Author: Wim P. M. van Swaaij,Sascha R. A. Kersten,Wolfgang Palz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9814613894

Category: Science

Page: 760

View: 718

Energy from solar radiation, fixated by self-assembling plant structures, creates biomass that is converted to energy carriers fit for application in today’s and tomorrow’s energy-generating equipment. The central theme of this book is the development of the current largest renewable energy source for efficient applications in modern and developing society—biomass. The book is presented in an easy-to-understand manner for non-experts, nevertheless revealing the true challenges of this extremely broad area. Through this book, passionate pioneers and (ex-)EU officials tell the interesting history of the use of biomass by mankind in general and how the future of its modern use was shaped by active support of the European Union. The book mainly emphasizes specific technologies, both biological and thermo-chemical, from simple to extremely complex. Recognized experts explain these technologies in a clear way along with their future prospects. Climb on the shoulders of all 35 authors of the book and look into the close and distant future where interaction with other renewable sources will occur, and discover a renewable energy future in which an important role will be played by the oldest one—bioenergy.
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Resources, Technologies, Sustainability and Policy

Author: Carmen Lago,Natalia Caldés,Yolanda Lechón

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128130571

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 584

View: 7083

The Role of Bioenergy in the Bioeconomy: Resources, Technologies, Sustainability and Policy provides the reader with a complete understanding on how bioenergy technologies fit into the new bioeconomy paradigm. Sections focus on the main resources and technologies for bioenergy and its integration in energy systems and biorefining chains, analyze the available methodologies for assessing the sustainability of bioenergy, and address and the propose approaches that are demonstrated through concrete case studies. Additionally, the implications of bioenergy in the water-energy and land nexus is presented, along with new challenges and opportunities. This book’s strong focus on sustainability of bioenergy, both as a standalone, and in the larger context of a bio-based economy, makes it a useful resource for researchers, professionals and students in the bioenergy field who need tactics to assess the lifecycle and sustainability of bioenergy technologies and their integration into existing systems. Presents a complete overview of the main challenges that bioenergy will have to overcome in order to play a key role in future energy systems Explores sustainability aspects in detail, both qualitatively and by applying proposed methodologies to concrete bioenergy case studies Covers, in detail, the water-energy-land nexus implications and governance aspects
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Prospects for Biofuels and Biohydrogen

Author: Francesco Dalena,Angelo Basile,Claudio Rossi

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 0081010265

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 628

View: 3043

Bioenergy Systems for the Future: Prospects for Biofuels and Biohydrogen examines the current advances in biomass conversion technologies for biofuels and biohydrogen production, including their advantages and challenges for real-world application and industrial-scale implementation. In its first part, the book explores the use of lignocellulosic biomass and agricultural wastes as feedstock, also addressing biomass conversion into biofuels, such as bioethanol, biodiesel, bio-methane, and bio-gasoline. The chapters in Part II cover several different pathways for hydrogen production, from biomass, including bioethanol and bio-methane reforming and syngas conversion. They also include a comparison between the most recent conversion technologies and conventional approaches for hydrogen production. Part III presents the status of advanced bioenergy technologies, such as applications of nanotechnology and the use of bio-alcohol in low-temperature fuel cells. The role of advanced bioenergy in a future bioeconomy and the integration of these technologies into existing systems are also discussed, providing a comprehensive, application-oriented overview that is ideal for engineering professionals, researchers, and graduate students involved in bioenergy. Explores the most recent technologies for advanced liquid and gaseous biofuels production, along with their advantages and challenges Presents real-life application of conversion technologies and their integration in existing systems Includes the most promising pathways for sustainable hydrogen production for energy applications
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Author: Ting Wang,Gary J. Stiegel

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 0081001851

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 928

View: 5842

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technologies discusses this innovative power generation technology that combines modern coal gasification technology with both gas turbine and steam turbine power generation, an important emerging technology which has the potential to significantly improve the efficiencies and emissions of coal power plants. The advantages of this technology over conventional pulverized coal power plants include fuel flexibility, greater efficiencies, and very low pollutant emissions. The book reviews the current status and future developments of key technologies involved in IGCC plants and how they can be integrated to maximize efficiency and reduce the cost of electricity generation in a carbon-constrained world. The first part of this book introduces the principles of IGCC systems and the fuel types for use in IGCC systems. The second part covers syngas production within IGCC systems. The third part looks at syngas cleaning, the separation of CO2 and hydrogen enrichment, with final sections describing the gas turbine combined cycle and presenting several case studies of existing IGCC plants. Provides an in-depth, multi-contributor overview of integrated gasification combined cycle technologies Reviews the current status and future developments of key technologies involved in IGCC plants Provides several case studies of existing IGCC plants around the world
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International Reviews and Developments

Author: Preben Maegaard,Anna Krenz,Wolfgang Palz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9814411892

Category: Science

Page: 730

View: 8393

In part 2 of Wind Power for the World, the editors have collected reports and overviews of wind power status and history in various countries, several written by individuals who have made valuable contributions to the successful emergence of wind power. The chapters cover the uphill struggle; wind energy strategies and policies that paved the way; and the creative persons in politics, agencies, institutes, and the industry. It also examines the world societies at large and how solutions to the challenges were found in different countries.
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The Emergence of Electricity from the Sun

Author: Wolfgang Palz

Publisher: Pan Stanford Publishing

ISBN: 9814303380

Category: Science

Page: 575

View: 3621

The book comes in three parts: "The Rising Sun in a Developing World", "Solar Power for the World" and "PV Today and Forever". It provides a historical summary and gives a comprehensive overview of the present photovoltaic (PV) situation worldwide and future strategies for development and implementation. The author is a world leader in PV and all renewable energies.The book is illustrated with about 100 pictures.
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Meteoric Rise of the Solar Industry

Author: Peter F. Varadi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9814463817

Category: Science

Page: 548

View: 4645

The meteoric rise of the photovoltaic (PV) industry is an incredible story. In 2013, Google’s investments in PV systems totaled about half a billion dollars and Warren Buffet, one of the famous investors, invested $2.5 billion in the world’s largest PV system in California. These gigantic investments by major financial players were made only 40 years after the first two terrestrial PV companies, Solarex and Solar Power Corporation, were formed in the USA. Back in 1973, the two companies employed 20 people and produced only 500 watts of PV power. Now, just 40 years later, over a million people work in the PV industry. The worldwide capacity of operating PV electric generators equals the capacity of about 25 nuclear power plants. The PV industry is growing at an annual rate of 30 percent, equivalent to about five new nuclear power plants per year. Today, solar electricity is a significant supplier of electricity needs, to the extent that PV is forcing the restructuring of 100-year-old electric power utilities. This book describes how this happened and what lies ahead for PV power generation.
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International Reviews and Developments

Author: Preben Maegaard,Anna Krenz,Wolfgang Palz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9814411906

Category: Science

Page: 730

View: 1250

In part 2 of Wind Power for the World, the editors have collected reports and overviews of wind power status and history in various countries, several written by individuals who have made valuable contributions to the successful emergence of wind power. The chapters cover the uphill struggle; wind energy strategies and policies that paved the way; and the creative persons in politics, agencies, institutes, and the industry. It also examines the world societies at large and how solutions to the challenges were found in different countries.
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Author: Gilbert Rios,Gabriele Centi,Nick Kanellopoulos

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9814303127

Category: Science

Page: 322

View: 4887

This book disseminates and discusses relevant best case examples and research practices that show how nanomaterial research and related engineering concepts may provide answers and viable solutions to a variety of socioeconomic issues and concerns. The first section is dedicated to the development of new materials and their characterization. The second section addresses modeling and scale transition (from and to nanoscale) processes, and the third section presents applications in the environmental and energy sectors. Nanoporous Materials for Energy and the Environment covers a wide selection of subjects ranging from modeling and material design to the preparation and use of nanoporous catalysts, adsorbents, and membranes. The topics discussed include proton exchange membranes; carbon nanotube (CNT)-based electrodes for fuel cells; advanced design of lithium batteries and supercapacitors using CNTs; multifunctional catalyst for biomass conversion; advanced characterization and modeling of nanomaterials and membranes (including gas transport and multiscale modeling); use of membranes in energy applications, gas treatment, and separations; and development of multifunctional photoactive membranes and of nanoordered 2D photoactive titania films and membranes.
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On the Road to a Solar Energy Future

Author: Peter F. Varadi,Frank Wouters,Allan R. Hoffman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351007300

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 9755

Both Africa and the Middle East are blessed with enormous solar energy resources. Electrification is an urgent need in Africa, where many of its 54 countries are among the world’s fastest-growing economies, but where half the population still has no access to electricity. Solar energy is seen as the fastest and cheapest path to addressing this need. Oil-rich countries in the Middle East are turning to solar energy to meet the growing domestic demand for electricity, freeing up hydrocarbons for export. This book describes the energy transition in Africa and the Middle East, from dependence on fossil fuels to increasing reliance on solar energy. The authors were assisted by the contributions of top experts Wolfgang Palz, Anil Cabraal, and Richenda Van Leeuwen in their efforts to provide a sound basis for understanding where solar energy is heading in these two important global regions.
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Powering the Future

Author: Charles W Donovan

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 178326778X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 368

View: 4921

The future of clean energy is no longer about science and technology; it's all about access to finance. The fossil fuel industry has been subsidized for decades with tax breaks and government backing, while renewables have struggled to compete. But now clean energy is the safe bet for investors, as is argued in Renewable Energy Finance: Powering the Future, edited by Dr Charles Donovan, Principal Teaching Fellow at Imperial College Business School. With a Foreword writer Lord Brown and contributions from some of the world's leading experts in energy finance, this timely book documents how investors are spending over US$250 billion each year on new renewable energy projects and positioning themselves in a global investment market that will continue to expand at double-digit growth rates until 2020. It documents first-hand experiences of the challenges of balancing risk and return amid volatile market conditions and rapid shifts in government policy. Renewable Energy Finance provides an insider's perspective on renewable energy transactions, and insight into how countries like the US, India and China are responding to the global energy challenge. Drawing together contributions from senior executives and leading academics, Renewable Energy Finance serves an audience of readers craving intelligent, practical perspectives on the future of clean energy investment. Contents:Section I:Introduction to Renewable Energy Finance (Charles Donovan)The Clean Energy Imperative (Jim Skea)How Much Renewable Energy Will the Global Economy Need? (Guy Turner)Investor-Specific Cost of Capital and Renewable Energy Investment Decisions (Thorsten Helms, Sarah Salm & Rolf Wüstenhagen)Section II:Markets, Governments and Renewable Electricity (Richard Green)The Impact of Government Policies on Renewable Energy Investment (Gireesh Shrimali)Mobilizing Private Sector Capital in Developing Countries (Alexandre Chavarot & Matthew Konieczny)Renewable Energy Finance in China (Philip Andrews-Speed & Sufang Zhang)Measuring the Carbon Delta of Investment Performance (Celine McInerney & Derek Bunn)Section III:The Growing Role for Private Equity (Brian Potskowski & Chris Hunt)Project Finance and the Supply of Credit from Commercial Banks (Alejandro Ciruelos Alonso)The Untapped Potential of Institutional Investors (David Nelson)The Spectacular Growth of Solar PV Leasing (Bruce Usher & Albert Gore)Crowdfunding: Ready for the Big Leagues? (Karl Harder & Sam Friggens) Readership: Advance economics undergraduates and postgraduates undertaking modules in Environmental and Energy economics. Finance students undertaking Energy Finance modules. Researchers and interested financial professionals looking for a reference volume on clean energy investing. Keywords:Renewable Energy;Clean Energy Finance;Solar Energy Financing
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Solar Power Transforming Our Energy Future

Author: Peter F. Varadi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351767453

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 318

View: 6804

The meteoric expansion of the solar (PV) industry resulted from an incredible reduction in the prices of PV systems—first described in the author’s earlier book Sun above the Horizon. It began early in the new century and continued in the following decade with an extraordinary upswing. As a result, by the end of 2016, the worldwide PV operational power capacity grew to some 300 GW. Most of this increased capacity, 250 GW, was installed during the years 2010–2016. Suddenly PV started to affect the traditional generation of electricity and helped reduce carbon emissions and other environmental impacts. This book describes how this happened. Three practically unlimited new PV markets—residential, commercial, and utility scale—materialized, along with the new PV-oriented financial systems needed to provide the required gargantuan-scale capital. This book also highlights the increasing demand for and the corresponding increased supply of PV cells and modules on four continents and the impact of this PV breakthrough on our lives and future. To present this unparalleled story of societal transformation, the author was helped by the contributions of top experts Wolfgang Palz, Michael Eckhart, Allan Hoffman, Paula Mints, Bill Rever, and John Wohlgemuth.
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What You Wanted to Know about Photovoltaics

Author: Wolfgang Palz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9814411884

Category: Science

Page: 800

View: 2389

The book describes the industrial revolution associated with the implementation of electric power generation by photovoltaics (PV). The book’s editor and contributing authors are among the leading pioneers in PV from its industrial birth in 1954 all the way up to the stormy developments during the first decade of the new century. The book describes the dramatic events in industry between 2009 and 2013 and puts all this into perspective. It concludes that solar power is yet to strengthen its role in technology and in mainstream of the world’s economy.
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The Most Comprehensive Plan Ever Proposed to Reverse Global Warming

Author: Paul Hawken

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1524704652

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 9145

• New York Times bestseller • The 100 most substantive solutions to reverse global warming, based on meticulous research by leading scientists and policymakers around the world “At this point in time, the Drawdown book is exactly what is needed; a credible, conservative solution-by-solution narrative that we can do it. Reading it is an effective inoculation against the widespread perception of doom that humanity cannot and will not solve the climate crisis. Reported by-effects include increased determination and a sense of grounded hope.” —Per Espen Stoknes, Author, What We Think About When We Try Not To Think About Global Warming “There’s been no real way for ordinary people to get an understanding of what they can do and what impact it can have. There remains no single, comprehensive, reliable compendium of carbon-reduction solutions across sectors. At least until now. . . . The public is hungry for this kind of practical wisdom.” —David Roberts, Vox “This is the ideal environmental sciences textbook—only it is too interesting and inspiring to be called a textbook.” —Peter Kareiva, Director of the Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, UCLA In the face of widespread fear and apathy, an international coalition of researchers, professionals, and scientists have come together to offer a set of realistic and bold solutions to climate change. One hundred techniques and practices are described here—some are well known; some you may have never heard of. They range from clean energy to educating girls in lower-income countries to land use practices that pull carbon out of the air. The solutions exist, are economically viable, and communities throughout the world are currently enacting them with skill and determination. If deployed collectively on a global scale over the next thirty years, they represent a credible path forward, not just to slow the earth’s warming but to reach drawdown, that point in time when greenhouse gases in the atmosphere peak and begin to decline. These measures promise cascading benefits to human health, security, prosperity, and well-being—giving us every reason to see this planetary crisis as an opportunity to create a just and livable world.
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Global Challenges and Local Solutions

Author: Antoine Halff,Benjamin K. Sovacool,Jon Rozhon

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191504904

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 472

View: 3614

This edited volume looks at energy poverty, an issue whose pivotal role in the fight for human development is only now being recognised by policymakers. Nearly one quarter of humanity still lacks access to electricity. Close to one third rely on traditional fuels like firewood and cow dung for cooking, at great cost to their health and welfare. While most prevalent in parts of Africa and Asia, energy poverty is a global problem which concerns us all. This book, which brings together economists, policymakers, entrepreneurs, and other practitioners from all over the world, is dedicated to a single goal: finding a solution to this haunting problem. It is part history, part economics, part political analysis, part business case review, and part field handbook. Part One focuses on defining and measuring the problem and benchmarking progress in solving it, an obvious prerequisite to any successful energy-access policy. Part Two reviews past and current energy access programs, with an eye towards finding out what worked and what didn't and what can be replicated elsewhere. These case reviews are told as seen on the ground - China's experience by top Chinese officials and Africa's by African regulators and scholars. Based in part on those cases, the book's last, more forward-looking section aims to present practitioners with a tool kit, a menu of options to speed up their efforts. The energy access agenda is gaining traction at a time of rising concerns about climate change and resource constraints. This book shows that bringing modern energy to those who lack it not just a moral imperative, but will likely benefit the world as a whole without harming the environment or unduly stretching finite resources.
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Algae as a New Source of Biodiesel

Author: Ayhan Demirbas,Muhammet Fatih Demirbas

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781849960502

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 1103

Algae Energy covers the production of algae culture and the usage of algal biomass conversion products. It also reviews modern biomass-based transportation fuels, including biodiesel, bio-oil, biomethane and biohydrogen. Each chapter opens with fundamental explanations suitable for those with a general interest in algae energy and goes on to provide in-depth scientific details for more expert readers. Algae energy is discussed within the wider context of green energy, with chapters covering topics such as: green energy facilities, algae technology, energy from algae and biodiesel from algae. Algae Energy addresses the needs of energy researchers, chemical engineers, fuel and environmental engineers, postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students, and others interested in a practical tool for pursuing their interest in bio-energy.
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Author: Michael A. Borowitzka,Navid R. Moheimani

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400754795

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 288

View: 2965

Microalgae are one of the most studied potential sources of biofuels and bioenergy. This book covers the key steps in the production of renewable biofuels from microalgae - strain selection, culture systems, inorganic carbon utilisation, lipid metabolism and quality, hydrogen production, genetic engineering, biomass harvesting, extraction. Greenhouse gas and techno-economic modelling are reviewed as is the 100 year history of microalgae as sources of biofuels and of commercial-scale microalgae culture. A summary of relevant basic standard methods used in the study of microalgae culture is provided. The book is intended for the expert and those starting work in the field.​
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Practical Design and Theory

Author: Prabir Basu

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128130407

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 582

View: 7322

Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction, Third Edition, is enhanced with a new topic on processing and cleaning of product gas of gasification and a brief introduction to biomaterials, making it a versatile resource that not only explains the basic principles of energy conversion systems, but also provides valuable insight into the design of a complete biomass conversion systems. With a dedicated focus on the design, analysis and operational aspects of biomass gasification, pyrolysis and torrefaction, this edition offers comprehensive coverage of biomass in its gas, liquid or solid states in a single accessible source. The author provides many worked design problems, step-by-step design procedures and real data on commercially operating systems. Although the book carries the name ‘biomass’, the bulk of its content is also applicable to non-biomass fuels like coal, petcoke, municipal solid waste and others. This book will help engineers, scientists and operating personnel of biomass gasification, pyrolysis or torrefaction plants, gain better comprehension of the basics of biomass conversion. Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction, Third Edition, is enhanced with a new topic on processing and cleaning of product gas of gasification and brief introduction to biomaterials making it a versatile resource that not only explains the basic principles of energy conversion systems, but also provides valuable insight into the design of a complete biomass conversion systems. With a dedicated focus on the design, analysis, and operational aspects of biomass gasification, pyrolysis, and torrefaction, this edition of the book offers comprehensive coverage of biomass in its gas, liquid, or solid states in a single easy-to-access source. The author provides many worked out design problems, step-by-step design procedures and real data on commercially operating systems. Although the book carries the name ‘biomass’, the bulk of its content is also applicable to non-biomass fuels like, coal, petcoke, municipal solid waste and others. This book will allow professionals, such as engineers, scientists, and operating personnel of biomass gasification, pyrolysis or torrefaction plants, to gain a better comprehension of the basics of biomass conversion. Features updates with the most recent research and technology Expanded to include a new chapter on syngas purification Contains step-by-step process flow diagrams, design data, conversion charts and numerical examples with solutions Provides available research results in an easy-to-use design methodology Examines the economic aspects of biomass conversion
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Author: Rainer Janssen,Dominik Rutz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400721814

Category: Science

Page: 414

View: 2469

The work builds on the results of the COMPETE Bioenergy Competence Platform for Africa, which was supported by the European Commission and coordinated by WIP Renewable Energies, Germany. The five sections cover biomass production and use, biomass technologies and markets in Africa, biomass policies, sustainability, and financial and socio-economic issues. This valuable work is, in effect, a single-source treatment of a key energy sector in a part of the world which still has a lot of unrealised potential for development.
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Biotechnology and Science Fiction

Author: Rosalyn W. Berne

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9814463590

Category: Medical

Page: 298

View: 2325

This book is a collection of essays by scientists, historians, philosophers of science, and students. The essays meld biotechnology into science fiction stories and thereby open a conversation about the morality of what we may be one day, and what it may mean to be human as our biotechnological endeavors continue to evolve. The biotechnology "revolution," launched on a global scale many decades ago, has taken a direct course toward re-creating life. Yet there are still many choices to be made in shaping the future that it may one day make possible. The book motivates readers toward deep reflection and continual discourse, which are essential if biotechnology is to evolve in ethical, meaningful, and sustainable ways.
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