Successes, Failures, and Wrong Turns

Author: Alejandro Gaviria,Daniel Mejia

Publisher: Vanderbilt University Press

ISBN: 0826520731

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 5609

Forty years after the declaration of the "war on drugs" by President Nixon, the debate on the effectiveness and costs of the ban is red-hot. Several former Latin American presidents and leading intellectuals from around the world have drawn attention to the ineffectiveness and adverse consequences of prohibitionism. This book thoroughly analyzes the drug policies of one of the main protagonists in this war. The book covers many topics: the economics of drug production, the policies to reduce consumption and decrease supply during the Plan Colombia, the effects of the drug problem on Colombia's international relations, the prevention of money laundering, the connection between drug trafficking and paramilitary politics, and strategies against organized crime. Beyond the diversity in topics, there is a common thread running through all the chapters: the need to analyze objectively what works and what does not, based on empirical evidence. Presented here for the first time to an English-speaking audience, this book is a contribution to a debate that urgently needs to transcend ideology and preconceived opinions.
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Economic Policies for Latin America's Poor and Middle-income Majority

Author: Nancy Birdsall,Augusto de la Torre,Rachel Menezes

Publisher: Ctr for Global Development

ISBN: 9781933286167

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 216

View: 5324

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Lessons from Latin America

Author: John Luke Gallup,Alejandro Gaviria,Eduardo Lora

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821383671

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 186

View: 4294

For decades, the prevailing sentiment was that, since geography is unchangeable, there is no reason why public policies should take it into account. In fact, charges that geographic interpretations of development were deterministic, or even racist, made the subject a virtual taboo in academic and policymaking circles alike. 'Is Geography Destiny?' challenges that premise and joins a growing body of literature studying the links between geography and development. Focusing on Latin America, the book argues that based on a better understanding of geography, public policy can help control or channel its influence toward the goals of economic and social development.
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Implications for U.S. Policy

Author: Stephen Johnson,Katherine E. Bliss

Publisher: Center for Strategic & International studies

ISBN: 9780892067046

Category: Political Science

Page: 58

View: 3403

Police reform is a growth industry in the Americas. First, security threats have largely shifted from external state-sponsored aggression to stateless crime that affects citizens more directly and undermines confidence in government. Once deployed for external defense as well as for guarding internal order, armies are not equipped to deal with public safety in a setting where combating crime requires special knowledge to protect the rights of victims and perpetrators, preserve evidence, and apply the right intelligence and patrolling tools to keep crimes from happening. Second, not all Latin American law enforcement institutions can protect citizens in this manner, given that in some cases they are tied to political parties or that they exist as a poorer, fourth branch of the army. As Latin American countries have consolidated democratic practices in a post-Cold War setting, the need for effective policing, specialized law enforcement agencies, and legal frameworks to help them coordinate actions will become only more urgent. At the same time, the need for capable defense will continue, perhaps with smaller or more specialized militaries. And, because these forces always have personnel in training, they will continue to be called on periodically to support civilian authority, as most police, even in the United States, have limited surge capacity. To the extent that the security and stability of close hemispheric neighbors impinge on the security and well-being of U.S. citizens, the United States will be obliged to promote regional law enforcement reforms. If not, other countries such as China and Iran may be willing to do that, perhaps in ways the United States might not like, potentially putting American interests and lives at risk. Police reform is a hugely complicated undertaking, in which there are no easily transferable formulas for success. The authors discuss a strategic approach in which planning considers trends, the threat environment, available resources, institutional strengths and weaknesses, and leadership and applies common evaluation standards that will permit U.S. assistance to be successful and less wasteful.
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Author: Fabio De Castro,Barbara Hogenboom,Michiel Baud

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137505729

Category: Political Science

Page: 338

View: 4545

This book is open access under a CC-BY license. The multiple purposes of nature – livelihood for communities, revenues for states, commodities for companies, and biodiversity for conservationists – have turned environmental governance in Latin America into a highly contested arena. In such a resource-rich region, unequal power relations, conflicting priorities, and trade-offs among multiple goals have led to a myriad of contrasting initiatives that are reshaping social relations and rural territories. This edited collection addresses these tensions by unpacking environmental governance as a complex process of formulating and contesting values, procedures and practices shaping the access, control and use of natural resources. Contributors from various fields address the challenges, limitations, and possibilities for a more sustainable, equal, and fair development. In this book, environmental governance is seen as an overarching concept defining the dynamic and multi-layered repertoire of society-nature interactions, where images of nature and discourses on the use of natural resources are mediated by contextual processes at multiple scales.
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Social Contexts, Theories, and Systems

Author: Teresa L. Scheid,Eric R. Wright

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108184081

Category: Psychology

Page: N.A

View: 6056

With chapters written by leading scholars and researchers, the third edition of A Handbook for the Study of Mental Health provides an updated, comprehensive review of the sociology of mental health. The volume presents an overview of the historical, social, and institutional frameworks for understanding mental health and illness. Part I examines the social factors that shape psychiatric diagnosis and the measurement of mental health and illness, the theories that explain the definition and treatment of mental disorders, and cultural variability in mental health. The section addresses the DSM-5 and its potential influence on diagnosis and research on mental health outcomes. Part II investigates the effects of social context on mental health and illness. Part III focuses on the organization, delivery, and social context of mental health treatment. The chapters in Part III address the likely impact of the Affordable Care Act on mental health care. This volume is a key resource for students, researchers, advocates, and policymakers seeking to understand mental health and mental health delivery systems.
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Policy Responses to the Growing Threat of Antibiotic Resistance

Author: Ramanan Laxminarayan,Anup Malani

Publisher: Earthscan

ISBN: 1933115572

Category: Medical

Page: 175

View: 9658

Our ability to treat common bacterial infections with antibiotics goes back only 65 years. However, the authors of this report make it clear that sustaining a supply of effective and affordable antibiotics cannot be without changes to the incentives facing patients, physicians, hospitals, insurers, and pharmaceutical manufacturers. In fact, increasing resistance to these drugs is already exacting a terrible price. Every day in the United States, approximately 172 men, women, and children die from infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospitals alone. Beyond those deaths, antibiotic resistance is costing billions of dollars through prolonged hospital stays and the need for doctors to resort to ever more costly drugs to use as substitute treatments. Extending the Cure presents the problem of antibiotic resistance as a conflict between individual decision makers and their short-term interest and the interest of society as a whole, in both present and future: The effort that doctors make to please each patient by prescribing a drug when it might not be properly indicated, poor monitoring of discharged patients to ensure that they do not transmit drug-resistant pathogens to other persons, excesses in the marketing of new antibiotics, and the broad overuse of antibiotics all contribute to the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The book explores a range of policy options that would encourage patients, health care providers, and managed care organizations to serve as more responsible stewards of existing antibiotics as well as proposals that would give pharmaceutical firms greater incentives to develop new antibiotics and avoid overselling. If the problem continues unaddressed, antibiotic resistance has the potential to derail the health care system and return us to a world where people of all ages routinely die from simple infections. As a basis for future research and a spur to a critically important dialogue, Extending the Cure is a fundamental first step in addressing this public health crisis. The Extending the Cure project is funded in part by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation through its Pioneer Portfolio.
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Learning from Local Success Stories in Service Delivery in the Middle East and North Africa

Author: Hana Brixi,Ellen Lust,Michael Woolcock

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464804575

Category: Political Science

Page: 338

View: 2149

This report examines the role of incentives, trust, and engagement as critical determinants of service delivery performance in MENA countries. Focusing on education and health, the report illustrates how the weak external and internal accountability undermines policy implementation and service delivery performance and how such a cycle of poor performance can be counteracted. Case studies of local success reveal the importance of both formal and informal accountability relationships and the role of local leadership in inspiring and institutionalizing incentives toward better service delivery performance. Enhancing services for MENA citizens requires forging a stronger social contract among public servants, citizens, and service providers while empowering communities and local leaders to find 'best fit' solutions. Learning from the variations within countries, especially the outstanding local successes, can serve as a solid basis for new ideas and inspiration for improving service delivery. Such learning may help the World Bank Group and other donors as well as national and local leaders and civil society, in developing ways to enhance the trust, voice, and incentives for service delivery to meet citizens’ needs and expectations.
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The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty

Author: Daron Acemoglu,James A. Robinson

Publisher: Crown Books

ISBN: 0307719227

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 529

View: 5036

An award-winning professor of economics at MIT and a Harvard University political scientist and economist evaluate the reasons that some nations are poor while others succeed, outlining provocative perspectives that support theories about the importance of institutions. Reprint.
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The Cold War Years

Author: Marcia Esparza,Henry R. Huttenbach,Daniel Feierstein

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135244952

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 510

This edited volume explores political violence and genocide in Latin America during the Cold War, examining this in light of the United States’ hegemonic position on the continent. Using case studies based on the regimes of Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Peru and Uruguay, this book shows how U.S foreign policy – far from promoting long term political stability and democratic institutions – has actually undermined them. The first part of the book is an inquiry into the larger historical context in which the development of an unequal power relationship between the United States and Latin American and Caribbean nations evolved after the proliferation of the Monroe Doctrine. The region came to be seen as a contested terrain in the East-West conflict of the Cold War, and a new US-inspired ideology, the ‘National Security Doctrine’, was used to justify military operations and the hunting down of individuals and groups labelled as ‘communists’. Following on from this historical context, the book then provides an analysis of the mechanisms of state and genocidal violence is offered, demonstrating how in order to get to know the internal enemy, national armies relied on US intelligence training and economic aid to carry out their surveillance campaigns. This book will be of interest to students of Latin American politics, US foreign policy, human rights and terrorism and political violence in general. Marcia Esparza is an Assistant Professor in Criminal Justice Department at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York City. Henry R. Huttenbach is the Founder and Chairman of the International Academy for Genocide Prevention and Professor Emeritus of City College of the City University of New York. Daniel Feierstein is the Director of the Center for Genocide Studies at the Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero, Argentina, and is a Professor in the Faculty of Genocide at the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
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The Story of Success

Author: Malcolm Gladwell

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 014190349X

Category: Psychology

Page: 320

View: 2118

From the bestselling author of Blink and The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell's Outliers: The Story of Success overturns conventional wisdom about genius to show us what makes an ordinary person an extreme overachiever. Why do some people achieve so much more than others? Can they lie so far out of the ordinary? In this provocative and inspiring book, Malcolm Gladwell looks at everyone from rock stars to professional athletes, software billionaires to scientific geniuses, to show that the story of success is far more surprising, and far more fascinating, than we could ever have imagined. He reveals that it's as much about where we're from and what we do, as who we are - and that no one, not even a genius, ever makes it alone. Outliers will change the way you think about your own life story, and about what makes us all unique. 'Gladwell is not only a brilliant storyteller; he can see what those stories tell us, the lessons they contain' Guardian 'Malcolm Gladwell is a global phenomenon ... he has a genius for making everything he writes seem like an impossible adventure' Observer 'He is the best kind of writer - the kind who makes you feel like you're a genius, rather than he's a genius' The Times
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A Critical Thinker's Guide to Microeconomics

Author: Rod Hill,Professor Tony Myatt

Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.

ISBN: 1848138296

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 9395

Mainstream textbooks present economics as an objective science free from value judgements; that settles disputes by testing hypotheses; that applies a pre-determined body of principles; and contains policy prescriptions supported by a consensus of professional opinion. The Economics Anti-Textbook argues that this is a myth - one which is not only dangerously misleading but also bland and boring. It challenges the mainstream textbooks' assumptions, arguments, models and evidence. It puts the controversy and excitement back into economics to reveal a fascinating and a vibrant field of study - one which is more an 'art of persuasion' than it is a science. The Economics Anti-Textbook's chapters parallel the major topics in the typical text, beginning with a boiled-down account of them before presenting an analysis and critique. Drawing on the work of leading economists, the Anti-Textbook lays bare the blind spots in the texts and their sins of omission and commission. It shows where hidden value judgements are made and when contrary evidence is ignored. It shows the claims made without any evidence and the alternative theories that aren't mentioned. It shows the importance of power, social context and legal framework. The Economics Anti-Textbook is the students' guide to decoding the textbooks and shows how real economics is much more interesting than most economists are willing to let on.
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An Economic Perspective

Author: Hugo opo,Alberto Chong,Andrea Moro

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821380826

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 8931

While there is a strongly held belief that Latin American societies are highly discriminatory, the economic profession has found relatively little evidence for this perception, and until recently other social sciences had prevailed in the discussion of this timely and relevant topic. The development of new tools for analyzing the economic mechanisms underlying discrimination, however, has opened up several avenues for research. This book presents a set of studies on contemporary discrimination in Latin America that takes advantage of these new tools by focusing on social interactions that range from cooperation, group formation, and the impact of migration in poor families to specific markets such as housing and labor. The techniques applied include traditional regression analysis, experimental approaches, and audit studies, as well as structural methods. This wide range of analytical approaches leads to findings that confirm some of the common perceptions regarding discrimination but challenge the conventional wisdom in other regards In some instances the long-held conventional wisdom may not hold at all. Latin Americans do not discriminate more or less than inhabitants of other regions, and the discrimination that does occur appears largely to stem from lack of information on individuals a result of great interest in colleges and universities that teach courses on Latin American development both at the undergraduate and graduate level. Furthermore, this book s findings extend to the political arena, as they challenge standard policies that have been ineffective for decades. Finally, this book should be of interest to researchers, as the empirical methods employed are at the vanguard of the profession. In fact, in addition to the contribution that this volume makes to the literature on discrimination, it also has the potential to contribute more broadly to labor economics, development economics and experimental economics, as well as to Latin American studies.
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economic policies for social equity in Latin America

Author: Nancy Birdsall,Augusto de la Torre,Rachel Menezes,Commission on Economic Reform in Unequal Latin American Societies,Carnegie Endowment for International Peace,Inter-American Dialogue (Organization)

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Public welfare

Page: 84

View: 2554

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Improving the Odds of Achieving the MDGs : Heterogeneity, Gaps, and Challenges

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821387014

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 177

View: 7678

Prepared jointly by The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.
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From Neo-Liberalism to the ‘Pink Tide’

Author: Liisa L. North,Timothy D. Clark

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319532553

Category: Political Science

Page: 239

View: 1263

This volume examines the ways in which the socio-economic elites of the region have transformed and expanded the material bases of their power from the inception of neo-liberal policies in the 1970s through to the so-called progressive ‘pink tide’ governments of the past two decades. The six case study chapters—on Chile, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, El Salvador, and Guatemala—variously explore how state policies and even United Nations peace-keeping missions have enhanced elite control of land and agricultural exports, banks and insurance companies, wholesale and import commerce, industrial activities, and alliances with foreign capital. Chapters also pay attention to the ways in which violence has been deployed to maintain elite power, and how international forces feed into sustaining historic and contemporary configurations of power.
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U.S. Intervention in Central America and the Struggle for Peace

Author: Noam Chomsky

Publisher: Haymarket Books

ISBN: 1608464474

Category: Political Science

Page: 298

View: 7892

Noam Chomsky addresses relations throughout Central America and relates these to superpower conflicts and the overall role of the Cold War in contemporary international relations.
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Author: Suhas Ketkar,Dilip Ratha

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821377062

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 216

View: 9570

Developing countries need additional, cross-border capital channeled into their private sectors to generate employment and growth, reduce poverty, and meet the other Millennium Development Goals. Innovative financing mechanisms are necessary to make this happen. 'Innovative Financing for Development' is the first book on this subject that uses a market-based approach. It compiles pioneering methods of raising development finance including securitization of future flow receivables, diaspora bonds, and GDP-indexed bonds. It also highlights the role of shadow sovereign ratings in facilitating access to international capital markets. It argues that poor countries, especially those in Sub-Saharan Africa, can potentially raise tens of billions of dollars annually through these instruments. The chapters in the book focus on the structures of the various innovative financing mechanisms, their track records and potential for tapping international capital markets, the constraints limiting their use, and policy measures that governments and international institutions can implement to alleviate these constraints.
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Author: Scott Barbour

Publisher: Greenhaven Press, Incorporated

ISBN: 9780737703368

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 186

View: 4428

Addresses the varying sides of the debate over drug legalization, focusing on the moral, legal, and public reaction to it and studying the efficacy of drug prohibition in the United States.
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