Author: Josine Blok

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521191459

Category: History

Page: 300

View: 6972

What did citizenship really mean in classical Athens? It is conventionally understood as characterised by holding political office. Since only men could do so, only they were considered to be citizens, and the community (polis) has appeared primarily as the scene of men's political actions. However, Athenian law defined citizens not by political office, but by descent. Religion was central to the polis and in this domain, women played prominent public roles. Both men and women were called 'citizens'. On a new reading of the evidence, Josine Blok argues that for the Athenians, their polis was founded on an enduring bond with the gods. Laws anchored the polis' commitments to humans and gods in this bond, transmitted over time to male and female Athenians as equal heirs. All public offices, in various ways and as befitting gender and age, served both the human community and the divine powers protecting Athens.
Read More

Author: Matthew Robert Christ

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521864321

Category: History

Page: 250

View: 6138

This book provides a fresh perspective on Athenian democracy by exploring bad citizenship, both as a reality and an idea, in classical Athens, from the late sixth century down to 322. If called upon, Athenian citizens were expected to support their city through military service and financial outlay. These obligations were fundamental to Athenian understandings of citizenship and it was essential to the city's well-being that citizens fulfill them. The ancient sources, however, are full of allegations that individuals have avoided these duties or performed them deficiently. Claims of draft evasion, cowardice on the battlefield, and avoidance of liturgies and the war tax are common. By examining the nature and scope of bad citizenship in Athens and the city's responses-institutional and ideological-to the phenomenon, this study aims to illuminate the relationship between citizen and city under the Athenian democracy, and more broadly, the tension between private interests and public authority in human societies.
Read More

Author: Philip Brook Manville

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400860830

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 7990

In this unusual synthesis of political and socio-economic history, Philip Manville demonstrates that citizenship for the Athenians was not merely a legal construct but rather a complex concept that was both an institution and a mode of social behavior. He further shows that it was not static, as most scholarship has assumed, but rather has slowly evolved over time. The work is also an explanation of the origins and development of the polis. Originally published in 1990. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Read More

Gender, Ethnicity, and Citizenship in the Classical City

Author: Rebecca Futo Kennedy

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317814703

Category: History

Page: 178

View: 3134

Many of the women whose names are known to history from Classical Athens were metics or immigrants, linked in the literature with assumptions of being ‘sexually exploitable.’ Despite recent scholarship on women in Athens beyond notions of the ‘citizen wife’ and the ‘common prostitute,’ the scholarship on women, both citizen and foreign, is focused almost exclusively on women in the reproductive and sexual economy of the city. This book examines the position of metic women in Classical Athens, to understand the social and economic role of metic women in the city, beyond the sexual labor market. This book contributes to two important aspects of the history of life in 5th century Athens: it explores our knowledge of metics, a little-researched group, and contributes to the study if women in antiquity, which has traditionally divided women socially between citizen-wives and everyone else. This tradition has wrongly situated metic women, because they could not legally be wives, as some variety of whores. Author Rebecca Kennedy critiques the traditional approach to the study of women through an examination of primary literature on non-citizen women in the Classical period. She then constructs new approaches to the study of metic women in Classical Athens that fit the evidence and open up further paths for exploration. This leading-edge volume advances the study of women beyond their sexual status and breaks down the ideological constraints that both Victorians and feminist scholars reacting to them have historically relied upon throughout the study of women in antiquity.
Read More

Author: Susan Lape

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139484125

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 2656

In Race and Citizen Identity in the Classical Athenian Democracy, Susan Lape demonstrates how a race ideology grounded citizen identity. Although this ideology did not manifest itself in a fully developed race myth, its study offers insight into the causes and conditions that can give rise to race and racisms in both modern and pre-modern cultures. In the Athenian context, racial citizenship emerged because it both defined and justified those who were entitled to share in the political, symbolic, and socioeconomic goods of Athenian citizenship. By investigating Athenian law, drama, and citizenship practices, this study shows how citizen identity worked in practice to consolidate national unity and to account for past Athenian achievements. It also considers how Athenian identity narratives fuelled Herodotus' and Thucydides' understanding of history and causation.
Read More

Author: Matthew Christ

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107029775

Category: History

Page: 215

View: 3595

"This book argues that, contrary to how Athenians idealized themselves, they felt little pressure as individuals to help fellow citizens and did not feel strongly obliged as a group to help peoples of other states"--
Read More

Author: Deborah Kamen

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400846536

Category: History

Page: 160

View: 5795

Ancient Greek literature, Athenian civic ideology, and modern classical scholarship have all worked together to reinforce the idea that there were three neatly defined status groups in classical Athens--citizens, slaves, and resident foreigners. But this book--the first comprehensive account of status in ancient democratic Athens--clearly lays out the evidence for a much broader and more complex spectrum of statuses, one that has important implications for understanding Greek social and cultural history. By revealing a social and legal reality otherwise masked by Athenian ideology, Deborah Kamen illuminates the complexity of Athenian social structure, uncovers tensions between democratic ideology and practice, and contributes to larger questions about the relationship between citizenship and democracy. Each chapter is devoted to one of ten distinct status groups in classical Athens (451/0-323 BCE): chattel slaves, privileged chattel slaves, conditionally freed slaves, resident foreigners (metics), privileged metics, bastards, disenfranchised citizens, naturalized citizens, female citizens, and male citizens. Examining a wide range of literary, epigraphic, and legal evidence, as well as factors not generally considered together, such as property ownership, corporal inviolability, and religious rights, the book demonstrates the important legal and social distinctions that were drawn between various groups of individuals in Athens. At the same time, it reveals that the boundaries between these groups were less fixed and more permeable than Athenians themselves acknowledged. The book concludes by trying to explain why ancient Greek literature maintains the fiction of three status groups despite a far more complex reality.
Read More

Democracy in the Athenian Agora

Author: Mabel L. Lang,John McK. Camp

Publisher: ASCSA

ISBN: 9780876616420

Category: History

Page: 32

View: 7371

The artifacts and monuments of the Athenian Agora provide our best evidence for the workings of ancient democracy. As a concise introduction to these physical traces, this book has been a bestseller since it was first published almost 20 years ago. Showing how tribal identity was central to all aspects of civic life, the text guides the reader through the duties of citizenship; as soldier in times of war and as juror during the peace. The checks and balances that protected Athenian society from tyrants, such as legal assassination and ostracism, are described. Selected inscriptions are illustrated and discussed, as are ingenious devices such as allotment machines and water clocks, which ensured fairness in the courts. The book ends with some of the lasting products of classical administration; the silver coins accepted around the known world, and the standard weights and measures that continue to protect the consumer from unscrupulous merchants. Now illustrated entirely in color, with updates and revisions by the current director of excavations at the Agora, this new edition of an acknowledged classic will inform and fascinate visitors and students for many years to come.
Read More

Individuals Performing Justice and the Law

Author: Vincent Farenga

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139456784

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 337

This 2006 study examines how the ancient Greeks decided questions of justice as a key to understanding the intersection of our moral and political lives. Combining contemporary political philosophy with historical, literary and philosophical texts, it examines a series of remarkable individuals who performed 'scripts' of justice in early Iron Age, archaic and classical Greece. From the earlier periods, these include Homer's Achilles and Odysseus as heroic individuals who are also prototypical citizens, and Solon the lawgiver, writing the scripts of statute law and the jury trial. In democratic Athens, the focus turns to dialogues between a citizen's moral autonomy and political obligation in Aeschyleon tragedy, Pericles' citizenship paradigm, Antiphon's sophistic thought and forensic oratory, the political leadership of Alcibiades and Socrates' moral individualism.
Read More

Author: Alain Duplouy,Roger W. Brock

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198817193

Category: History

Page: 384

View: 3341

Citizenship is a major feature of contemporary national and international politics, but rather than being a modern phenomenon it is in fact a legacy of ancient Greece. The concept of membership of a community and participation in its social and political life first appeared some threemillennia ago, but only towards the end of the fourth century BC did Aristotle offer the first explicit statement about it. Though long accepted, this definition remains deeply rooted in the philosophical and political thought of the classical period, and probably fails to account accurately foreither the preceding centuries or the dynamics of emergent cities: as such, historians are now challenging the application of the Aristotelian model to all Greek cities regardless of chronology, and are looking instead for alternative ways of conceiving citizenship and community. Focusing on archaic Greece, this volume brings together an array of renowned international scholars with the aim of exploring new routes to archaic Greek citizenship and constructing a new image of archaic cities, which are no longer to be considered as primitive or incomplete classical poleis. Theessays collected here have not been tailored to endorse any specific view, with each contributor bringing his or her own approach and methodology to bear across a range of specific fields of enquiry, from law, cults, and military obligations, to athletics, commensality, and descent. The volume as awhole exemplifies the living diversity of approaches to archaic Greece and to the Greek city, combining both breadth and depth of insight with an opportunity to venture off the beaten track.
Read More

Author: R. K. Sinclair

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521423892

Category: History

Page: 253

View: 9414

This book is concerned with the public aspects of the life of Athenian citizens in the period from c. 450 to 322 BC. Its central purpose is a critical assessment of the character and extent of citizens' participation in the running of the democracy. Professor Sinclair's analysis is made from the point of view of the individual citizen--his privileges and opportunities, his responsibilities, the rewards and the dangers of exploiting the opportunities available to him.
Read More

Author: Rosanna Omitowoju

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521800747

Category: History

Page: 249

View: 3579

Were acts of sex which we would call rape and regard as a criminal offence similarly regarded in classical Athens? That is the main question posed in this book, the first in-depth study of the topic ever to be undertaken. It considers the legal terminology for rape and discusses exactly what these different terms describe. It also examines literary stories where rape and/or seduction feature as plot devices and looks at different characters' responses to them. The book's presentation makes it accessible to a wider readership of non-classicists.
Read More

Aspects of Citizenship from the Archaic Period to AD 212

Author: Lucia Cecchet,Anna Busetto

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004352619

Category: Citizenship

Page: N.A

View: 2573

Read More

Rhetoric, Ideology, and the Power of the People

Author: Josiah Ober

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400820511

Category: History

Page: 408

View: 1794

This book asks an important question often ignored by ancient historians and political scientists alike: Why did Athenian democracy work as well and for as long as it did? Josiah Ober seeks the answer by analyzing the sociology of Athenian politics and the nature of communication between elite and nonelite citizens. After a preliminary survey of the development of the Athenian "constitution," he focuses on the role of political and legal rhetoric. As jurymen and Assemblymen, the citizen masses of Athens retained important powers, and elite Athenian politicians and litigants needed to address these large bodies of ordinary citizens in terms understandable and acceptable to the audience. This book probes the social strategies behind the rhetorical tactics employed by elite speakers. A close reading of the speeches exposes both egalitarian and elitist elements in Athenian popular ideology. Ober demonstrates that the vocabulary of public speech constituted a democratic discourse that allowed the Athenians to resolve contradictions between the ideal of political equality and the reality of social inequality. His radical reevaluation of leadership and political power in classical Athens restores key elements of the social and ideological context of the first western democracy.
Read More

Author: Karl-Joachim Hölkeskamp

Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag

ISBN: 9783515069281

Category: History

Page: 343

View: 4591

Das Auftreten der "grossen Gesetzgeber", die Entstehung schriftlich fixierter Gesetze und die "Kodifikation des Rechts" in der griechischen Welt des 7. und 6. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. gelten als entscheidende Impulse des Wandels der archaischen Polis zum klassischen Stadtstaat. Das Buch bietet eine quellenkritische Aufarbeitung der einschlagigen literarischen Tradition, empirische Analysen zu einzelnen Gesetzgebern und Gesetzen, eine umfassende Auswertung epigraphischer Zeugnisse der fruhen Gesetzgebung und eine strukturgeschichtliche Einordnung der dabei erzielten Ergebnisse. So entsteht das differenzierte Bild eines Prozesses, in dem die Entwicklung von Institutionen und Verfahren der Gesetzgebung die Konsolidierung der besonderen Staatlichkeit der Polis wesentlich vorantrieb. "Holkeskamps Arbeit verdient zu Recht das Pradikat 'grosser Wurf'". Das Historisch-Politische Buch "Das vorliegende Buch ist ein wichtiger Beitrag zur Wurdigung eines zentralen Themas der Geschichte des archaischen Griechenlands, es erschliesst weitverstreutes Material und eroffnet den Zugang zu der fast unuberschaubar gewordenen Fulle wissenschaftlicher Bemuhungen um das Thema." KLIO "acomprehensive and thorough a In sum, HolkeskampAes full study will be indispensable for specialists in archaic Greek history and law." American Historical Review "aH.aes book makes a compelling, thorough and insightful contribution to the study of early Greek law and should not be overlooked by scholars or advanced students in any aspect of the subject." Brynmawr Classical Review "In the areas of archaic arbitration, law-giving and codification, H.Aes book will remain a necessary starting point for many years to come." Scripta Classica Israelica
Read More

Revised and Updated Edition

Author: Kurt Raaflaub,Raaflaub, Kurt A. Raaflaub

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226701011

Category: History

Page: 420

View: 2109

Although there is constant conflict over its meanings and limits, political freedom itself is considered a fundamental and universal value throughout the modern world. For most of human history, however, this was not the case. In this book, Kurt Raaflaub asks the essential question: when, why, and under what circumstances did the concept of freedom originate? To find out, Raaflaub analyses ancient Greek texts from Homer to Thucydides in their social and political contexts. Archaic Greece, he concludes, had little use for the idea of political freedom; the concept arose instead during the great confrontation between Greeks and Persians in the early fifth century BCE. Raaflaub then examines the relationship of freedom with other concepts, such as equality, citizenship, and law, and pursues subsequent uses of the idea—often, paradoxically, as a tool of domination, propaganda, and ideology. Raaflaub's book thus illuminates both the history of ancient Greek society and the evolution of one of humankind's most important values, and will be of great interest to anyone who wants to understand the conceptual fabric that still shapes our world views.
Read More