Challenging Environmentalism's Supremacy

Author: Anthony Walsh,Lee Ellis

Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 267

View: 4443

In criminology, environmentalism is the assumption that variations in criminal behaviour result only from variations in environmental factors, especially social environmental factors. The biosocial perspective is quite different. It assumes that biological and environmental factors interact to affect criminal behaviour. Social environmental explanations have dominated the field of criminology for at least the past century. Supporters of this perspective argue that because criminal is an ever-changing legal designation, it makes no sense to believe that crimes are the result of biology. Biosocial theorists concede that criminality is a legal concept, but argue that at the core of the concept are acts that are recognised as unacceptable in all societies. The theme of this book is simple: Biology matters when trying to understand criminal behaviour. This is not to exclude social factors but to maintain that social and biological factors interact to affect our varying tendencies to violate criminal statutes. Despite the conceptual simplicity of the biosocial perspective, the evidence that supports it is often complex and rests upon a number of biological principles that many criminologists do not understand. This book conveys some of the excitement that those working from a biosocial perspective are experiencing as they make new discoveries about how biological and social factors interact to affect criminal behaviour.
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An Interdisciplinary Approach

Author: Anthony Walsh,Lee Ellis

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412938406

Category: Social Science

Page: 495

View: 6205

This unique text offers an interdisciplinary perspective on crime and criminality by integrating the latest theories, concepts, and research from sociology, psychology, and biology. Offering a more complete look at the world of criminology than any other existing text, authors Anthony Walsh and Lee Ellis first present criminological theory and concepts in their traditional form and then show how integrating theory and concepts from the more basic sciences can complement, expand, strengthen, and add coherence to them.
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Author: Jason Roach,Ken Pease

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136233717

Category: Social Science

Page: 130

View: 9724

Human physique and behaviour has been shaped by the pressures of natural selection. This is received wisdom in all scientifically informed circles. Currently, the topic of crime is rarely touched upon in textbooks on evolution and the topic of evolution rarely even mentioned in criminology textbooks. This book for the first time explores how an evolution informed criminology has clear implications for enhancing our understanding of the criminal law, crime and criminal behaviour. This book is directed more towards students of criminology than students of evolution. It is suggested that there is scope for more collaborative work, with criminologists and crime scientists exposed to Darwinian thought having much to gain. What is suggested is simply that such thinking provides a fresh perspective. If that perspective yields only a fraction of the understanding when applied to crime as it has elsewhere in science, the effort will have been worthwhile. The authors attempt to provide a modest appraisal of the potential contribution that a more welcoming approach to the evolutionary perspective would make to criminology; both theoretically (by expanding understanding of the complexity of the origins of behaviour labelled criminal) and practically (where the evolutionary approach can be utilised to inform crime control policy and practice). An evolutionary lens is applied to diverse criminological topics such as the origins of criminal law, female crime, violence, and environmental factors involved in crime causation.
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Why We Need a Genuine Natural Science of Societies

Author: Nigel Barber

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: N.A

Category: Education

Page: 310

View: 9762

Before oxygen's discovery, scientists invoked a mysterious inner principle of fire to account for burning. Today, scholars appeal to an analogously unscientific inner principle, known as culture, to account for human actions. So what is wrong with culture?! It extends from the contents of Petrie dishes to art galleries and is far too imprecise for scientific use. Science aims to separate causes from effects but social scientists use "culture" indiscriminately as both cause and effect making scientific progress impossible. Finally, culture is a smokescreen distracting us from the quest for objective influences on human behavior. (Polygamy is more about parasites than religion, for instance). This book is both a critique of culture-centered social sciences and the manifesto for a new approach - evolutionary social science - that synthesizes evolution and sociology. The author demonstrates that a natural-science approach to human societies helps us to understand social problems such as health inequality and violent crime. Written in a more high-spirited and accessible style than is customary for academic works, The Myth of Culture is a full-throttle indictment of ivory-tower social scientists whose arcane lore does more to feather their nests than to advance knowledge, or solve human problems. It should have broad appeal among college-educated people around the world.
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A Text/Reader

Author: Anthony Walsh,Craig Hemmens

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412956838

Category: Social Science

Page: 596

View: 3998

This uniquely comprehensive book provides instructors and students the best of both worlds – a text with carefully selected accompanying readings. Each Section has a 15p. introduction (a "mini-chapter) that contains vignettes, photos, tables and graphs, end of chapter questions and Web-exercises and is followed by 3-4 supporting readings. The theory Section introductions will end with a concluding sub-section that focuses on policy and crime prevention. The theory Sections contain a unique table that compares and contrasts the theories presented in that Section. A "How to Read a Research Article" guide for students appears after the book's Introduction in Section 1, prior to the first reading. The guide refers students to portions of the first reading to illustrate key aspects of a research article. The readings are carefully selected, edited journal articles appropriate for an undergraduate audience. Additional readings will be found on the accompanying Study Site. Full ancillary package with IR CD for instructors and a comprehensive study site for students.
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Author: Joshua Duntley,Todd K. Shackelford

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019029597X

Category: Psychology

Page: 328

View: 1077

The field of forensic psychology explores the intersection of psychology and the law. The purpose of this book is to examine topics in the field using the powerful, multidisciplinary, conceptually integrated approach that the natural sciences have embraced for decades with great success. Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is the meta-theoretical framework that unifies the field of biology. It unites research and understanding of the development, control, and organization of behavior. The study of humans, which includes all of the social sciences, is part of the field of biology. Darwin's theory provides a powerful meta-theoretical framework that can unify and energize forensic psychology, just as it has the biological sciences. Evolutionary processes undoubtedly shaped physiological characteristics to help solve problems of survival and reproduction. The lungs, for example, with their vast surface area and moist membranes are marvelous adaptions for extracting oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide. Natural selection is the only known process capable of shaping complex functional mechanisms. Just as it shaped physiological adaptations with specific problem-solving functions, it also shaped our thoughts and emotions to guide behaviors toward solving recurrent problems of survival and reproduction. With this logic, we can use knowledge of ancestral problems to guide our understanding of how the mind works. Evolutionary Forensic Psychology is a necessary step toward a unified and complete understanding of psychology and the law. It recognizes that crimes such as murder, non-lethal violence, rape, and theft are manifestations of evolutionarily recurrent selection when they gave individuals an advantage in competition for resources. Each of the chapters that comprise this volume has been selected to provide the first unified examination of important research contributions and future directions of Evolutionary Forensic Psychology.
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Context and Consequences

Author: J. Robert Lilly,Francis T. Cullen,Richard A. Ball

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483321878

Category: Social Science

Page: 568

View: 2472

Offering a rich introduction to how scholars analyze crime, Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences moves readers beyond a commonsense knowledge of crime to a deeper understanding of the importance of theory in shaping crime control policies. The Sixth Edition of the authors’ clear, accessible, and thoroughly revised text covers traditional and contemporary theory within a larger sociological and historical context. J. Robert Lilly, Francis T. Cullen, and Richard A. Ball include new sources that assess the empirical status of the major theories, as well as updated coverage of crime control policies and their connection to criminological theory.
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Author: Mary Stohr,Anthony Walsh,Craig Hemmens

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1452289921

Category: Social Science

Page: 728

View: 2268

Corrections: A Text/Reader, Second Edition is designed for undergraduate and/or graduate corrections courses. Organized like a traditional corrections text, it offers brief authored introductions in a mini-chapter format for each key Section, followed by carefully selected and edited original articles by leading scholars. This hybrid format – ensuring coverage of important material while emphasizing the significance of contemporary research - offers an excellent alternative which recognizes the impact and importance of new directions and policy in this field, and how these advances are determined by research.
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Author: Karen T. Froeling

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781600218828

Category: Criminologie

Page: 328

View: 1902

Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. Criminological research areas include the incidence and forms of crime as well as its causes and consequences. They also include social and governmental regulations and reactions to crime. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in the behavioural sciences, drawing especially on the research of sociologists and psychologists, as well as on writings in law. This book presents leading research from around the world.
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Methodologies, Environmental Issues and Current Trends

Author: Dimitra Kitsiou,Michael Karydis

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781536121704

Category: Marine resources

Page: 565

View: 6252

As the demand for space availability in marine environments increases due to the upward trend and intensity of human activities, Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) becomes the key response for accommodating sectoral policies in a way that is both compatible and ecosystem friendly. The book Marine Spatial Planning: Methodologies, Environmental Issues and Current Trends is addressed to people involved in coastal and marine spatial planning and management, such as administrators, planners, decision makers at different political levels, engineers, stakeholders as well as academic staff. It can also provide a sound background to post-graduate and PhD students working in relevant studies. The reader will be able to find information on the legal framework, the methods used so far, the ecosystem oriented approach and the current views as they have been implemented in some marine areas of the world. The book is organized into three sections: Section One focuses on the governance of the seas, international conventions and laws as well as the physical aspects of the marine environment. Section Two includes the most established methodologies in marine environmental quality assessment and planning; particular emphasis has been placed on integrated methodologies merging political, economic, environmental and societal information. Section Three is a selection of case studies that will familiarize the reader on current aspects and experiences gained from marine spatial studies procedures in different areas of the world.
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Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Bibliographical literature

Page: 26

View: 9708

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Biodiversity Conservation, Economic Development and Human Impact

Author: Clênia Rodrigues-Alcântara

Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated

ISBN: 9781626181915

Category: Science

Page: 323

View: 6476

This book examines one of the most important ecosystems of the world, the Amazon Rainforest, with a focus on the diversity of species found in the region; its importance and vulnerability on the processes, especially anthropogenic, which are occurring; the sustainable use of products found in the forest and how it can be less degrading for those who depend on it to survive; and how public policies and correct decision-making could benefit the sustainable use of the forest. The quality of life of people living in this region and how the processes of forest degradation influence precipitation is also discussed, as are key elements for the proper maintenance of this ecosystem. You can understand how the forest is connected with other parts of the world through an analysis of what is presented in these chapters in terms of climate change and the biological, anthropological, economic and meteorological point of view.
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A Sociolegal Introduction

Author: Anthony Walsh,Craig Hemmens

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195334081

Category: Law

Page: 404

View: 1476

Law, Justice, and Society: A Sociolegal Introduction incorporates a number of distinctive and innovative substantive features, which are not provided much attention in other textbooks for this course. These include: a discussion of how law comes into existence, the history and development of the American legal system, the sociology of law, court structure, and the difference between civil and criminal law. Also included are chapters on juvenile law/justice and gender and the law. It has many pedagogical features, including photographs, tables, an extensive bibliography for each chapter, a glossary of terms (with definitions), chapter summaries, lists of key terms and concepts, lists of key cases, and discussion questions. In addition, this text is engaging and easy to read and use, unlike many of the existing books for this course, which are very difficult for students because of extensive legal jargon, and/or lack sufficient teaching aids.
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Perspectives, Issues and Challenges of the 21st Century

Author: António José Bento Gonçalves

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781536128901

Category: Fire ecology

Page: 311

View: 2403

The present book intends to outline different approaches regarding wildland fires, showing different perspectives and challenges present in the beginning of the 21st century and emerging in different case studies that reveal how wildfires are being faced in some countries around the world (Portugal, Spain, Brazil, Algeria, Mozambique, Lithuania and Chile). Therefore, this book includes fifteen valuable contributions that reflect its title: Wildfires: Perspectives, Issues and Challenges of the 21st Century. The first part of this book includes topics that expresses different realities and challenges on wildfire analysis in Europe, South America and Africa, in a total of six chapters. The second part of this book, entitled New Perspectives and Methodologies on Wildfire Research, which is composed of five chapters, is focused on the implementation of recent techniques and methodologies to promote wildfire knowledge and forest management. The last part is related to recent developments on soils and ashes analysis, and their off-site effects on water quality. It is composed of four chapters where these topics are discussed.
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Value Added Products to Generate Wealth for a Sustainable Economy

Author: Linda Zikhona Linganiso

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781536132359

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 2869

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Author: Mu Naushad,Zeid A. Al-Othman

Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated

ISBN: 9781624178870

Category: Science

Page: 321

View: 2461

Water is a vital element for life. Each recognised form of life on earth, from the smallest microbes to the largest mammals, rely on water. But the amount of fresh water on the earth is limited. Due to industrialisation, urbanisation, and rapid growth of population; even this small amount of fresh water is compromised. Various types of inorganic (toxic and heavy metals) and organic pollutants (dyes, pesticides and pharmacological) are continuously polluting the ecosystem. The development of new efficient technologies are always in demand for the removal of these pollutants. There are several chemical and physical methods available, but among those methods, ion exchange, adsorption and solvent extraction are known to be the most simple and cost effective methods for the removal of these pollutants. This comprehensive book covers 14 review chapters on todays rapidly growing areas of ion exchange, adsorption and solvent extraction and provides an important resource for scientists, and researchers in the fields of Environmental Science, Chemistry, Nanotechnology, Material Science and Engineering.
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The Use of Theory in Everyday Life

Author: Sally Simpson

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1452264813

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 3439

This collection of original essays is an innovative, effective way to teach crime theory to undergraduates. Each essay brings an important crime theory to life by applying that theory to a current crime event or topic of interest to students. An original introductory essay by Don Gibbons explains the origins of these different explanations for criminal behavior, and how they are similar to and different from one another.
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The Biosocial Synthesis

Author: Anthony Walsh

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135965943

Category: Science

Page: 378

View: 3882

Numerous criminologists have noted their dissatisfaction with the state of criminology. The need for a new paradigm for the 21st century is clear. However, many distrust biology as a factor in studies of criminal behavior, whether because of limited exposure or because the orientation of criminology in general has a propensity to see it as racist, classist, or at least illiberal. This innovative new book by noted criminologist Anthony Walsh dispels such fears, examining how information from the biological sciences strengthens criminology work and both complements and improves upon traditional theories of criminal behavior. With its reasoned case for biological science as a fundamental tool of the criminologist, Walsh's groundbreaking work will be required reading for all students and faculty within the field of criminology.
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Foundations, Performance Factors, and Assessment Issues

Author: Richard R. Valencia,Lisa A. Suzuki

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 145225088X

Category: Psychology

Page: 416

View: 7945

Intelligence Testing and Minority Students offers the reader a fresh opportunity to re-learn and re-consider the implications of intelligence testing. Richard R. Valencia and Lisa A. Suzuki discuss the strengths and limitations of IQ testing relative to the factors which may contribute to biased results. They review the history of the adaptation and adoption of intelligence testing; evaluate the heredity-environment debate; discuss the specific performance factors which apply to IQ testing of those in minority ethnic groups. This practical book offers the practitioner a good sense of what can be done to make testing and education serve the needs of all students fairly and validly, whatever their background.
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