Author: Noel A. Card

Publisher: Guilford Publications

ISBN: 1462525008

Category: Psychology

Page: 377

View: 7298

Offering pragmatic guidance for planning and conducting a meta-analytic review, this book is written in an engaging, nontechnical style that makes it ideal for graduate course use or self-study. The author shows how to identify questions that can be answered using meta-analysis, retrieve both published and unpublished studies, create a coding manual, use traditional and unique effect size indices, and write a meta-analytic review. An ongoing example illustrates meta-analytic techniques. In addition to the fundamentals, the book discusses more advanced topics, such as artifact correction, random- and mixed-effects models, structural equation representations, and multivariate procedures. User-friendly features include annotated equations; discussions of alternative approaches; and "Practical Matters" sections that give advice on topics not often discussed in other books, such as linking meta-analytic results with theory and the utility of meta-analysis software programs. ÿ
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A Step-by-Step Approach

Author: Harris Cooper

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483347044

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 8304

The Fifth Edition of Harris Cooper's bestselling Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis: A Step-by-Step Approach offers practical advice on how to conduct a synthesis of research in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. The book is written in plain language with four running examples drawn from psychology, education, and health science. With ample coverage of literature searching and the technical aspects of meta-analysis, this one-of-a-kind book applies the basic principles of sound data gathering to the task of producing a comprehensive assessment of existing research.
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Author: Mark W. Lipsey,David B. Wilson

Publisher: Sage Publications, Inc

ISBN: 9780761921677

Category: Social Science

Page: 247

View: 2015

What research designs and methodological features qualify a study for meta-analysis and which disqualify it? What types of research reports are appropriate for the meta-analysis? What is the cultural and linguistic range of the studies to be included? By integrating and translating the current methodological and statistical work into a practical guide, the authors address these questions to provide readers with a state-of-the-art introduction to the various approaches to doing meta-analysis. Through the use of a simple metaphor, that of meta-analysis as a form of survey research in which research reports, rather than individual people, are surveyed, the authors show readers how to develop a coding form for their meta-analysis, how to select and gather various research reports for the study, how to code the appropriate information about each study's characteristics, and how to analyze the resulting data using various software packages.
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Quantitative Methods for Research Synthesis

Author: Fredric Marc Wolf,Fredric M. Wolf

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803927568

Category: Medical

Page: 65

View: 8257

Meta-Analysis shows concisely, yet comprehensively, how to apply statistical methods to achieve a literature review of a common research domain. It demonstrates the use of combined tests and measures of effect size to synthesize quantitatively the results of independent studies for both group differences and correlations. Strengths and weaknesses of alternative approaches, as well as of meta-analysis in general, are presented.
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Author: Robert Rosenthal

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803942462

Category: Medical

Page: 155

View: 846

Praised in the first edition for the clarity of his general framework for conceptualizing meta-analysis, Rosenthal's revised edition covers the latest techniques in the field, such as a new effect size indicator for one size data, a new coefficient of robustness of replication, new procedures for combining and comparing effect sizes for multiple dependent variables, and new data on the magnitude of the problem of incomplete retrieval (the file drawer problem).
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Author: Ding-Geng (Din) Chen,Karl E. Peace

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466505990

Category: Mathematics

Page: 342

View: 2918

In biostatistical research and courses, practitioners and students often lack a thorough understanding of how to apply statistical methods to synthesize biomedical and clinical trial data. Filling this knowledge gap, Applied Meta-Analysis with R shows how to implement statistical meta-analysis methods to real data using R. Drawing on their extensive research and teaching experiences, the authors provide detailed, step-by-step explanations of the implementation of meta-analysis methods using R. Each chapter gives examples of real studies compiled from the literature. After presenting the data and necessary background for understanding the applications, various methods for analyzing meta-data are introduced. The authors then develop analysis code using the appropriate R packages and functions. This systematic approach helps readers thoroughly understand the analysis methods and R implementation, enabling them to use R and the methods to analyze their own meta-data. Suitable as a graduate-level text for a meta-data analysis course, the book is also a valuable reference for practitioners and biostatisticians (even those with little or no experience in using R) in public health, medical research, governmental agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry.
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Correcting Error and Bias in Research Findings

Author: Frank L. Schmidt,John E. Hunter

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483324516

Category: Social Science

Page: 672

View: 1115

Designed to provide researchers clear and informative insight into techniques of meta-analysis, the Third Edition of Methods of Meta-Analysis: Correcting Error and Bias in Research Findings is the most comprehensive text on meta-analysis available today. It is the only book that presents a full and usable treatment of the role of study artifacts in distorting study results, as well as methods for correcting results for such biases and errors. Meta-analysis is arguably the most important methodological innovation in the last thirty-five years, due to its immense impact on the development of cumulative knowledge and professional practice. This text, now in its updated Third Edition, has been revised to cover the newest developments in meta-analysis methods, evaluation, correction, and more. This reader-friendly book is the definitive resource on meta-analysis. “This text is the primary source text for psychometric meta-analysis methods.” —Emily E. Tanner-Smith, Vanderbilt University “The key strength of the book is the complete and thorough coverage of psychometric meta-analysis. This technique is not covered in any other meta-analysis text, and is a major contribution to the literature…The meta-analysis field needs to find ways to integrate Hunter and Schmidt’s methods into current meta-analysis practice.” —Terri D. Pigott, Loyola University of Chicago “This is an important text. It is the only book that presents adequate coverage of psychometric meta-analysis. In addition to its use as a textbook, it is an invaluable resource for anyone involved in meta-analytic studies.” —Steven Pulos, University of Northern Colorado
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Author: Evan Ringquist

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118240499

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 592

View: 6556

Praise for Meta-Analysis for Public Management and Policy "In his usual rigorous but readable style, Evan Ringquist and co-author Mary Anderson have produced a tour-de-force on the topic of meta-analysis in public policy and management research. Meta-analysis is badly needed in the all-too-common situation when researchers have low confidence in summarizing the overall results of dozens of studies on the effectiveness of some policy. This book has a nice combination of conceptual overview, methodological details, and applications that will make it possible for researchers to conduct their own meta-analysis. It is tempting to require all graduate students to write a meta-analysis as a chapter in their dissertation, or include meta-analysis as a standard offering in the research methods curriculum of social science graduate programs. The more people that adopt Ringquist and Anderson's approach, the less resources will be wasted on conducting studies that do not contribute to cumulative scientific knowledge. " —Mark Lubell Department of Environmental Science and Policy Director, Center for Environmental Policy and Behavior University of California-Davis “Ringquist and his colleagues deliver value and add to canon of public management methods by delivering an analytical framework that makes the case for systematic research using the tools of meta-analysis. This book will be a must read for all committed to strengthening evidence-based research that improves public policy and management decision making.” —David M. Van Slyke The Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs Syracuse University “In Meta-Analysis for Public Management and Policy Evan Ringquist and his colleagues provide a lucid and practical roadmap for policy and public management scholars who use meta-analysis in their research. But this is more than a “how to” volume; it provides background on why meta-analysis is a potent means for accumulating and synthesizing empirical research findings, and shows how its use has evolved in recent decades. Specific applications of meta-analysis to long-standing policy and management debates are given, essentially providing an array of developed “templates” through which scholars and practitioners can assess how to approach different kinds of analytical problems using meta-analysis. Particularly valuable to me is the careful development and presentation of the necessary stages of meta-analysis, from conceptualization through data coding and bias assessment to advanced modeling. All of the statistical analyses can be conducted in Stata, utilizing readily available “.ado” modules. I will use this book, both in research and in the classroom. Overall it is one of the most useful methodological contributions I’ve seen in some time.” —Hank Jenkins-Smith Department of Political Science Director, Center for Applied Social Research University of Oklahoma “Meta-Analysis for Public Management and Policy conveys the considerable untapped potential of meta-analysis to strengthen and advance bodies of knowledge and evidence in public management and policy. This book takes students and researchers deep into the methods of meta-analysis and details of their empirical application, without losing sight of the important policy questions and the implications of choices that researchers make in their empirical work for the production of evidence for public managers and policymakers. This book will serve as an excellent practical guide for those conducting their first meta-analysis, while at the same time supporting critically-focused consumption of existing meta-analyses and discussion of where the field can gainfully take this approach to enhance our research and knowledge bases. It draws in a range of valuable and important examples of applications of meta-analysis techniques throughout the book and rounds off with four full-fledged applications of the method. Although the book reaches out to an audience of public management and policy researchers and consumers of this research, it should be of interest to a broad range of applied social science researchers and students as well.” —Carolyn Heinrich Sid Richardson Professor of Public Affairs Director, Center for Health and Social Policy LBJ School of Public Affairs University of Texas – Austin “Even for incredibly specialized techniques, public management and policy scholars have a multiplicity of methods texts from which to choose. Yet it is truly surprising that a strong guide to applied meta-analysis — a rigorous framework for the organization of empirical findings — has not been available. Ringquist and Anderson provided just that with an accessible guide to sophisticated techniques. Marrying an instructive text to a set of exemplary standalone studies, Meta-Analysis for Public Management and Policy offers unparalleled guidance for instructors and students and more than a little wisdom for seasoned scholars. It is destined to become the standard reference for our field.” —Anthony Michael Bertelli CC Crawford Chair in Management and Performance USC Price School of Public Policy USC Gould School of Law University of Southern California “This comprehensive treatment of meta-analysis is an excellent guide for scholars and students in public management and public policy. The carefully done exposition demonstrates why meta-analysis should have greater use in the profession.” —Kenneth J. Meier Charles H. Gregory Chair in Liberal Arts Department of Political Science Texas A&M University “This remarkable book reviews the history of the use of meta-analysis in the social sciences, argues forcefully for its importance, value, and relevance for public managers, and provides one-stop-shopping for those who want to learn how to do it or understand how others have done it. The detailed coverage of each step in the process allows a student to learn the technique completely while fully understanding the logic and intellectual goals of the enterprise. Most importantly, the authors review techniques from a range of disciplines, drawing most of their positive suggestions from the field of medical statistics rather than the social sciences. The examples and applications, on the other hand, stem from the world of government and public policy. Four chapters provide new syntheses of research on individual policies using the techniques and practices introduced in the earlier chapters. The result is original research, a strong argument for the value of meta-analysis in a field (political science and public administration) that uses it little, and a complete tool-kit for those who would want to apply these powerful ideas on their own. A very impressive and useful text.” —Frank R. Baumgartner Richard J. Richardson Distinguished Professor Department of Political Science University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill “Meta-analysis is a valuable tool for accumulating knowledge about how management matters from across a range of policy areas and disciplines. It is also an underused tool, in large part because of the lack of a comprehensive and useable guide on the topic. Ringquist remedies this problem by offering clear instruction on how to apply the technique wisely, as well as highly useful empirical demonstrations. The field of public management needs this excellent book.” —Donald Moynihan Professor of Public Affairs University of Wisconsin-Madison “Professors and students frequently face decisions about how deeply to invest in a statistical procedure, a new technology, a new theory, or some other development in their discipline. The authors of Meta-Analysis for Public Management and Policy support such a decision about meta-analysis by making a convincing case for its value and increasing utilization, including such steps as a careful consideration of criticisms of the method. Evan Ringquist then provides clearly, engagingly written chapters on the major concepts, procedures, and issues in the techniques of meta-analysis. His coauthors then provide effectively-presented examples of meta-analytic studies about such topics as school voucher effectiveness, public service motivation and performance, and public sector performance management. The accessible and reader-friendly explanations, coupled with the illustrative examples that walk the reader through how to do it, make this a distinctively effective methodological text. In so doing, it offers a distinctively valuable resource for those of us who want to learn more about this important statistical method.” —Hal Rainey Alumni Foundation Distinguished Professor Department of Public Administration and Policy University of Georgia “James Heckman’s Nobel lecture described the combined influence of micro surveys, advances in computers and software, and the development and dissemination of multivariate statistical methods on applied economic research. His comments apply equally well to empirical research throughout the social sciences. These forces have created a “flood of numbers” and advances in technology since he wrote about them have assured that the process is accelerating. We need to transform the ways we learn from empirical analyses and create a science for the analysis of the secondary data from applied statistical and econometric models. This science would include methods for summarizing what has been learned from estimates and tests. It would provide methods for diagnostic screening of results to gauge the importance of modeling assumptions and the types of primary data for the findings being reported. Finally, it may well lead to the development of meta-models—integrating findings intended to describe a single system but viewed thru distinctive empirical lenses. Meta-analysis is a method that takes an important step in developing this science. It is a collection of methods that is a product of the transformation in applied research in the past half century. Initially much of this research was the domain of social scientists working on the evaluation of educational interventions. In these applications the primary data from different studies were routinely available, but the outcome and control variables differed across studies. As a result, the focus for these meta-analyses was on data combination with multiple, distinctive measures for asset of latent variables associated with the hypothesized underlying process. The texts describing meta-analysis focused on these situations. As applications of meta-analysis expanded to economics, political science, and sociology, the data structures changed. The new data came from empirical models –as estimated parameters or summaries of test results. The challenges posed in developing these types of data and understanding what they reveal were distinctly different. A text developed by scholars who appreciate how these types of summaries are different was missing until Ringquist and Anderson’s Meta Analysis for Public Management and Policy. Explaining a process that blends the best of qualitative and quantitative research is a challenge. This book has met this challenge and delivered researchers a great platform for teaching these methods to their students and for updating their own skills. At least four features distinguish this book: 1. The authors display a clear understanding of the strengths and the weaknesses of meta- analysis. Their treatment describes how care in data construction, variable coding, relevant statistical methods and, especially, careful attention to interpreting the findings from a meta-analysis can reinforce the strengths and mitigate the weaknesses. 2. There are real examples presented throughout the book along with a genuine understanding of the importance of the details in developing meta-analyses. 3. The coverage of relevant statistical methods is comprehensive and clear. And 4. The Appendices offer the detail researchers need to see in order to genuinely learn how to use meta analytic methods. It should be in the library of every serious teacher or practitioner”—V. Kerry Smith Regents Professor and W.P. Carey Professor Department of Economics Arizona State University “There are several texts for meta-analysis available, most notably “The Handbook of Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis” by Cooper, Hedges and Valentine, but none specifically directed to public administration and policy scholars. In fact the points of emphasis and examples make the existing texts both difficult and poorly suited for the applied social sciences. Ringquist’s book is a spectacular success in filling this lacuna. Ringquist provides a clearer encapsulation of “the basics” in its opening section, and the “basics” are tailored to “problem-oriented” policy sciences (noting for instance, that meta-analyses in public management and policy will almost always use random-effects over fixed-effects). The empirical examples woven throughout as well as the actual analyses on PSM and school vouchers are exceptionally useful in identifying the stages of the process. At the same time, the book doesn’t spare the gritty details of confronting commonly required procedures, like bootstrapping and dealing with clustered robust SE, hierarchical modeling, etc. For readers with no exposure to meta-analysis, the text eases the transition by offering a refresher on how statistical techniques are used in original research, then how they differ when used in meta-analysis. Ringquist offers guidelines for syntheses, formulating problems, data evaluation, turning studies into data, techniques in meta-analysis, “the language of meta-analysis”, coding strategies and publication bias. The author also notes that the context and even techniques of meta-analysis are different for public management and public policy compared with medicine and psychology, and education. Public administration and policy analysis provide great opportunities for meta-analysis, but these fields also present considerable challenge. Great care is needed in synthesizing differently designed studies, which are observational and quasi-experimental or correlational designs, because the statistics of meta-analysis were originally developed to synthesize results from experiment design. Measurement issues are tricky because authentic scales are used less frequently than in psychology or medical research. In addition PA and policy as fields of scholarship are diverse and eclectic in research design which makes comparison of parameter estimates exceedingly difficult. Ringquist adroitly compiles an approach to meta-analysis adapted to reflect this context. While Section 1 consists of seven chapters, which discusses techniques of meta-analysis, Section 2 including Chapters 8, 9, 10 and 11 illustrates actual studies using meta-analysis conducted in public management and policy research: evaluating the effectiveness of educational vouchers, performance management in public sector, the effects of federal poverty deconcentration efforts on economic self-sufficiency and problematic behaviors, and the relationship between public service motivation and performance. The book is an easier read than other texts in it guides from project inception through lit review and analysis in a manner tailored to policy and management, and it actually provides a much more accessible and thorough coverage of many of the basic building blocks, random effects, r-based effect sizes, and bootstrapping, making it far more indispensable for any PA meta-analysis. The check-lists for coding articles are especially useful. Provision of Stata commands and practical data management suggestions (creating a command file for data set transformations, for instance) is a great advantage for this text. Adding an addendum with R programming options, in the next edition might be helpful too. The conclusion both compelling and concise but I would like to have seen some of the arguments presented here at the beginning of the book, reserving the conclusion for a fuller encapsulation of what the overall strategy of the book accomplishes in stages – rebutting criticisms that meta-analysis in social science is a waste of time because study estimates are non-comparable and effect sizes non-independent with careful examination of research design and models. This book is essential reading for any scholar in public administration and policy considering undertaking meta-analysis. I expect it will gain many readers in other social science disciplines as well. For serious users of meta-analysis Ringquist’s book will not be the only one on the shelf, but it is a valuable addition.” —Richard Feiock Augustus B. Turnbull Professor Askew School of Public Administration and Policy Florida State University
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A Practical Guide

Author: Mark Petticrew,Helen Roberts

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1405150149

Category: Psychology

Page: 352

View: 9593

Such diverse thinkers as Lao-Tze, Confucius, and U.S. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld have all pointed out that we need to be able to tell the difference between real and assumed knowledge. The systematic review is a scientific tool that can help with this difficult task. It can help, for example, with appraising, summarising, and communicating the results and implications of otherwise unmanageable quantities of data. This book, written by two highly-respected social scientists, provides an overview of systematic literature review methods: Outlining the rationale and methods of systematic reviews; Giving worked examples from social science and other fields; Applying the practice to all social science disciplines; It requires no previous knowledge, but takes the reader through the process stage by stage; Drawing on examples from such diverse fields as psychology, criminology, education, transport, social welfare, public health, and housing and urban policy, among others. Including detailed sections on assessing the quality of both quantitative, and qualitative research; searching for evidence in the social sciences; meta-analytic and other methods of evidence synthesis; publication bias; heterogeneity; and approaches to dissemination.
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Author: David Kaplan

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483365875

Category: Social Science

Page: 528

View: 1844

The SAGE Handbook of Quantitative Methodology for the Social Sciences is the definitive reference for teachers, students, and researchers of quantitative methods in the social sciences, as it provides a comprehensive overview of the major techniques used in the field. The contributors, top methodologists and researchers, have written about their areas of expertise in ways that convey the utility of their respective techniques, but, where appropriate, they also offer a fair critique of these techniques. Relevance to real-world problems in the social sciences is an essential ingredient of each chapter and makes this an invaluable resource.
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Author: Leonard Bickman,MS Debra J Rog

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412950317

Category: Social Science

Page: 661

View: 1800

The SAGE Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods, Second Edition provides students and researchers with the most comprehensive resource covering core methods, research designs, and data collection, management, and analysis issues. This thoroughly revised edition continues to place critical emphasis on finding the tools that best fit the research question given the constraints of deadlines, budget, and available staff. Each chapter offers key guidance on how to make intelligent and conscious tradeoffs so that one can refine and hone the research question as new knowledge is gained, unanticipated obstacles are encountered, or contextual shifts take place - all key elements in the iterative nature of applied research. Each chapter has been enhanced pedagogically to include more step-by-step procedures, specific, rich yet practical examples from various settings to illustrate the method, parameters to define when the method is most appropriate and when it is not appropriate, and greater use of visual aids (graphs, models, tip boxes) to provide teaching and learning tools. - twenty core chapters written by research experts that cover major methods and data analysis issues across the social and behavioral sciences, education, and management; - emphasis on applying research techniques, particularly in "real-world" settings in which there are various data, money, time, and political constraints; - new chapters on mixed methods, qualitative comparative analysis, concept mapping, and internet data collection; - a newly developed section that serves as a guide for students who are navigating through the book and attempting to translate the chapters into action; - a new Instructor's Resources CD, with relevant journal articles, test questions, and exercises to aid the instructor in developing appropriate course materials.
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Statistical Power for Experimental Research

Author: Mark W. Lipsey

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803930636

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 207

View: 4922

All researchers face an important challenge - designing research that will have sufficient sensitivity to detect those effects it purports to investigate. Sample size, validity and sensitivity, experimental error, subject variability, and the type of statistical analysis all influence the sensitivity of a research design. Through careful explanations and selection of examples, Lipsey examines the concept of design sensitivity and explains statistical power and the elements that determine it.
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Author: Guido Schwarzer,James R. Carpenter,Gerta Rücker

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319214160

Category: Medical

Page: 252

View: 647

This book provides a comprehensive introduction to performing meta-analysis using the statistical software R. It is intended for quantitative researchers and students in the medical and social sciences who wish to learn how to perform meta-analysis with R. As such, the book introduces the key concepts and models used in meta-analysis. It also includes chapters on the following advanced topics: publication bias and small study effects; missing data; multivariate meta-analysis, network meta-analysis; and meta-analysis of diagnostic studies.
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A Pluralist Perspective

Author: Donatella Della Porta,Michael Keating

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139474596

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 5044

A revolutionary textbook introducing masters and doctoral students to the major research approaches and methodologies in the social sciences. Written by an outstanding set of scholars, and derived from successful course teaching, this volume will empower students to choose their own approach to research, to justify this approach, and to situate it within the discipline. It addresses questions of ontology, epistemology and philosophy of social science, and proceeds to issues of methodology and research design essential for producing a good research proposal. It also introduces researchers to the main issues of debate and contention in the methodology of social sciences, identifying commonalities, historic continuities and genuine differences.
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Author: Larry V. Hedges,Ingram Olkin

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080570658

Category: Mathematics

Page: 369

View: 9204

The main purpose of this book is to address the statistical issues for integrating independent studies. There exist a number of papers and books that discuss the mechanics of collecting, coding, and preparing data for a meta-analysis , and we do not deal with these. Because this book concerns methodology, the content necessarily is statistical, and at times mathematical. In order to make the material accessible to a wider audience, we have not provided proofs in the text. Where proofs are given, they are placed as commentary at the end of a chapter. These can be omitted at the discretion of the reader. Throughout the book we describe computational procedures whenever required. Many computations can be completed on a hand calculator, whereas some require the use of a standard statistical package such as SAS, SPSS, or BMD. Readers with experience using a statistical package or who conduct analyses such as multiple regression or analysis of variance should be able to carry out the analyses described with the aid of a statistical package.
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Author: William D. Crano,Marilynn B. Brewer,Andrew Lac

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317666070

Category: Psychology

Page: 484

View: 1279

Used to train generations of social scientists, this thoroughly updated classic text covers the latest research techniques and designs. Applauded for its comprehensive coverage, the breadth and depth of content is unparalleled. Through a multi-methodology approach, the text guides readers toward the design and conduct of social research from the ground up. Explained with applied examples useful to the social, behavioral, educational, and organizational sciences, the methods described are intended to be relevant to contemporary researchers. The underlying logic and mechanics of experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental research strategies are discussed in detail. Introductory chapters covering topics such as validity and reliability furnish readers with a firm understanding of foundational concepts. Chapters dedicated to sampling, interviewing, questionnaire design, stimulus scaling, observational methods, content analysis, implicit measures, dyadic and group methods, and meta-analysis provide coverage of these essential methodologies. The book is noted for its: -Emphasis on understanding the principles that govern the use of a method to facilitate the researcher’s choice of the best technique for a given situation. - Use of the laboratory experiment as a touchstone to describe and evaluate field experiments, correlational designs, quasi experiments, evaluation studies, and survey designs. -Coverage of the ethics of social research including the power a researcher wields and tips on how to use it responsibly. The new edition features: -A new co-author, Andrew Lac, instrumental in fine tuning the book’s accessible approach and highlighting the most recent developments at the intersection of design and statistics. -More learning tools including more explanation of the basic concepts, more research examples, tables, and figures, and the addition of bold faced terms, chapter conclusions, discussion questions, and a glossary. -Extensive revision of chapter (3) on measurement reliability theory that examines test theory, latent factors, factor analysis, and item response theory. -Expanded coverage of cutting-edge methodologies including mediation and moderation, reliability and validity, missing data, and more physiological approaches such as neuroimaging and fMRIs. -A new web based resource package that features Power Points and discussion and exam questions for each chapter and for students chapter outlines and summaries, key terms, and suggested readings. Intended as a text for graduate or advanced undergraduate courses in research methods (design) in psychology, communication, sociology, education, public health, and marketing, an introductory undergraduate course on research methods is recommended.
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The Story of Meta-Analysis

Author: Morton Hunt

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610442962

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 9116

Policymakers, medical practitioners, and the public alike face an increasingly bewildering flood of new and often contradictory scientific studies on almost every topic. Whether the issue is the the best treatment for breast cancer, the need for prenatal food programs to improve the health of poor infants and mothers, or the ability of women to succeed in scientific professions, the healthy growth of modern science has at times done more to stir up controversy than to establish reliable knowledge. But now scientists in several fields have developed a sophisticated new methodology called meta-analysis to address this problem. By numerically combining diverse research findings on a single question, meta-analysis can be used to identify their central tendency and reach conclusions far more reliable than those of any single investigation. How Science Takes Stock vividly tells the story of meta-analysis through the eyes of its architects and champions, and chronicles its history, techniques, achievements, and controversies. Noted science author Morton Hunt visits key practitioners and recounts their use of meta-analysis to resolve important scientific puzzles and longstanding debates. Does psychotherapy work, and if so what form works best? Does spending federal money on education really improve student performance? Can a single enzyme significantly decrease the risk of heart attack? Do boot camps reduce juvenile delinquency? With each account, Hunt illustrates the major components of the meta-analytic method, reveals strategies for resolving practical and theoretical problems, and discusses the impact of meta-analysis on the science and policy communities. In many cases, he demonstrates how meta-analysts have gone a step further to determine the causes of earlier discrepancies. In this way they not only identify successful approaches to the question at hand, but also clarify the conditions under which they will work best. Hunt also portrays the important but frequently controversial business of doing meta-analysis for legislators and government agencies, particularly in sensitive areas of social policy. How Science Takes Stock demonstrates how the statistical techniques of meta-analysis produce more accurate data than the standard literature review or the old-fashioned process of tallying up the results of each scientific study as if they were votes in an election to decide the truth. Hunt also addresses issues of quality control in each phase of the meta-analytic process, and answers skeptics who claim that the dissimilarities between studies are often too significant for meta-analysis to be any more than an apples and oranges approach. This volume conveys the power of meta-analysis to help social policymakers and health professionals resolve their most pressing problems. How Science Takes Stock concludes with a discussion of the future of meta-analysis that examines its potential for further refinements, its growth in the scientific literature, and exciting new possibilities for its future use. An appendix by meta-analysis expert Harris Cooper offers some finer points on the mechanics of conducting a meta-analytic investigation.
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Author: Kenneth W. Wachter,Miron L. Straf

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610445465

Category: Psychology

Page: 248

View: 8346

Scientific progress often begins with the difficult task of preparing informed, conclusive reviews of existing research. Since the 1970s, the traditional "subjective" approach to research reviewing in the social sciences has been challenged by a statistical alternative known as meta-analysis. Meta-analysis provides a principled method of distilling reliable generalizations from previous studies on a single topic, thereby providing a quantitative and objective background for future research. The Future of Meta-Analysis brings together expert researchers for an in-depth examination of this new methodology—not to promote a consensus view but rather to explore from several perspectives the theories, tensions, and concerns of meta-analysis, and to illustrate through concrete examples the rationale behind meta-analytic decisions. In a meta-analysis prepared especially for this volume, a statistician and a psychologist review the existing literature on aphasia treatment. In a second study, experts analyze six still-unpublished meta-analyses sponsored by the National Institute of Education to investigate the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black children. This unique case study approach provides valuable discussion of the process of meta-analysis and of the current implications of meta-analysis for policy assessment. Prepared under the auspices of the National Research Council, The Future of Meta-Analysis presents a forum for leaders in this rapidly evolving field to discuss salient conceptual and technical issues and to offer a new theoretical framework, further methodological guidance, and statistical innovations that anticipate a future in which meta-analysis will play an even more effective and valuable role in social science research.
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Author: David L. Morgan,Robin K. Morgan

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483317099

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 694

This text ntroduces readers to the history, epistemology, and strategies of single-case research design. The authors offer concrete information on how to observe, measure, and interpret change in relevant outcome variables and how to design strategies that promote causal inferences. Key Features Includes case vignettes on specific single-case designs Describes clinical and applied case studies Draws on multiple examples of single-case designs from published journals across a wide range of disciplines Covers recent developments in applied research, including meta-analysis and the distinction between statistical and clinical significance Provides pedagogical tools to help readers master the material, including a glossary, interim summaries, end-of-chapter review questions, and activities that encourage active processing of material. Intended Audience This text is intended for students and practitioners in a variety of disciplines—including psychology, nursing, physical therapy, and occupational therapy—who are increasingly called upon to document the effectiveness of interventions.
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Author: Michael Borenstein,Larry V. Hedges,Julian P. T. Higgins,Hannah R. Rothstein

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119964377

Category: Medical

Page: 450

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This book provides a clear and thorough introduction to meta-analysis, the process of synthesizing data from a series of separate studies. Meta-analysis has become a critically important tool in fields as diverse as medicine, pharmacology, epidemiology, education, psychology, business, and ecology. Introduction to Meta-Analysis: Outlines the role of meta-analysis in the research process Shows how to compute effects sizes and treatment effects Explains the fixed-effect and random-effects models for synthesizing data Demonstrates how to assess and interpret variation in effect size across studies Clarifies concepts using text and figures, followed by formulas and examples Explains how to avoid common mistakes in meta-analysis Discusses controversies in meta-analysis Features a web site with additional material and exercises A superb combination of lucid prose and informative graphics, written by four of the world’s leading experts on all aspects of meta-analysis. Borenstein, Hedges, Higgins, and Rothstein provide a refreshing departure from cookbook approaches with their clear explanations of the what and why of meta-analysis. The book is ideal as a course textbook or for self-study. My students, who used pre-publication versions of some of the chapters, raved about the clarity of the explanations and examples. David Rindskopf, Distinguished Professor of Educational Psychology, City University of New York, Graduate School and University Center, & Editor of the Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics. The approach taken by Introduction to Meta-analysis is intended to be primarily conceptual, and it is amazingly successful at achieving that goal. The reader can comfortably skip the formulas and still understand their application and underlying motivation. For the more statistically sophisticated reader, the relevant formulas and worked examples provide a superb practical guide to performing a meta-analysis. The book provides an eclectic mix of examples from education, social science, biomedical studies, and even ecology. For anyone considering leading a course in meta-analysis, or pursuing self-directed study, Introduction to Meta-analysis would be a clear first choice. Jesse A. Berlin, ScD Introduction to Meta-Analysis is an excellent resource for novices and experts alike. The book provides a clear and comprehensive presentation of all basic and most advanced approaches to meta-analysis. This book will be referenced for decades. Michael A. McDaniel, Professor of Human Resources and Organizational Behavior, Virginia Commonwealth University
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