integrative topics), with each chapter addressing behavioral processes, then the underlying neuroscience, then relevant clinical perspectives. The book is further distinguished by its full-color presentation and coverage that includes comparisons between studies of human and nonhuman brains. The new edition offers enhanced pedagogy and more coverage of animal learning.
Integrated Neural Circuits Supporting the Emergence of Mind
Author: Ioan Opris,Manuel F. Casanova
This book covers recent advances in the understanding of brain structure, function and disorders based on the fundamental principles of physics. It covers a broad range of physical phenomena occurring in the brain circuits for perception, cognition, emotion and action, representing the building blocks of the mind. It provides novel insights into the devastating brain disorders of the mind such as schizophrenia, dementia, autism, aging or addictions, as well as into the new devices for brain repair. The book is aimed at basic researchers in the fields of neuroscience, physics, biophysics and clinicians in the fields of neurology, neurosurgery, psychology, psychiatry.
Author: Giovanni Galizia,Pierre-Marie Lledo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Neurosciences – a comprehensive approach This textbook covers neuroscience from cellular and molecular mechanisms to behavior and cognitive processing. We also address evolution of the nervous system, computational neuroscience, the history of neuroscience as a discipline and neurophilosophy – to name but a few. The book provides the newest state-of-the-art knowledge about neuroscience from across the animal kingdom, with particular emphasis on model species commonly used in neuroscience labs across the world: mouse, zebra fish, fruit fly, honeybee, and nematode worm. We aim at university students of neuroscience, psychology, biological sciences, and medical sciences, but also computer scientists, philosophers, or anybody interested in understanding how brains work.