Architecture, Politics, and the German State, 1890-1920
Author: John V. Maciuika
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Before the Bauhaus reevaluates the political, architectural, and artistic cultures of pre-World War I Germany. As contradictory and conflict-ridden as the German Second Reich itself, the world of architects, craftsmen and applied-arts "artists" were not immune to the expansionist, imperialist, and capitalist struggles that transformed Germany in the quarter-century leading up to the First World War. In this study, John Maciuika brings together architectural and design history, political history, social and cultural geography. He substantially revises our understanding of the roots of the Bauhaus and, by extension, the historical roots of twentieth-century German architecture and design. His book sheds new light on hotly contested debates pertaining to the history of Germany in the pre-World War I era, notably the issues surrounding "modernity" and "anti-modernity" in Wilhelmine Germany, the character and effectiveness of the government administration, and the role played by the nation's most important architects, members of the rising bourgeois class, in challenging the traditional aristocracy at the top of the new German economic and social order.
Author: Éva Forgács
Publisher: Central European University Press
Art historian Éva Forgács's book is an unusual take on the Bauhaus. She examines the school as shaped by the great forces of history as well as the personal dynamism of its faculty and students. The book focuses on the idea of the Bauhaus - the notion that the artist should be involved in the technological innovations of mechanization and mass production - rather than on its artefacts. Founded in 1919 by the architect Walter Gropius and closed down by the Nazis in 1933, the Bauhaus had to struggle through the years of Weimar Germany not only with its political foes but also with the often-diverging personal ambitions and concepts within its own ranks. It is the inner conflicts and their solutions, the continuous modification of the original Bauhaus idea by politics within and without, that make the history of the school and Forgács's account of it dramatic.
Labor, Space, and Power Relations across Time and Continents
Author: M. Borges,S. Torres
Company towns first appeared in Europe and North America with the industrial revolution and followed the expansion of capital to frontier societies, colonies, and new nations. Their common feature was the degree of company control and supervision, reaching beyond the workplace into workers' private and social lives. Major sites of urban experimentation, paternalism, and welfare practices, company towns were also contested terrain of negotiations and confrontations between capital and labor. Looking at historical and contemporary examples from Europe, the Americas, Africa, and Asia, this book explores company towns' global reach and adaptability to diverse geographical, political, and cultural contexts.
Technology and Culture from the Renaissance to the Present
Author: Thomas J. Misa
Publisher: JHU Press
"Misa brings his acclaimed text up to date by examining how today's unsustainable energy systems, insecure information networks, and vulnerable global shipping have helped foster geopolitical risks and instability. A masterful analysis of how technology and culture have influenced each other over five centuries, Leonardo to the Internet frames a history that illuminates modern-day problems and prospects faced by our technology-dependent world
Author: Michael Siebenbrodt,Lutz Schöbe
Publisher: Parkstone International
The Bauhaus movement (meaning the “house of building”) developed in three German cities - it began in Weimar between 1919 and 1925, then continued in Dessau, from 1925 to 1932, and finally ended in 1932-1933 in Berlin. Three leaders presided over the growth of the movement: Walter Gropius, from 1919 to 1928, Hannes Meyer, from 1928 to 1930, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, from 1930 to 1933. Founded by Gropius in the rather conservative city of Weimar, the new capital of Germany, which had just been defeated by the other European nations in the First World War, the movement became a flamboyant response to this humiliation. Combining new styles in architecture, design, and painting, the Bauhaus aspired to be an expression of a generational utopia, striving to free artists facing a society that remained conservative in spite of the revolutionary efforts of the post-war period. Using the most modern materials, the Bauhaus was born out of the precepts of William Morris and the Arts and Crafts movement, introducing new forms, inspired by the most ordinary of objects, into everyday life. The shuttering of the center in Berlin by the Nazis in 1933 did not put an end to the movement, since many of its members chose the path of exile and established themselves in the United States. Although they all went in different directions artistically, their work shared the same origin. The most influential among the Bauhaus artists were Anni Albers, Josef Albers, Marianne Brandt, Marcel Breuer, Lyonel Feininger, Ludwig Hilberseimer, Paul Klee, Wassily Kandisky, and Lothar Schreyer. Through a series of beautiful reproductions, this work provides an overview of the Bauhaus era, including the history, influence, and major figures of this revolutionary movement, which turned everyday life into art.
Author: Alan Bartram
Publisher: Yale University Press
A stimulating survey of how the Bauhaus and the modernist revolution have shaped graphic design. This lively and authoritative book explores the influence of the Bauhaus and modernism on typography and book design. Distinguished book designer and author Alan Bartram examines work by such key figures as Max Bill, F. T. Marinetti, El Lissitzky, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Jan Tschichold, and Paul Rand. All of the carefully chosen examples--some of which have not been previously reproduced--clearly demonstrate the modernist revolution that took place in graphic design. In an informative introductory essay, Bartram surveys the German art and design school known as the Bauhaus. Under Walter Gropius, the Bauhaus intended to create an academic, theoretical, and practical synthesis of all forms of visual expression--a marrying of art, architecture, industry, and design that had never been attempted before. Although the Bauhaus existed for only fourteen years, from 1920 to 1934, Bartram asserts that its philosophy influenced the appearance of almost every kind of modernist artifact throughout the twentieth century and continues to do so today. Engagingly written and handsomely illustrated, this volume is a valuable resource for designers and book lovers everywhere.
Author: Roger Lipsey
Publisher: Courier Corporation
Compelling, well-illustrated study focuses on the works of Kandinsky, Mondrian, Klee, Picasso, Duchamp, Matisse, and others. Citations from letters, diaries, and interviews provide insights into the artists' views. 121 black-and-white illustrations.
Author: Howard Dearstyne
Inside the Bauhaus presents the story of an idea about how people might live. It is also the story of a school, the Bauhaus, whose life span coincided with the Weimar Republic's and whose history mirrors German history between the two world wars. Through mass-production, the Bauhaus, like the German Werkbund, hoped to change the quality of the designed object and the designed environment for everyone. Quality of life was an important design consideration in the housing schemes developed by Walter Gropius and Hannes Meyer, respectively the first and second directors of the school, and Ludwig Hilberseimer, whose teaching responsibilities at the Bauhaus included the planning curriculum. Howard Dearstyne, the author of the present work, was one of a handful of Americans to study at the Bauhaus and the only one to earn a diploma in architecture. His account of life and education at the Bauhaus is drawn chiefly from contemporary sources, from his letters, from journals and letters kept by members of the Bauhaus faculty, from newspaper articles, and from the recollections of others. Dearstyne also includes historical background of the structure of the curriculum of the Bauhaus as well as discussions of the various workshops and how they functioned prior to his admission to the school.
Plastics and Dictatorship in the German Democratic Republic
Author: Eli Rubin
Publisher: UNC Press Books
Eli Rubin takes an innovative approach to consumer culture to explore questions of political consensus and consent and the impact of ideology on everyday life in the former East Germany. Synthetic Socialism explores the history of East Germany through the production and use of a deceptively simple material: plastic. Rubin investigates the connections between the communist government, its Bauhaus-influenced designers, its retooled postwar chemical industry, and its general consumer population. He argues that East Germany was neither a totalitarian state nor a niche society but rather a society shaped by the confluence of unique economic and political circumstances interacting with the concerns of ordinary citizens. To East Germans, Rubin says, plastic was a high-technology material, a symbol of socialism's scientific and economic superiority over capitalism. Most of all, the state and its designers argued, plastic goods were of a particularly special quality, not to be thrown away like products of the wasteful West. Rubin demonstrates that this argument was accepted by the mainstream of East German society, for whom the modern, socialist dimension of a plastics-based everyday life had a deep resonance.
Author: Hal Box
Publisher: University of Texas Press
The design of cities and buildings affects the quality of our lives. Making the built environment useful, safe, comfortable, efficient, and as beautiful as possible is a universal quest. We dream about how we might live, work, and play. From these dreams come some 95 percent of all private and public buildings; professional architects design only about 5 percent of the built environment. While much of what non-architects build is beautiful and useful, the ugliness and inconveniences that blight many urban areas demonstrate that an understanding of good architectural design is vital for creating livable buildings and public spaces. To help promote this understanding among non-architects, as well as among those considering architecture as a profession, award-winning architect and professor Hal Box explains the process of making architecture from concept to completed building, using real-life examples to illustrate the principles involved in designing buildings that enhance the quality of life for those who live with them. To cause what we build to become architecture, we have three choices: hire an architect, become an architect, or learn to think like an architect. Box believes that everyone should be involved in making architecture and has organized this book as a series of letters to friends and students about the process of creating architecture. He describes what architecture should be and do; how to look at and appreciate good buildings; and how to understand the design process, work with an architect, or become an architect. He also provides an overview of architectural history, with lists of books to read and buildings to see. For those involved in building projects, Box offers practical guidance about what goes into constructing a building, from the first view of the site to the finished building. For students thinking of becoming architects, he describes an architect's typical training and career path. And for the wide public audience interested in architecture and the built environment, Box addresses how architecture relates to the city, where the art of architecture is headed, and why good architecture matters.
die Zusammenarbeit des Bauhauses mit der Leipziger Firma Kandem
Author: Justus A. Binroth
Publisher: Arnoldsche Verlagsanstalt GmbH
In the late 1920s the pioneering firm of Kandem (Krting & Mathiesen AG, Leipzig) led the field in creating innovative lighting. Widespread in both private and public buildings, Kandem lighting fixtures also shaped nocturnal cityscapes throughout Europe. Drawing on intensive research and development, Kandem set the standards for modern lighting. As a school of art and design, the Bauhaus in Dessau was famous far beyond the borders of Germany. From the productive Bauhaus collaboration with Kandem emerged numerous types of lighting fixtures which were functional in design, form and construction. This pioneering achievement broke new ground in product development and design at a time when unlike the present collaboration between designers and industrialists was the exception. The results of their joint efforts were shown at important trade fairs such as the 1929 Werkbund exhibition 'Wohnung und Bauen' ('House and Building') in Breslau and the 'Exposition des Artistes D, corateurs Fran aise' in Paris
The Production and Consumption of Toys in Germany, 1870-1914
Author: David D. Hamlin
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
Category: Business & Economics
The development of toys in late nineteenth century Germany represents a perhaps surprising, but nonetheless extremely valuable tool for understanding the influence of consumerism on Wilhelmine society at a time of extreme social transformation. The rapid development of commerce in toys brought to the industry a significant increase in national wealth and power, but toys also became a site for contesting social and cultural problems. Would consumer capitalism lead to greater wealth or more exploitation? Should toys train young children in desirable adult traits or unlock the doors of fantasy? What were the implications for modern individualism and society inherent in these alternatives? Through the lenses of producers, distributors, retailers, consumers, pedagogues as well as cultural and social reformers, Hamlin explores how this new industry helped to lead the way toward German modernity. "Exciting in the scope of its analytic purview, Work and Play explores not only the traditional business history of the toy industry in the Second Empire but also the cultural history of toys as well as the intellectual debates about the place of play in the cultivation of bourgeois individuals. In each arena, Hamlin makes extremely valuable contributions." ---Andrew Stuart Bergerson, Associate Professor of History at the University of Missouri-Kansas City and author of Ordinary Germans in Extraordinary Times: The Nazi Revolution in Hildesheim David Hamlin is Assistant Professor of History at Fordham University.
Author: Rainer K. Wick,Gabriele Diana Grawe
Publisher: Hatje Cantz Pub
"Within the space of only 14 years, the Bauhaus permanently altered the course of modern design and Walter Gropius's pedagogical approach revolutionised art schools. Interest in the Bauhaus and Gropius's methods is as lively today as ever*in conscious and unconscious borrowings from his work, or in direct criticism of his ideas. This publication is the only comprehensive account of the main pedagogical concepts behind the work of the Bauhaus. Analytical essays illuminate the various approaches of individual staff members in the Bauhaus, which included Gropius, Hannes Meyer, Mies van der Rohe, Itten, Moholy-Nagy, Albers, Kandinsky, Klee, Schlemmer and Joost Schmidt. Additional chapters investigate the pre-history of the Bauhaus plus its predecessors in matters of art-training, outlining the development of the institution from 1919 to 1933 and the reception of Bauhaus methods in the Weimar Republic, in the 'Third Reich', in both Germanys after the Second World War, and the USA*drawing on otherwise widely-dispersed writings on the Bauhaus as well as on a wide variety of other archive materials."
A Source Book by Artists and Critics
Author: Herschel Browning Chipp
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Category: Art, Modern
Herschel B. Chipp's 'Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book By Artists and Critics' is a collection of texts from letters, manifestos, notes and interviews. Sources include, as the title says, artists and critics - some expected, like van Gogh, Gauguin, Apollinaire, Mondrian, Greenberg, just to name a few - and some less so: Trotsky and Hitler, in the section on Art and Politics. The book is a wonderful resource and insight into the way artists think and work.
Author: Lewis Blackwell
Publisher: Laurence King Publishing
'20th-Century type' provides a decade-by-decade analysis of the significant issues that have shaped the history of typographic and, latterly, graphic design. The book shows how current typographic trends are part of a continuum of change that can be plott
Author: Tobias Just,Wolfgang Maennig
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Business & Economics
Real estate is the biggest real asset class in an economy, and Germany is the biggest economy in Europe. This implies opportunities as well as specific risks for investors and policy makers. As the German real estate markets have by and large been spared severe disruptions in the course of the economic crisis, many questions arise for investors and academics alike. What are the key institutional characteristics of the German real estate markets that make it different? What are the short and long-term drivers of demand and supply? Which regional and functional market segments are most likely to outperform in the next few years? What are the most important pitfalls for investors in Germany? This book gives answers to these and many more questions. The editors have invited a broad range of extensively knowledgeable practitioners and academics from across the relevant real estate spectrum, i.e. economic, legal, tax, planning and financing issues, to express their views. There is no better English publication that gives such a profound and simultaneously entertaining overview of Germany’s real estate markets.
Author: Walter Gropius
Publisher: MIT Press
One of the most important books on the modern movement in architecture, The New Architecture and the Bauhaus poses some of the fundamental problems presented by the relations of art and industry and considers their possible, practical solution. Gropius traces the rise of the New Architecture and the work of the now famous Bauhaus and, with splendid clarity, calls for a new artist and architect educated to new materials and techniques and directly confronting the requirements of the age.
From Le Corbusier to Rem Koolhaas
Author: Martin Filler
Publisher: New York Review of Books
In the first volume of Makers of Modern Architecture (2007), Martin Filler examined the emergence of that revolutionary new form of building and explored its aesthetic, social, and spiritual aspirations through illuminating studies of some of its most important practitioners, from Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright to, in our own time, Renzo Piano and Santiago Calatrava. Now, in Makers of Modern Architecture, Volume II, Filler continues his investigations into the building art, beginning with the historical eclecticism of McKim, Mead, and White, best remembered today for New York City’s demolished Pennsylvania Station. He surveys the seemingly inexhaustible flow of new books about Wright and Le Corbusier, and continues his commentaries on Piano’s museum buildings with an essay focused on the new Broad Contemporary Art Museum in Los Angeles. There are less well known subjects here too, from the Frankfurt urban planner Ernst May to Buckminster Fuller, inventor of the geodesic dome. Filler judges Edward Durell Stone—the architect of the U.S. embassy in New Delhi, the Huntington Hartford Museum in New York City, and the Kennedy Center in Washington—to have been “a middling product of his times,” however personally interesting he may have been. And he looks back at James Stirling, who in the 1970s and 1980s was “a veritable rock star of the profession,” responsible for what Filler considers some of the very few worthwhile postmodernist buildings. The essays collected here are not entirely historical, however. Filler also focuses on some of the most recent projects to have attracted critical and popular attention both in the United States and abroad, including Rem Koolhaas’s CCTV building in Beijing and Bernard Tschumi’s Acropolis Museum in Athens. He argues that Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa’s New Museum in New York City is “one of those rare, clarifying works of architecture that makes most recent buildings of the same sort look suddenly ridiculous.” He calls Tod Williams and Billie Tsien’s brilliant reimagining of the Barnes Collection in Philadelphia “a latter-day miracle...a virtually unimprovable setting” for its art. He finds Michael Arad’s September 11 Memorial at Ground Zero “a sobering, disturbing, heartbreaking, and overwhelming masterpiece.” And he argues that Diller Scofidio + Renfro’s Institute of Contemporary Art in Boston and their work revitalizing the High Line and Lincoln Center in New York make them today’s “shrewdest yet most sympathetic enhancers of the American metropolis.” Filler remains, in these nineteen essays, a shrewd observer of the pressures on architects and their projects—money, politics, social expectations, even the weight of their own reputations. But his focus is always on the buildings themselves, on their sincerity and directness, on their form and their function, on their capacity to bring delight to the human landscape.