Author: Marvin A. Stokes

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 9780816516803

Category: Science

Page: 73

View: 3354

Tree-ring dating, or dendrochronology, is the study of the chronological sequence of annual growth rings in trees. This book--a seminal study in its field--provides a simple yet eloquent introduction to the discipline, explaining what a dendrochronologist does both in the field and in the laboratory. Authors Stokes and Smiley first explain the basic principles of tree-ring dating, then describe details of the process, step by step, from the time a sample is collected until it is incorporated into a master chronology. The book focuses on coniferous evergreens of the Southwest, particularly pi–ons, because they have wide geographic distribution, constitute a large population, and show excellent growth response to certain controlling factors. The book is specifically concerned with the task of establishing a calendar date for a wood or charcoal specimen. This concise but thorough explication of an important discipline will make dendrochonology more meaningful to students and professionals in archaeology, forestry, hydrology, and global change.
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Author: Barry Lewis,Robert Jurmain,Lynn Kilgore

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1111831777

Category: Social Science

Page: 512

View: 4215

UNDERSTANDING HUMANS: INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY AND ARCHAEOLOGY shows students how anthropologists and archaeologists go about their work as they study human evolution, living nonhuman primates, human adaptation and variation, the origin and dispersal of modern humans, food production, the first civilizations of the Old and New Worlds, and so much more. Using a biocultural approach, the text balances the presentation of physical anthropology with archaeology and concludes with a new chapter that ties together the material on human biological and cultural adaptation by focusing on lessons learned from our species evolution such as the impact of humans on the environment. Students will also benefit from the new chapter opening learning objectives, At a Glance sections that summarize key concepts, and end-of-chapter Critical Thinking Questions that help students better understand the material and study more effectively for exams. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
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Author: James H. Speer

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 9780816526840

Category: Social Science

Page: 333

View: 4828

Although there are other scientific means of dating climatic and environmental events, dendrochronology provides the most reliable of all palaeorecords. This comprehensive text addresses all of the subjects that a reader who is new to the field will need to know and will be a welcome reference for practitioners at all levels. It includes a history of the discipline, biological and ecological background, principles of the field, basic scientific information on the structure and growth of trees, the complete range of dendrochronology methods, and a full description of each of the relevant subdisciplines.
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Basics and Applications of Dendrochronology

Author: Fritz Hans Schweingruber

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400912730

Category: Science

Page: 276

View: 431

At a meeting of dendrochronologists an American colleague described the effects of volcanic eruptions on annual ring formation in bristlecone pines. I knew very little about either volcanoes or American pines! At the same meeting European scientists spoke on the dendrochronological dating of lakeshore settlements and the effects of larch bud moth attack on trees in the Alps. It is possible that American participants were not in a position to fully appreciate these papers either. In other words, dendrochronology is an extremely interdisciplinary science; its facets range from modern statistics on wood anatomy to the history of art. It is difficult even for dendrochronol ogists to keep in touch with the whole spectrum, and even more difficult for the layman to obtain an overall view of the many methods and fields of application. In recent times specialisation has begun to hinder communication be tween the various sectors. Archaeologists, for instance, set up their own dendrochronological laboratories and construct independent chronologies to serve their particular interests. The scientific institutions which previously carried out such work are now turning more and more to strongly statistically or biologically-oriented questions. The full wealth of information contained in tree rings, however, will be revealed only when dendrochronologists make a concerted effort to relate the findings of the different fields. In spite of inevitable specialisation, it is necessary that the expert concern himself with the work of his colleagues.
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Applications in the Environmental Sciences

Author: E.R. Cook,L.A. Kairiukstis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401578796

Category: Science

Page: 394

View: 8237

This book is a review and description of the state-of-the-art methods of tree-ring analy~is with specific emphasis on applications in the environmental sciences. Traditionally, methods of tree-ring analysis, or more properly in this case methods 0/ dendrochronology, were developed and used for dating archaeological and historical structures and for reconstructing past climates. The classic book Tree Rings and Climate, by H.C. Fritts, published in 1976, provided a superb introduction to the science and an in-depth description of techniques useful for extracting climatic information from tree rings. This book, which was published by Academic Press, is sadly out of print and, even though only 12 years old, lim ited in its methods and applications. This is owing to the extremely rapid development of the science since the 1970s. Only recently have tree rings as environmental sensors been fully recog nized as a valuable tool in detecting environmental change. For example, tree ring measurements have been critically important in studies of forest decline in Europe and North America. There are also attempts to use tree-ring analysis for ecological prognosis to solve large-scale regional problems including the sustain ability of water supplies, prediction of agricultural crops, and adoption of silvi cultural measures in response to ecological changes. More speculatively, dendro chronological methods are also used for dating and evaluating some astrophysical phenomena and for indicating possible increase in the biospheric carrying capac ity due to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide.
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Author: John E. Oliver

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402032641

Category: Science

Page: 854

View: 6211

Today, given the well-publicized impacts of events such as El Niño, there is an unequaled public awareness of how climate affects the quality of life and environment. Such awareness has created an increasing demand for accurate climatological information. This information is now available in one convenient, accessible source, the Encyclopedia of World Climatology. This comprehensive volume covers all the main subfields of climatology, supplies information on climates in major continental areas, and explains the intricacies of climatic processes. The level of presentation will meet the needs of specialists, university students, and educated laypersons. A successor to the 1986 Encyclopedia of Climatology, this compendium provides a clear explanation of current knowledge and research directions in modern climatology. This new encyclopedia emphasizes climatological developments that have evolved over the past twenty years. It offers more than 200 informative articles prepared by 150 experts on numerous subjects, ranging from standard areas of study to the latest research studies. The relationship between climatology and both physical and social science is fully explored, as is the significance of climate for our future well-being. The information is organized for speedy access. Entries are conveniently arranged in alphabetical order, thoroughly indexed, and cross-referenced. Every entry contains useful citations to additional source materials. The Editor John E. Oliver is Professor Emeritus at Indiana State University. He holds a B.Sc. from London University, and a MA and Ph.D from Columbia University. He taught at Columbia University and then at Indiana State where he was formerly Chair of the Geography-Geology Department, and Assoc iate Dean, College of Arts and Sciences. He has written many books and journal articles in Climatology, Applied Climatology and Physical Geography.
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Author: M.G.L. Baillie

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317606817

Category: Social Science

Page: 268

View: 932

The analysis of tree-ring patterns, or dendrochronology, is a very exact science and an important dating technique. The basis of the method is misleadingly simple: that overlap of successive older ring patterns can generate a master chronology and samples of unknown age can then be checked against this. This book, published originally in 1982, traces the development of a specific project from its inception to the successful completion of some of the longest chronologies in Europe. In doing so it looks at some of the problems associated with the subject and at the levels of precision possible. After outlining the techniques associated with the measurement and processing of tree-ring patterns, the author traces an attempt to construct such an independent chronology in a new area. The book breaks naturally into sections conditioned by the availability of timbers and these can be listed as modern, late medieval, medieval, early medieval and prehistoric. As far as possible the results are presented in the order in which things happened, thus preserving the sense of a developing subject.
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Author: CTI Reviews

Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews

ISBN: 1467279226

Category: Education

Page: 76

View: 8827

Facts101 is your complete guide to Introduction to Biological Evolution. In this book, you will learn topics such as Heredity, Emergence of Life, Diversity of Life, and Evidence of Evolution plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.
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A State-of-Art

Author: Markus Stoffel,Michelle Bollschweiler,David R. Butler,Brian H. Luckman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048187362

Category: Nature

Page: 505

View: 6918

Dendrogeomorphology Beginnings and Futures: A Personal Reminiscence My early forays into dendrogeomorphology occurred long before I even knew what that word meant. I was working as a young geoscientist in the 1960s and early 1970s on a problem with slope movements and deformed vegetation. At the same time, unknown to me, Jouko Alestalo in Finland was doing something similar. Both of us had seen that trees which produced annual growth rings were reacting to g- morphic processes resulting in changes in their internal and external growth p- terns. Dendroclimatology was an already well established field, but the reactions of trees to other environmental processes were far less well understood in the 1960s. It was Alestalo (1971) who first used the term, dendrogeomorphology. In the early 1970s, I could see that active slope-movement processes were affecting the growth of trees in diverse ways at certain localities. I wanted to learn more about those processes and try to extract a long-term chronology of movement from the highly diverse ring patterns.
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Author: Kathryn A. Bard

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118896114

Category: Social Science

Page: 480

View: 2743

This student-friendly introduction to the archaeology of ancientEgypt guides readers from the Paleolithic to the Greco-Romanperiods, and has now been updated to include recent discoveries andnew illustrations. • Superbly illustrated with photographs, maps, and siteplans, with additional illustrations in this new edition • Organized into 11 chapters, covering: thehistory of Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology; prehistoric andpharaonic chronology and the ancient Egyptian language; geography,resources, and environment; and seven chapters organizedchronologically and devoted to specific archaeological sites andevidence • Includes sections on salient topics such as theconstructing the Great Pyramid at Giza and the process ofmummification
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Author: Paolo Delogu,Matthew Moran

Publisher: Bristol Classical Press

ISBN: 9780715630792

Category: History

Page: 251

View: 7600

A comprehensive introduction to the sources, methods, and theories most often used by historians of the western middle ages, "Introduction to Medieval History" explores the origins of the idea of the ‘middle ages’ and its development in Renaissance and modern European historical discourse, the problem of periodisation and the principal themes of modern historiography. The sources of medieval history are described in detail, with chapters on history-writing in the middle ages, administrative and legal documents, coinage and the evidence of archaeology. Professor Delogu examines the materials of medieval history and the historical circumstances of their production and use, with accounts of the methods of analysis and interpretation employed by medievalists. Throughout, the reader is provided with extensive and up-to-date bibliographies for the key areas of medieval studies. The aim of the book is to enable students of medieval history to approach the written and material cultures of the period directly. The result: a handbook adapted to the needs of undergraduates and junior research students (and their teachers), and indeed anyone interested in this period of European history.
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Proceedings of the International Conference, Tucson, Arizona, 17-21 May 1994

Author: Jeffrey S. Dean,David M. Meko,Thomas W. Swetnam

Publisher: Radiocarbon

ISBN: N.A

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 889

View: 3941

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Author: J. Vansina

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317869028

Category: History

Page: 248

View: 6794

This is a pioneering introduction to a subject that is still at an early srage of academic development. It aims to provide the reader with a systematic method for the historical understanding of African art. Professor Vansina considers the medium, technique, style and meaning of art objects and examines the creative process through which they come into being. Numerous photographs and drawings illustrate his arguments, and help to explain the changes that have taken place.
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Dendrochronology and Precision Dating

Author: M.G.L. Baillie

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136226915

Category: Social Science

Page: 180

View: 9457

The dramatic development of European oak chronologies over the last ten years parallels and supplements the bristlecone-pine chronology in the United States. Dendrochronologists can now provide a wood sample - a time capsule of biological material - for any calender date over the last seven millennia from two continents. For archaeologists, resigned to the imprecision of radiocarbon dating, the implications are profound. For the first time it is possible to establish precise dates for prehistoric events. Similarly, we have an independent and scientifically objective way of testing historical accounts, such as the traditional Egyptian chronology. Equally fundamental are the insights provided by the related disciplines of dendroecology and dendroclimatology. The Bronze Age eruption of Santorini and the AD 540 `event' are explored as fascinating case studies. Drawing on a further decade of research by himself and others, Mike Baille not only brings the pre-1980 story up to date, but demonstrates the wide and exciting applications of this comparatively new science.
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