Sexuality and Sterilization in a Southern Juvenile Reformatory

Author: Karin Lorene Zipf

Publisher: LSU Press

ISBN: 0807162507

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 2552

Of the many consequences advanced by the rise of the eugenics movement in the early twentieth century, North Carolina forcibly sterilized more than 2,000 women and girls in between 1929 and 1950. This extreme measure reflects how pseudoscience justified widespread gender, race, and class discrimination in the Jim Crow South. In Bad Girls at Samarcand Karin L. Zipf dissects a dark episode in North Carolina's eugenics campaign through a detailed study of the State Home and Industrial School in Eagle Springs, referred to as Samarcand Manor, and the school's infamous 1931 arson case. The people and events surrounding both the institution and the court case sparked a public debate about the expectations of white womanhood, the nature of contemporary science and medicine, and the role of the juvenile justice system that resonated throughout the succeeding decades. Designed to reform and educate unwed poor white girls who were suspected of deviant behavior or victims of sexual abuse, Samarcand Manor allowed for strict disciplinary measures -- including corporal punishment -- in an attempt to instill Victorian ideals of female purity. The harsh treatment fostered a hostile environment and tensions boiled over when several girls set Samarcand on fire, destroying two residence halls. Zipf argues that the subsequent arson trial, which carried the possibility of the death penalty, represented an important turning point in the public characterizations of poor white women; aided by the lobbying efforts of eugenics advocates, the trial helped usher in dramatic policy changes, including the forced sterilization of female juvenile delinquents. In addition to the interplay between gender ideals and the eugenics movement, Zipf also investigates the girls who were housed at Samarcand and those specifically charged in the 1931 trial. She explores their negotiation of Jazz Age stereotypes, their strategies of resistance, and their relationship with defense attorney Nell Battle Lewis during the trial. The resultant policy changes -- intelligence testing, sterilization, and parole -- are also explored, providing further insight into why these young women preferred prison to reformatories. A fascinating story that grapples with gender bias, sexuality, science, and the justice system all within the context of the Great Depression--era South, Bad Girls at Samarcand makes a compelling contribution to multiple fields of study.
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Sexuality and Sterilization in a Southern Juvenile Reformatory

Author: Karin L. Zipf

Publisher: LSU Press

ISBN: 0807162515

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 5561

Of the many consequences advanced by the rise of the eugenics movement in the early twentieth century, North Carolina forcibly sterilized more than 2,000 women and girls in between 1929 and 1950. This extreme measure reflects how pseudoscience justified widespread gender, race, and class discrimination in the Jim Crow South. In Bad Girls at Samarcand Karin L. Zipf dissects a dark episode in North Carolina's eugenics campaign through a detailed study of the State Home and Industrial School in Eagle Springs, referred to as Samarcand Manor, and the school's infamous 1931 arson case. The people and events surrounding both the institution and the court case sparked a public debate about the expectations of white womanhood, the nature of contemporary science and medicine, and the role of the juvenile justice system that resonated throughout the succeeding decades. Designed to reform and educate unwed poor white girls who were suspected of deviant behavior or victims of sexual abuse, Samarcand Manor allowed for strict disciplinary measures -- including corporal punishment -- in an attempt to instill Victorian ideals of female purity. The harsh treatment fostered a hostile environment and tensions boiled over when several girls set Samarcand on fire, destroying two residence halls. Zipf argues that the subsequent arson trial, which carried the possibility of the death penalty, represented an important turning point in the public characterizations of poor white women; aided by the lobbying efforts of eugenics advocates, the trial helped usher in dramatic policy changes, including the forced sterilization of female juvenile delinquents. In addition to the interplay between gender ideals and the eugenics movement, Zipf also investigates the girls who were housed at Samarcand and those specifically charged in the 1931 trial. She explores their negotiation of Jazz Age stereotypes, their strategies of resistance, and their relationship with defense attorney Nell Battle Lewis during the trial. The resultant policy changes -- intelligence testing, sterilization, and parole -- are also explored, providing further insight into why these young women preferred prison to reformatories. A fascinating story that grapples with gender bias, sexuality, science, and the justice system all within the context of the Great Depression--era South, Bad Girls at Samarcand makes a compelling contribution to multiple fields of study.
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Sexuality and Sterilization in a Southern Juvenile Reformatory

Author: Karin Lorene Zipf

Publisher: LSU Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 8025

Of the many consequences advanced by the rise of the eugenics movement in the early twentieth century, North Carolina forcibly sterilized more than 2,000 women and girls in between 1929 and 1950. This extreme measure reflects how pseudoscience justified widespread gender, race, and class discrimination in the Jim Crow South. In Bad Girls at Samarcand Karin L. Zipf dissects a dark episode in North Carolina's eugenics campaign through a detailed study of the State Home and Industrial School in Eagle Springs, referred to as Samarcand Manor, and the school's infamous 1931 arson case. The people and events surrounding both the institution and the court case sparked a public debate about the expectations of white womanhood, the nature of contemporary science and medicine, and the role of the juvenile justice system that resonated throughout the succeeding decades. Designed to reform and educate unwed poor white girls who were suspected of deviant behavior or victims of sexual abuse, Samarcand Manor allowed for strict disciplinary measures -- including corporal punishment -- in an attempt to instill Victorian ideals of female purity. The harsh treatment fostered a hostile environment and tensions boiled over when several girls set Samarcand on fire, destroying two residence halls. Zipf argues that the subsequent arson trial, which carried the possibility of the death penalty, represented an important turning point in the public characterizations of poor white women; aided by the lobbying efforts of eugenics advocates, the trial helped usher in dramatic policy changes, including the forced sterilization of female juvenile delinquents. In addition to the interplay between gender ideals and the eugenics movement, Zipf also investigates the girls who were housed at Samarcand and those specifically charged in the 1931 trial. She explores their negotiation of Jazz Age stereotypes, their strategies of resistance, and their relationship with defense attorney Nell Battle Lewis during the trial. The resultant policy changes -- intelligence testing, sterilization, and parole -- are also explored, providing further insight into why these young women preferred prison to reformatories. A fascinating story that grapples with gender bias, sexuality, science, and the justice system all within the context of the Great Depression--era South, Bad Girls at Samarcand makes a compelling contribution to multiple fields of study.
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Author: William Humphrey

Publisher: LSU Press

ISBN: 9780807121610

Category: Fiction

Page: 362

View: 2511

This is a story of Clarksville, Texas, where the Old South met the frontier West and a family history retold in the annual graveyard working day provided the stuff to fuel a young imagination. Here is the story of Thomas Ordway and his family.
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Author: Melton Alonza McLaurin,Anne Russell

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780615637242

Category: Arson

Page: 258

View: 4101

The Wayward Girls of Samarcand is the true story of the sensational 1931 Arson Trial in North Carolina. Sixteen poor white teenage girls faced the death penalty for burning down two dormitories at the State Reform School for Girls. Crusading journalist, socialite, and attorney Nell Battle Lewis defended her clients by exposing sadistic treatment, deplorable conditions, and forced sterilization presided over by Samarcand superintendent Agnes B. MacNaughton. In this her first and last trial, Lewis saved the defendants from the electric chair.
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The 1931 Reform School Fire and Its Aftermath

Author: Barbara Bennett

Publisher: Univ of South Carolina Press

ISBN: 1611178614

Category: History

Page: 136

View: 728

In 1931 sixteen poor, white girls—all teenaged inmates at Samarcand Manor, officially named the State Home and Industrial School for Girls, in Samarcand, North Carolina—were accused of burning down two campus buildings in protest against living conditions. Barbara Bennett offers not only a dramatic retelling of this historic case in Smoke Signals from Samarcand, but also reveals a case study of the misguided social engineering schemes—fraught with racism, classism, and sexual stereotypes—that churned through North Carolina and other southern states during this time. The girls, who became known as the “Samarcand Sixteen,” were described by administrators and the media as incorrigible and troublesome. Bennett additionally reveals their grim backgrounds and details the harsh disciplinary methods, including savage whippings, that were dispensed at Samarcand and other reform schools in the early twentieth century. Arson was a capital offense in North Carolina at the time, and the girls were put on trial for their lives. The sensational trial took place in the midst of a strong eugenics movement that was sweeping the state and the South. The girls’ newly minted lawyer, Nell Battle Lewis, argued that the treatment the girls endured at Samarcand had forced them to take drastic action and therefore should result in lenient sentences. Instead the state of North Carolina used bogus “scientific” theories—such as “bad blood genetics”—to create legal policy and criminal justice practices that were heavily prejudiced against powerless people, particularly girls and women. In the end the girls received sentences of eighteen months to five years in the state penitentiary, although the trial and its publicity did lead to improvements in the physical conditions and disciplinary methods at Samarcand and other juvenile facilities in North Carolina.
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Idiots, Half-Wits, and Other State-Sponsored Inventions

Author: Zosha Stuckey

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 1438453019

Category: Education

Page: 176

View: 920

Examines the rhetoric in and around the New York State Asylum for Idiots in Syracuse from 1854 to 1884. In the nineteenth century, language, rather than biology, created what we think of as disability. Much of the rhetorical nature of “idiocy,” and even intelligence itself, can be traced to the period when the New York State Asylum for Idiots in Syracuse first opened in 1854—memorialized today as the first public school for people considered “feeble-minded” or “idiotic.” The asylum-school pupil is a monumental example of how education attempts to mold and rehabilitate one’s being. Zosha Stuckey demonstrates how all education is in some way complicit in the urge to normalize. The broad, unstable, and cross-cultural category of “people with disabilities” endures an interesting relationship with rhetoric, education, speaking, and writing. Stuckey demystifies some of that relationship which requires new modes of inquiry and new ways of thinking, and she calls into question many of the assumptions about embodied differences as they relate to pedagogy, history, and public participation. “There is no other single work quite like this one. Stuckey makes an original contribution to rhetorical studies, to disability history, and to a history of special education.” — Cynthia Lewiecki-Wilson, coeditor of Disability and Mothering: Liminal Spaces of Embodied Knowledge
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Author: Steven Elliott Tripp

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1442251921

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 424

View: 6516

As the first baseball player to achieve real celebrity status, Ty Cobb embodies the strength and determination of classic masculinity. His grit and stubbornness, however, form a legacy that has been both lauded and condemned by America’s own changing views of ideal masculine behavior. With attention to Cobb’s formation, personal tragedies, and struggles with his peers, Steven Elliott Tripp examines this baseball icon as a product of the American South and as an emblem of a masculinity now out of fashion.
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After Katrina

Author: Chris Rose

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1501125370

Category: History

Page: 384

View: 7699

"The columns in this book were previously published in The Times-picayune"--Title page verso.
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Author: Katherine Koppenhaver

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9781567204704

Category: Law

Page: 271

View: 792

Guides lawyers through the entire process of forensic document examination, including handwriting analysis, equipment identification, fraud and forgery detection, and cross-examination of opposing witnesses.
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Forced Apprenticeship in North Carolina, 1715-1919

Author: Karin L. Zipf

Publisher: LSU Press

ISBN: 9780807130452

Category: History

Page: 207

View: 3484

On an autumn day in 1866, Wiley Ambrose and Hepsey Saunders, two former slaves who lived as husband and wife, received a knock at their door. Three men from a plantation in Brunswick County, North Carolina, presented court-ordered apprenticeship papers authorizing the immediate seizure of the couple's daughters, fifteen-year-old Harriet and thirteen-year-old Eliza. After a brief stay in jail with other children, the sisters were sent to work as plantation servants and field hands until age twenty-one. With that startling example, Karin L. Zipf begins Labor of Innocents, the first comprehensive exploration of forced apprenticeship in North Carolina. Zipf refuses to nostalgically view apprenticeship as a benign form of vocational training for children and instead presents irrefutable evidence that the institution existed as a means to control the composition and character of families, to provide alternate sources of cheap labor, and to ensure a white patriarchal social order. Codified by law, involuntary apprenticeship allowed courts not only to define who was an unacceptable parent but also to indenture their children. Disproportionately affected were the poor. Zipf details the continual fluidity of the institution from its colonial origins to its twentieth-century demise. Over two hundred years, the definition of an unfit head of household variously included black men, any woman, and widowed or unmarried white women, depending upon the current social and political agenda of authorities. Parents of both races and sexes challenged the laws vigorously and repeatedly to no effect until progressive reforms ended apprenticeship in 1919 with passage of the Child Welfare Act. An impressive blend of legal, social, and labor history, Labor of Innocents illuminates past concepts of family and the realities families endured.
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Author: Sylvia Mader

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education

ISBN: 1259688607

Category:

Page: 848

View: 5986

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Women, Physiology, and the Solitary Vice in Nineteenth-Century America

Author: April R. Haynes

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022628476X

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 4328

Nineteenth-century America saw numerous campaigns against masturbation, which was said to cause illness, insanity, and even death. Riotous Flesh explores women’s leadership of those movements, with a specific focus on their rhetorical, social, and political effects, showing how a desire to transform the politics of sex created unexpected alliances between groups that otherwise had very different goals. As April R. Haynes shows, the crusade against female masturbation was rooted in a generally shared agreement on some major points: that girls and women were as susceptible to masturbation as boys and men; that “self-abuse” was rooted in a lack of sexual information; and that sex education could empower women and girls to master their own bodies. Yet the groups who made this education their goal ranged widely, from “ultra” utopians and nascent feminists to black abolitionists. Riotous Flesh explains how and why diverse women came together to popularize, then institutionalize, the condemnation of masturbation, well before the advent of sexology or the professionalization of medicine.
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Author: Burch Susan

Publisher: ReadHowYouWant.com

ISBN: 145874289X

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 718

View: 2388

Junius Wilson (1908-2001) spent seventy-six years at a state mental hospital in Goldsboro, North Carolina, including six in the criminal ward. He had never been declared insane by a medical professional or found guilty of any criminal charge. But he was deaf and black in the Jim Crow South. Unspeakable is the story of his life. Wilson was born and lived the first years of his life with his family in a small town near Wilmington, North Carolina. At age seven he was sent to the residential State School for the Colored Blind and Deaf, where he learned Raleigh Sign Language, a unique form of signing taught only to blacks at that school. After a minor infraction at age sixteen, he was dismissed from school and sent back home, where he was falsely accused of attempted rape in 1925. Judged insane by the court, he was committed to the criminal ward of the State Hospital for the Colored Insane. Wilson was castrated and forced to work on the hospital farm for decades. He remained incarcerated for almost all of his life. Although authorities knew from the 1960s onward that Wilson was not insane, they did not know how to integrate him into society. They determined that keeping him institutionalized was the most benevolent course of action. In 1990, when social worker John Wasson reviewed Wilson's records, he was shocked by what he read. Lawsuits brought against the state by disability rights lawyers led to Wilson's release from the locked wards in the 1990s. He spent the final years of his life in a cottage on the grounds of the hospital, where staff continued to look after his daily needs. Junius Wilson's life was shaped by some of the major developments of twentieth-century America: Jim Crow segregation, the civil rights movement, deinstitutionalization, the rise of professional social work, and the emergence of the deaf and disability rights movements. There is much to learn and remember about Junius Wilson - and the countless others who have lived unspeakable histories.
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Imprisonment and Disability in the United States and Canada

Author: L. Ben-Moshe,C. Chapman,A. Carey

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137388471

Category: Social Science

Page: 297

View: 9273

Disability Incarcerated offers an outstanding collection of interdisciplinary scholarship examining the incarceration and segregation of people with disabilities the United States and Canada.
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Youth, Consumption, and State-Sponsored Popular Culture in the Soviet Union, 1945–1970

Author: Gleb Tsipursky

Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press

ISBN: 0822981254

Category: History

Page: 360

View: 367

Most narratives depict Soviet Cold War cultural activities and youth groups as drab and dreary, militant and politicized. In this study Gleb Tsipursky challenges these stereotypes in a revealing portrayal of Soviet youth and state-sponsored popular culture. The primary local venues for Soviet culture were the tens of thousands of klubs where young people found entertainment, leisure, social life, and romance. Here sports, dance, film, theater, music, lectures, and political meetings became vehicles to disseminate a socialist version of modernity. The Soviet way of life was dutifully presented and perceived as the most progressive and advanced, in an attempt to stave off Western influences. In effect, socialist fun became very serious business. As Tsipursky shows, however, Western culture did infiltrate these activities, particularly at local levels, where participants and organizers deceptively cloaked their offerings to appeal to their own audiences. Thus, Soviet modernity evolved as a complex and multivalent ideological device. Tsipursky provides a fresh and original examination of the Kremlin’s paramount effort to shape young lives, consumption, popular culture, and to build an emotional community—all against the backdrop of Cold War struggles to win hearts and minds both at home and abroad.
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Author: Clement Wood,Ronald J. Bogus

Publisher: Perfection Learning

ISBN: 9780780765573

Category: Reference

Page: 705

View: 2820

This authoritative, comprehensive handbook contains virtually all the rhyming words possible in the English language and is a must for anyoe who works with words. Updated to meet the needs of today's wordsmiths, this reference work is easy to use.
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Foundations, Problems, and Perspectives

Author: Peter Flaschel,Alfred Greiner

Publisher: OUP USA

ISBN: 0199751587

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 226

View: 3320

Flaschel and Griener's Flexicurity Capitalism provides serious discussion and feasible mathematical models to provide a basic framework for a "flexicurity" economic system--labor market reform that combines flexibility in the hiring and firing processes of firms with security in the employment and income of the workforce.
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