Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization; Volume III: The Linguistic Evidence

Author: Martin Bernal

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 0813564417

Category: Social Science

Page: 848

View: 716

Could Greek philosophy be rooted in Egyptian thought? Is it possible that the Pythagorean theory was conceived on the shores of the Nile and the Euphrates rather than in ancient Greece? Could it be that much of Western civilization was formed on the “Dark Continent”? For almost two centuries, Western scholars have given little credence to the possibility of such scenarios. In Black Athena, an audacious three-volume series that strikes at the heart of today’s most heated culture wars, Martin Bernal challenges Eurocentric attitudes by calling into question two of the longest-established explanations for the origins of classical civilization. To use his terms, the Aryan Model, which is current today, claims that Greek culture arose as the result of the conquest from the north by Indo-European speakers, or “Aryans,” of the native “pre-Hellenes.” The Ancient Model, which was maintained in Classical Greece, held that the native population of Greece had initially been civilized by Egyptian and Phoenician colonists and that additional Near Eastern culture had been introduced to Greece by Greeks studying in Egypt and Southwest Asia. Moving beyond these prevailing models, Bernal proposes a Revised Ancient Model, which suggests that classical civilization in fact had deep roots in Afroasiatic cultures. This long-awaited third and final volume of the series is concerned with the linguistic evidence that contradicts the Aryan Model of ancient Greece. Bernal shows how nearly 40 percent of the Greek vocabulary has been plausibly derived from two Afroasiatic languages—Ancient Egyptian and West Semitic. He also reveals how these derivations are not limited to matters of trade, but extended to the sophisticated language of politics, religion, and philosophy. This evidence, according to Bernal, greatly strengthens the hypothesis that in Greece an Indo-European–speaking population was culturally dominated by Ancient Egyptian and West Semitic speakers Provocative, passionate, and colossal in scope, this volume caps a thoughtful rewriting of history that has been stirring academic and political controversy since the publication of the first volume.
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Author: Martin Bernal

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 0813536553

Category: Civilization, Western

Page: 807

View: 8729

Synopsis: Could Greek philosophy be rooted in Egyptian thought? Is it possible that the Pythagorean theory was conceived on the shores of the Nile and the Euphrates rather than in ancient Greece? Could it be that Western civilization was born on the so-called Dark Continent? For almost two centuries, Western scholars have given little credence to the possibility of such scenarios. In Black Athena, an audacious three-volume series that strikes at the heart of today's most heated culture wars, Martin Bernal challenges Eurocentric attitudes by calling into question two of the longest-established explanations for the origins of classical civilization. The Aryan Model, which is current today, claims that Greek culture arose as the result of the conquest from the north by Indo-European speakers, or "Aryans," of the native "pre-Hellenes." The Ancient Model, which was maintained in Classical Greece, held that the native population of Greece had initially been civilized by Egyptian and Phoenician colonists and that additional Near Eastern culture had been introduced to Greece by Greeks studying in Egypt and Southwest Asia. Moving beyond these prevailing models, Bernal proposes a Revised Ancient Model, which suggests that classical civilization in fact had deep roots in Afroasiatic cultures.
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Author: Martin Bernal

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 9780813515847

Category: History

Page: 736

View: 2802

What is classical about Classical civilization? In one of the most audacious works of scholarship ever written, Martin Bernal challenges the whole basis of our thinking about this question. Classical civilization, he argues, has deep roots in Afroasiatic cultures. But these Afroasiatic influences have been systematically ignored, denied or suppressed since the eighteenth century - chiefly for racist reasons. Volume II is concerned with the archaeological and documentary evidence for contacts between Egypt and the Levant on the one hand and the Aegean on the other, during the Bronze Age from c. 3400 B.C. to c. 1100 B.C.
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imaginiertes Afrika und afroamerikanische Identität

Author: Thomas Reinhardt

Publisher: W. Kohlhammer Verlag

ISBN: 9783170199477

Category: Social Science

Page: 379

View: 2978

Wenig beachtet von der europaischen Offentlichkeit hat sich im Spannungsfeld von postmoderner Theorie und political correctness in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten in den USA eine sich als afrozentrisch verstehende historische Betrachtungsweise herausgebildet, die Fragen nach der Rolle Afrikas und seiner Bewohner fur die Weltgeschichte ins Zentrum ihrer Untersuchungen stellt. Im vorliegenden Band wird der Afrozentrismus aus ethnologischer, historischer und philosophischer Perspektive betrachtet und in seinen jeweiligen politischen und ideengeschichtlichen Kontexten dargestellt. Dabei wird nicht allein die Diskursgeschichte der afrozentrischen Theorie und Praxis im engeren Sinne erfasst, sondern es werden auch die Geschichte der afroamerikanischen Bilder und Vorstellungen von Afrika und Amerika nachgezeichnet.
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Author: Martin Bernal

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 575

View: 4912

Could Greek philosophy be rooted in Egyptian thought? Is it possible that the Pythagorean theory was conceived on the shores of the Nile and the Euphrates rather than in ancient Greece? Could it be that Western civilization was born on the so-called Dark Continent? For almost two centuries, Western scholars have given little credence to the possibility of such scenarios. In Black Athena, an audacious three-volume series that strikes at the heart of today's most heated culture wars, Martin Bernal challenges Eurocentric attitudes by calling into question two of the longest-established explanations for the origins of classical civilization. The Aryan Model, which is current today, claims that Greek culture arose as the result of the conquest from the north by Indo-European speakers, or "Aryans," of the native "pre-Hellenes." The Ancient Model, which was maintained in Classical Greece, held that the native population of Greece had initially been civilized by Egyptian and Phoenician colonists and that additional Near Eastern culture had been introduced to Greece by Greeks studying in Egypt and Southwest Asia. Moving beyond these prevailing models, Bernal proposes a Revised Ancient Model, which suggests that classical civilization in fact had deep roots in Afroasiatic cultures. This long-awaited third and final volume of the series is concerned with the linguistic evidence that contradicts the Aryan Model of ancient Greece. Bernal shows how nearly 40 percent of the Greek vocabulary has been plausibly derived from two Afroasiatic languages-Ancient Egyptian and West Semitic. He also reveals how these derivations are not limited to matters of trade, but extended to the sophisticated language of politics, religion, and philosophy. This evidence, according to Bernal, confirms the fact that in Greece an Indo-European people was culturally dominated by speakers of Ancient Egyptian and West Semitic. Provocative, passionate, and colossal in scope, this volume caps a thoughtful rewriting of history that has been stirring academic and political controversy since the publication of the first volume.
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Martin Bernal Responds to His Critics

Author: Martin Bernal

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 9780822327172

Category: History

Page: 550

View: 9316

Responds to the debates set off by the author's 1987 publication of "Black Athena," arguing that Greek civilization was heavily influence by Afroasiatic cultures, and provides additional information to support the thesis while lashing out against the inherent racism of traditional scholarship.
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Eine Interpretation aufgrund des Reiseberichts Griechischer Frühling und der Tagebücher

Author: Željko Uvanovic

Publisher: Akademische Verlagsgemeinschaft München

ISBN: 3960912471

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 110

View: 6171

Wurde Gerhart Hauptmanns Wesen durch eine Art ethischen Individualismus oder eher durch einen hinterlistigen und doppelbödigen Egoismus geprägt? Statt einer Poetik des Mitleids sollte bei ihm hingegen die Rede von einer virtuos verschleierten Poetik der Eigennützigkeit sein? Angesichts neuester Einblicke in der Hauptmann-Forschung fühlt man sich gezwungen, Egoismus und Eigennützigkeit in direkter und indirekter Perspektive der Werke zu sondern und zu betonen. Hauptmanns antisemitische Entgleisungen können ferner leider bis zu den Tagebucheintragungen über das Erstlingsdrama Vor Sonnenaufgang zurückverfolgt werden - und leider bleiben sie fast bis zum Lebensende präsent. Hinzu kommen noch der Antislawismus und der Antiamerikanismus. Die vorliegende Interpretation des Reiseberichts Griechischer Frühling und der sämtlichen Tagebücher entlarvt schließlich den schlesischen Dichter als Anhänger der Heimatkunstbewegung, einer mythologisierenden Irrationalität und eines gnostischen Buddhismus.
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The Ideological Campaign Against Muslims

Author: Stephen Sheehi

Publisher: SCB Distributors

ISBN: 9780932863997

Category: Political Science

Page: 284

View: 2111

"Sheehi's analysis of Islamophobia as an ideological formation brings a much needed dose of fresh air and analytical clarity ... A worthy update of Said's seminal discussion of Orientalism and one that leaves few players in the contemporary foreign policy establishment, in particular so-called liberals, unscathed." Mark Levine, Author of why they Don't Hate us and Heavy Metal Islam.
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From Ancient Times to the Islamic State

Author: Michael L. Galaty

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 0759122628

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 5615

This book is about how human societies form collective, i.e. shared, memories, with implications for how nations, ancient and modern, are built. Understanding how nations manipulate the collective memory making process is key to explaining the behaviors of various state and non-state actors, such as the Islamic State.
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From the American Revolution to Marcus Garvey

Author: Wilson J. Moses

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9780814755242

Category: History

Page: 257

View: 8403

Gathers writings on Black nationalism from Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Frederick Douglass, W.E.B. DuBois, and Alexander Crummell
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Teaching To Learn, Learning To Teach

Author: Alan J. Singer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135635471

Category: Education

Page: 400

View: 9448

Social Studies for Secondary Schools: Teaching to Learn, Learning to Teach, Second Edition integrates discussions of educational goals and the nature of history and social studies with practical ideas for organizing social studies curricula, units, lessons, projects, and activities. A major theme woven throughout the text is that what we choose to teach and the way we teach reflect our broader understanding of society, history, and the purposes of social studies education. Each chapter opens with a broad question about social studies education; provides many examples of lessons, including lesson ideas developed by new and experienced middle school and high school social studies teachers; features a rich variety of teaching, learning, and classroom activities designed to provoke discussion and illustrate different approaches to teaching social studies; and concludes with essays about related social studies topics. Part I focuses on philosophical issues, social studies goals and standards, and the design of social studies curricula. Part II examines and offers examples of strategies for planning units and lessons. Part III explores topics, such as thematic and interdisciplinary teaching, a project approach to social studies, as well as assesses student learning and one's own performance as a teacher, and provides a guide to social studies resource materials and organizations. New in the Second Edition: *Every chapter has been updated and includes a number of new lesson ideas. *The lesson ideas are designed especially to help beginning teachers address learning standards; work in inclusive settings; and promote literacy and the use of technology in social studies classrooms. *Sample activities developed with members of the Hofstra New Teachers Network reflect the current focus on document-based instruction and assessment, and can serve as tools for assessing student learning. *Increased attention is given to project-based social studies instruction and to multicultural education. Intended as a text for undergraduate and graduate preservice social studies methods courses, this text is also useful for in-service training programs, as a reference for new social studies teachers, and as a resource for experienced social studies educators who are engaged in rethinking their teaching practice.
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The Transmission of the Alphabet to the Aegean and Further West Before 1400 B.C.

Author: Martin Bernal

Publisher: Eisenbrauns

ISBN: 9780931464478

Category: History

Page: 156

View: 8936

Western civilization has long sought its cultural roots in the classical civilizations of the Aegean. During the twentieth century, however, it has been made increasingly clear that it owes a great debt to the civilizations of the Fertile Crescent. In the thick of the debate as to how much classical civilizations were influenced by the Levant has been the question of the date of the transmission of the alphabet. In this monograph, Bernal takes up the question anew and marshals persuasive arguments that the date of transmission of the alphabet should be moved considerably earlier than generally has been thought, to the middle of the second millennium B.C. Growing out of his work on Black Athena, the intricate matters of alphabetic history and transmission are dealt with, both in terms of the history of the investigation of the topic and also with regard to the specific working out of his own new proposal.
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Die nahöstlichen Kulturen und die Griechen

Author: Kurt A. Raaflaub

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3486595733

Category: History

Page: 461

View: 6101

Die "Schriften des Historischen Kollegs" werden herausgegeben vom jeweiligen Vorsitzenden des Kuratoriums des Historischen Kollegs: bis 2011 von Herrn Professor Dr. Lothar Gall, ab 2012 durch Herrn Professor Dr. Andreas Wirsching. Zum Historischen Kolleg: http://www.historischeskolleg.de/
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Author: Karl Otfried Müller

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Dorians

Page: N.A

View: 5014

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Author: Walther Kranz

Publisher: Georg Olms Verlag

ISBN: 9783615400151

Category: Drama

Page: 325

View: 5459

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archäologische Schätze aus Saudi-Arabien

Author: Museum für Islamische Kunst

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783803033550

Category: Art

Page: 308

View: 9014

After stops in Paris, Barcelona and St. Petersburg, beginning in January, 2012, the archaeological legacy of Saudi Arabia will now be shown in the exhibition "Roads of Arabia" in Berlin. It will be the only German station on the route. The exhibition is being organized by the "Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities" and the Museum für Islamische Kunst of the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin under the patronage of the Federal President Christian Wulff and King Abdullah ibn Abd al-Aziz of Saudi Arabia. The exhibition provides a unique cultural historical panorama of the Arabian Peninsula. Impressive witnesses of the pre and early history as well as the ancient history of Saudi Arabia: the first hand axes, 6000 year old anthropomorphic stele, monumental Egyptian giant statues, enchanting glass and metal works of Roman antiquity as well as objects of the ceramic revolution from the early history of Islam. Spectacular objects from the Kaaba and the city history of Mecca can be seen for the firs time in Germany.
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