Author: Philip Andrews-Speed,Dr Philip Andrews-Speed,Roland Dannreuther

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136732357

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 248

View: 1808

This book provides a critical overview of how China’s growing need for oil imports is shaping its international economic and diplomatic strategy and how this affects global political relations and behaviour. It draws together the various dimensions of China’s international energy strategy, and provides insights into the impact of this on China’s growing presence across the world.
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Mixing Oil and Politics

Author: Robert E. Ebel

Publisher: CSIS

ISBN: 0892065931

Category: Science

Page: 65

View: 2061

The world was surprised when China emerged in 2004 as a major importer and consumer of oil. Today, that surprise has been replaced by growing concern that the China of tomorrow may be in a position to challenge the United States not only for economic leadership but for political leadership as well.Are these concerns justified? This report explores, among other issues, the limits to growth that currently confront China. The author analyzes how the country seeks to reduce its vulnerability deriving from its ever-increasing reliance on imports of oil, including the issue of diversity among sources of supply and how that supply moves to China. Threats to supply lines are examined and means to offset those threats are spelled out. In addition, the report considers China's demographic dilemma—an population and declining birthrates—a challenge that may very well define China's future.Other fuels—coal, natural gas, nuclear energy—are examined in terms of current and likely future contributions to domestic supply. But it is those alternative forms of energy that appear to be attracting particular attention, in large part because of their role in helping China meet the goals of responding to global warming. The report concludes with a look at how China plans to secure its energy future. Do these plans differ from those of other countries? No, they do not.
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Hedging Against Risk

Author: Øystein Tunsjø

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231535430

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 6116

China has developed sophisticated hedging strategies to insure against risks in the international petroleum market. It has managed a growing net oil import gap and supply disruptions by maintaining a favorable energy mix, pursuing overseas equity oil production, building a state-owned tanker fleet and strategic petroleum reserve, establishing cross-border pipelines, and diversifying its energy resources and routes. Though it cannot be "secured," China's energy security can be "insured" by marrying government concern with commercial initiatives. This book comprehensively analyzes China's domestic, global, maritime, and continental petroleum strategies and policies, establishing a new theoretical framework that captures the interrelationship between security and profit. Arguing that hedging is central to China's energy-security policy, this volume links government concerns about security of supply to energy companies' search for profits, and by drawing important distinctions between threats and risks, peacetime and wartime contingencies, and pipeline and seaborne energy-supply routes, the study shifts scholarly focus away from securing and toward insuring an adequate oil supply and from controlling toward managing any disruptions to the sea lines of communication. The book is the most detailed and accurate look to date at how China has hedged its energy bets and how its behavior fits a hedging pattern.
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The Militarization of Resource Management

Author: Daniel Moran,James A. Russell

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134002009

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 272

View: 8063

This book analyses the strategic dimensions of energy security, particularly where energy resources have become the object of military competition. The volume explores the risks that may arise from conditions of increasing economic competition and resource scarcity, and the problems that may follow if major producers or consumers of energy lose confidence in the equity and efficiency of the market, and resort instead to the use of force to secure access to energy. It surveys the strategic outlook of both producer and consumer states, with emphasis on nations or regions (Central Asia, Russia, China, Venezuela, the Persian Gulf) where unstable or rapidly evolving political conditions may undermine the currently prevailing market consensus. It also examines the role of the United States as the chief guarantor of the global economy, and the challenge this poses for its exercise of military power. The book contests that while the global energy market may be largely self-regulating, it is not self-defending. A failure to consider how it can be most effectively defended from emerging and potential challenges merely heightens the risk that those challenges may someday become real.
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China, India, and the Global Struggle for Oil in Sudan and South Sudan

Author: Luke Patey

Publisher: Hurst

ISBN: 1849045380

Category: Political Science

Page: 376

View: 1686

In the past decade, the need for oil in Asia's new industrial powers, China and India, has grown dramatically. The New Kings of Crude takes the reader from the dusty streets of an African capital to Asia's glistening corporate towers to provide a first look at how the world's rising economies established new international oil empires in Sudan, amid one of Africa's longest-running and deadliest civil wars. For over a decade, Sudan fuelled the international rise of Chinese and Indian national oil companies. But the political turmoil surrounding the historic division of Africa's largest country, with the birth of South Sudan, challenged Asia's oil giants to chart a new course. Luke Patey weaves together the stories of hardened oilmen, powerful politicians, rebel fighters, and human rights activists to show how the lure of oil brought China and India into Sudan--only later to ensnare both in the messy politics of a divided country. His book also introduces the reader to the Chinese and Indian oilmen and politicians who were willing to become entangled in an African civil war in the pursuit of the world's most coveted resource. It offers a portrait of the challenges China and India are increasingly facing as emerging powers in the world.
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Author: Andrei V. Belyi,Kim Talus

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137434074

Category: Political Science

Page: 274

View: 1517

Research on the role of states and markets in the hydrocarbon sector is highly topical in contemporary International Political Economy. This edited collection will approach this subject from a broader perspective, investigating the very essence of the interaction between the state and the market and how this varies on a regional basis.
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How the New Energy Abundance Upends Global Politics and Strengthens America's Power

Author: Meghan L. O'Sullivan

Publisher: Simon & Schuster

ISBN: 1501107941

Category: Political Science

Page: 480

View: 8857

“Riveting and comprehensive...a smart, deeply researched primer on the subject.”—The New York Times Book Review Windfall is the boldest profile of the world’s energy resources since Daniel Yergin’s The Quest, asserting that the new energy abundance—due to oil and gas resources once deemed too expensive—is transforming the geo-political order and is boosting American power. As a new administration focuses on driving American energy production, O’Sullivan’s “refreshing and illuminating” (Foreign Policy) Windfall describes how new energy realities have profoundly affected the world of international relations and security. New technologies led to oversupplied oil markets and an emerging natural gas glut. This did more than drive down prices—it changed the structure of markets and altered the way many countries wield power and influence. America’s new energy prowess has global implications. It transforms politics in Russia, Europe, China, and the Middle East. O’Sullivan considers the landscape, offering insights and presenting consequences for each region’s domestic stability as energy abundance upends traditional partnerships, creating opportunities for cooperation. The advantages of this new abundance are greater than its downside for the US: it strengthens American hard and soft power. This is “a powerful argument for how America should capitalise on the ‘New Energy Abundance’” (The Financial Times) and an explanation of how new energy realities create a strategic environment to America’s advantage.
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The real story of today's conflict zones: Iraq, Afghanistan, Venezuela, Ukraine and more

Author: John Foster

Publisher: James Lorimer & Company

ISBN: 145941344X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 280

View: 8115

Petroleum is the most valuable commodity in the world and an enormous source of wealth for those who sell it, transport it and transform it for its many uses. As the engine of modern economies and industries, governments everywhere want to assure steady supplies. Without it, their economies would grind to a standstill. Since petroleum is not evenly distributed around the world, powerful countries want to be sure they have access to supplies and markets, whatever the cost to the environment or to human life. Coveting the petroleum of another country is against the rules of international law — yet if accomplished surreptitiously, under the cover of some laudable action, it's a bonanza. This is the basis of "the petroleum game," where countries jockey for control of the world's oil and natural gas. It's an ongoing game of rivalry among global and regional countries, each pursuing its own interests and using whatever tools, allies and organizations offer possible advantage. John Foster has spent his working life as an oil economist. He understands the underlying role played by oil and gas in international affairs. He identifies the hidden issues behind many of the conflicts in the world today. He explores military interventions (Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Syria), tensions around international waterways (Persian Gulf, South China Sea), and use of sanctions or political interference related to petroleum trade (Iran, Russia, Venezuela). He illuminates the petroleum-related reasons for government actions usually camouflaged and rarely discussed publicly by Western politicians or media. Petroleum geopolitics are complex. When clashes and conflicts occur, they are multi-dimensional. This book ferrets out pieces of the multi-faceted puzzle in the dark world of petroleum and fits them together.
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Author: R. Emmers

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137310146

Category: Political Science

Page: 96

View: 9213

Ralf Emmers discusses the significance of natural resources as a source of inter-state cooperation and competition in East Asia, assessing whether the joint exploration and development of resources can act as a means to reduce tensions in contested territories. Does the joint management of natural resources in the absence of a negotiated maritime delimitation constitute a feasible strategy to de-escalate maritime sovereignty disputes in East Asia? Can cooperative resource exploitation be separated from nationalist considerations and power politics calculations? Alternatively, should the prospect for joint exploration in disputed waters be expected to raise rather than defuse territorial conflicts, especially if abundant resources are eventually discovered? If this were true, should exploration schemes be postponed until sovereignty disputes have been resolved? Emmers addresses these questions by examining the overlapping sovereignty claims in the Sea of Japan and the East and South China Seas.
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The Contemporary Agenda

Author: Roland Dannreuther

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745656889

Category: Political Science

Page: 340

View: 4743

International Security is a cutting-edge analysis of the key security challenges and developments in the post-Cold War world. Drawing on a wide range of contemporary examples, from the Iraq war to the rise of China, it is an essential guide for students and policy makers seeking to understand the theoretical and empirical debates over the fast-changing nature of international security today. The book is organized into four main parts. Part 1 provides an analytical framework for the book, identifying the most significant post-Cold War shifts in international security and recent theoretical developments in security studies. Part 2 analyses the root causes for contemporary warfare, the dilemmas and debates over military intervention, and the role played by the UN, NATO and other organizations in maintaining international peace and security. Part 3 assesses the challenges of environmental security, including the threat of resource-based conflict, most notably over oil and water, and the perceived security challenges of international migration. Part 4 discusses the new security challenges posed by international terrorism, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and cyber warfare. It explores the strategies and policies adopted by the United States, particularly in the aftermath of 9/11 and assesses the implications of the rise of China and other emerging powers. This book will be essential reading for students and analysts of international relations, international security and strategic studies.
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Lifting the Veil

Author: Philip Andrews-Speed,Sufang Zhang

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 9789811334917

Category: Political Science

Page: 340

View: 2996

This book considers China’s role as a rising champion of clean energy and document the policy decisions and actions which have underpinned this evolution. It considers the construction of the world’s largest fleets of advanced coal-fired power stations, wind farms and solar photovoltaic arrays, examines sustained efforts to reduce national GDP intensities of energy and CO2 emissions, and assesses the rhetoric of government announcements on national policy and international commitments, including the Thirteenth Five-year Plan for Energy (2016-2020). The book notably considers the factors that have supported these achievements, including the availability of large amounts of capital, the role of state-owned companies with soft budgetary constraints, and many forms of indirect support from local governments. It also explores the obstacles to reaching the formal goals of reducing air pollution and CO2 emissions as well as the costs and unintended consequences of these policies, and identifies those parts of the energy supply chain where the governance of energy has been less effective in terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection.
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Change and Continuity, Causes and Cures

Author: Jean-Marc F. Blanchard,Simon Shen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317664264

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

View: 6942

Numerous crosswinds are buffeting the more than 40-year-old People's Republic of China--American relationship, yet only once since Nixon’s historic trip to China in 1972 has a major conflagration seemed a real possibility. Anchoring the relationship throughout multiple storms are the two countries’ broad areas of collaboration such as deep links in culture, economics, and education. However, for some observers, the conflictual aspects of the relationship seem to be gaining prominence. Conflict and Cooperation in Sino-US Relations offers a timely and current look at one of the world’s weightiest bilateral relationships. It goes beyond detailing the conflict and cooperation that have been integral facets of China--US interactions since 1972, to gauging the relationship's evolution and future trends, examining its nuances regarding diverse issues such as the Asia-Pacific leadership structure, the South China Sea, and the Korean peninsula. The book further delves into the causes of conflict and cooperation, offers diverse solutions for tempering frictions between Beijing and Washington, and considers the efficacy of some of the mechanisms (e.g., military-to-military exchanges) that China and the US currently employ to manage their relationship.The chapters suggest that extreme anxieties about China--US relations may be misplaced, but that there nonetheless are some worrisome signs even in areas like economics and the environment that are perceived as naturally cooperative. While the book does not offer any silver bullets, various contributors contend that successful management of Sino-American relations may require greater American accommodation of China’s interests.? This book will be of great interest to students and scholars of Chinese politics, American politics, international relations, and Asian studies, as well as to policy-makers working in the field.
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A Reference Handbook

Author: David E. Newton

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1610691482

Category: Science

Page: 334

View: 8854

This book provides a historical background for the world's current energy problems, describing how the Industrial Revolution has led us to the impending end of the "Age of Fossil Fuels," and describes possible solutions for averting a global crisis. • A bibliographic chapter devoted to print and electronic resources on the topic useful to readers interested in continuing their research on world energy issues • Profiles of individuals and organizations with special interests in the world energy crisis • 20 tables providing relevant data, such as a list of the years various countries hit "peak oil" (the maximum amount of oil produced in a single year) • Primary documents relating to the world energy crisis
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Politics in Command

Author: Stephen Blank

Publisher: GMB Publishing Ltd

ISBN: 1905050445

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 40

View: 2949

This report makes the point that in both Russia and China it is politics OCo and not market or commercial considerations OCo that largely drive energy relationships with each other and the outside world.a For both countries, energy and energy security is regarded as a strategic asset and/or objective that are at risk from outside forces.a Moreover, both countries are taking a statist OCo in Russia even patrimonial OCo approach to energy issues.a Therefore cooperation between Russia and China will be difficult even though Russia wants to sell and China wants to buy.a The conditions that each state has attached to their energy policies ironically preclude the kind of easy cooperation seen in other strategic and political issues between Moscow and Beijing. Thus in both Central and Northeast Asia, Russia has blocked Chinese efforts to realize its version of energy security, yet it has not been able to come up either with the resources or means for a coherent policy of supplying China with reliable quantities of energy that would lead China away from Middle Eastern and other producers.a Given the political dimension in both states, the under-fulfilment of the potential for Russia to supply China will continue and continue as well to be a source of strain in their relationship."
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Author: M. Taylor

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137350555

Category: Political Science

Page: 218

View: 6018

Monique Taylor analyses the policy rationale and institutional underpinnings of China's state-led or neomercantilist oil strategy, and its development, set against the wider context of economic transformation as the country transitions from a centrally planned to market economy.
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Rationale, Strategies and Significance

Author: Professor Zhiqun Zhu

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1472407296

Category: Political Science

Page: 282

View: 9209

In the first edition (2010), Zhiqun Zhu examined the rationale and strategies of China’s new multi-directional diplomacy since the early 1990s and assessed its impact on international political economy as well as responses from the international community. This fully revised second edition is still based on extensive research addressing these and other important policy issues whilst incorporating the latest major Chinese diplomatic activities since the last edition was published. This book continues to cover Chinese initiatives in the Middle East, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and the South Pacific and studies China's current efforts to secure energy and other resources, to expand trade and investment, and to enhance 'soft power' around the world. The author further evaluates how China's activities affect these regions’ political economy and how the international community, especially the United States, has reacted to China's new diplomacy. Whilst continuing to answer some lingering questions about Chinese foreign policy and its implications for both China and the international community as they become increasingly interdependent, this paperback edition is adapted for classroom use and provides questions for discussion to help readers review the key empirical and theoretical points of each chapter.
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Central Asia After September 11

Author: Elizabeth Van Wie Davis

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780742541290

Category: Political Science

Page: 308

View: 6958

Central Asia is a test of America's ability to promote liberal change, of Russia's foreign policy agenda, and of China's readiness to translate economic power into political influence. Focusing on Islamic political issues, energy security, and geopolitical maneuvering, this title presents the events in Central Asia, and how they affect the world.
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Author: Brenda Shaffer

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812204522

Category: Political Science

Page: 200

View: 5987

It is not uncommon to hear states and their leaders criticized for "mixing oil and politics." The U.S.-led Iraq War was criticized as a "war for oil." When energy exporters overtly use energy as a tool to promote their foreign policy goals, Europe and the United States regularly decry the use of energy as a "weapon" rather than accept it as a standard and legitimate tool of diplomacy. In Energy Politics, Brenda Shaffer argues that energy and politics are intrinsically linked. Modern life—from production of goods, to means of travel and entertainment, to methods of waging war—is heavily dependent on access to energy. A country's ability to acquire and use energy supplies crucially determines the state of its economy, its national security, and the quality and sustainability of its environment. Energy supply can serve as a basis for regional cooperation, but at the same time can serve as a source of conflict among energy seekers and between producers and consumers. Shaffer provides a broad introduction to the ways in which energy affects domestic and regional political developments and foreign policy. While previous scholarship has focused primarily on the politics surrounding oil, Shaffer broadens her scope to include the increasingly important role of natural gas and alternative energy sources as well as emerging concerns such as climate change, the global energy divide, and the coordinated international policy-making required to combat them. Energy Politics concludes with examinations of how politics and energy interact in six of the world's largest producers and consumers of energy: Russia, Europe, the United States, China, Iran, and Saudi Arabia.
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