Author: Danny Calegari

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198570082

Category: Mathematics

Page: 363

View: 7480

This unique reference, aimed at research topologists, gives an exposition of the 'pseudo-Anosov' theory of foliations of 3-manifolds. This theory generalizes Thurston's theory of surface automorphisms and reveals an intimate connection between dynamics, geometry and topology in 3 dimensions. Significant themes returned to throughout the text include the importance of geometry, especially the hyperbolic geometry of surfaces, the importance of monotonicity, especially in1-dimensional and co-dimensional dynamics, and combinatorial approximation, using finite combinatorical objects such as train-tracks, branched surfaces and hierarchies to carry more complicated continuous objects.
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Author: S Kojima,Y Matsumoto,K Saito,M Seppälä

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 981460254X

Category:

Page: 304

View: 3055

This proceedings is a collection of articles on Topology and Teichmüller Spaces. Special emphasis is being put on the universal Teichmüller space, the topology of moduli of algebraic curves, the space of representations of discrete groups, Kleinian groups and Dehn filling deformations, the geometry of Riemann surfaces, and some related topics. Contents: Mr Toyosaburo Taniguchi and the Taniguchi Foundation (S Murakami)Computing on Riemann Surfaces (P Buser & M Seppälä)Volumes and Chern–Simon Invariants of Cyclic Coverings Over Rational Knots (H M Hilden et al.)An Estimate of the Number of Non Constant Holomorphic Maps Between Riemann Surfaces (Y Imayoshi)An Infinitesimal Approach to the Stable Cohomology of the Moduli of Riemann Surfaces (N Kawazumi)Deformations of Hyperbolic Cone Manifolds (S P Kerchoff)Nonsingular Parts of Hyperbolic 3-Cone-Manifolds (S Kojima)Lefschetz Fibrations of Genus Two — A Topological Approach (Y Matsumoto)A Geometric Approach to the Complex of Curves on a Surface (Y Minsky)A Linear Representation of the Mapping Class Group of Orientable Surfaces and Characteristic Classes of Surface Bundles (S Morita)Mathematics In and Out of String Theory (S Nag)Parabolization of Elements of Kleinian Groups (K Ohshika)The Simplicial Compactification of Riemann's Moduli Space (R C Penner)Character Variety of Representations of a Finitely Generated Group in SL2 (K Saito)The Third Bounded Cohomology and Kleinian Groups (T Soma)Bloch Topology of the Universal Teichmüller Space (M Taniguchi)and other papers Readership: Mathematicians.
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An Introduction in 2 and 3 Dimensions

Author: Albert Marden

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316432521

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 7452

Over the past three decades there has been a total revolution in the classic branch of mathematics called 3-dimensional topology, namely the discovery that most solid 3-dimensional shapes are hyperbolic 3-manifolds. This book introduces and explains hyperbolic geometry and hyperbolic 3- and 2-dimensional manifolds in the first two chapters and then goes on to develop the subject. The author discusses the profound discoveries of the astonishing features of these 3-manifolds, helping the reader to understand them without going into long, detailed formal proofs. The book is heavily illustrated with pictures, mostly in color, that help explain the manifold properties described in the text. Each chapter ends with a set of exercises and explorations that both challenge the reader to prove assertions made in the text, and suggest further topics to explore that bring additional insight. There is an extensive index and bibliography.
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Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461209293

Category: Mathematics

Page: 236

View: 4823

The geometry of surfaces is an ideal starting point for learning geometry, for, among other reasons, the theory of surfaces of constant curvature has maximal connectivity with the rest of mathematics. This text provides the student with the knowledge of a geometry of greater scope than the classical geometry taught today, which is no longer an adequate basis for mathematics or physics, both of which are becoming increasingly geometric. It includes exercises and informal discussions.
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Author: Peter Orlik

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540379894

Category: Mathematics

Page: 162

View: 9253

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Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 595

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Theory and Practice

Author: Olivier Lezoray,Leo Grady

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351833170

Category: Computers

Page: 570

View: 4445

Covering the theoretical aspects of image processing and analysis through the use of graphs in the representation and analysis of objects, Image Processing and Analysis with Graphs: Theory and Practice also demonstrates how these concepts are indispensible for the design of cutting-edge solutions for real-world applications. Explores new applications in computational photography, image and video processing, computer graphics, recognition, medical and biomedical imaging With the explosive growth in image production, in everything from digital photographs to medical scans, there has been a drastic increase in the number of applications based on digital images. This book explores how graphs—which are suitable to represent any discrete data by modeling neighborhood relationships—have emerged as the perfect unified tool to represent, process, and analyze images. It also explains why graphs are ideal for defining graph-theoretical algorithms that enable the processing of functions, making it possible to draw on the rich literature of combinatorial optimization to produce highly efficient solutions. Some key subjects covered in the book include: Definition of graph-theoretical algorithms that enable denoising and image enhancement Energy minimization and modeling of pixel-labeling problems with graph cuts and Markov Random Fields Image processing with graphs: targeted segmentation, partial differential equations, mathematical morphology, and wavelets Analysis of the similarity between objects with graph matching Adaptation and use of graph-theoretical algorithms for specific imaging applications in computational photography, computer vision, and medical and biomedical imaging Use of graphs has become very influential in computer science and has led to many applications in denoising, enhancement, restoration, and object extraction. Accounting for the wide variety of problems being solved with graphs in image processing and computer vision, this book is a contributed volume of chapters written by renowned experts who address specific techniques or applications. This state-of-the-art overview provides application examples that illustrate practical application of theoretical algorithms. Useful as a support for graduate courses in image processing and computer vision, it is also perfect as a reference for practicing engineers working on development and implementation of image processing and analysis algorithms.
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Author: Leonard S. Charlap

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146138687X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 242

View: 901

Many mathematics books suffer from schizophrenia, and this is yet another. On the one hand it tries to be a reference for the basic results on flat riemannian manifolds. On the other hand it attempts to be a textbook which can be used for a second year graduate course. My aim was to keep the second personality dominant, but the reference persona kept breaking out especially at the end of sections in the form of remarks that contain more advanced material. To satisfy this reference persona, I'll begin by telling you a little about the subject matter of the book, and then I'll talk about the textbook aspect. A flat riemannian manifold is a space in which you can talk about geometry (e. g. distance, angle, curvature, "straight lines," etc. ) and, in addition, the geometry is locally the one we all know and love, namely euclidean geometry. This means that near any point of this space one can introduce coordinates so that with respect to these coordinates, the rules of euclidean geometry hold. These coordinates are not valid in the entire space, so you can't conclude the space is euclidean space itself. In this book we are mainly concerned with compact flat riemannian manifolds, and unless we say otherwise, we use the term "flat manifold" to mean "compact flat riemannian manifold. " It turns out that the most important invariant for flat manifolds is the fundamental group.
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Author: Matthias Aschenbrenner,Stefan Friedl,Henry Wilton

Publisher: Erich Schmidt Verlag GmbH & Co. KG

ISBN: 9783037191545

Category: Fundamental groups (Mathematics)

Page: 215

View: 5997

The field of 3-manifold topology has made great strides forward since 1982 when Thurston articulated his influential list of questions. Primary among these is Perelman's proof of the Geometrization Conjecture, but other highlights include the Tameness Theorem of Agol and Calegari-Gabai, the Surface Subgroup Theorem of Kahn-Markovic, the work of Wise and others on special cube complexes, and, finally, Agol's proof of the Virtual Haken Conjecture. This book summarizes all these developments and provides an exhaustive account of the current state of the art of 3-manifold topology, especially focusing on the consequences for fundamental groups of 3-manifolds. As the first book on 3-manifold topology that incorporates the exciting progress of the last two decades, it will be an invaluable resource for researchers in the field who need a reference for these developments. It also gives a fast-paced introduction to this material. Although some familiarity with the fundamental group is recommended, little other previous knowledge is assumed, and the book is accessible to graduate students. The book closes with an extensive list of open questions which will also be of interest to graduate students and established researchers.
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Author: Abraham A. Ungar

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1598298224

Category: Mathematics

Page: 182

View: 4271

The mere mention of hyperbolic geometry is enough to strike fear in the heart of the undergraduate mathematics and physics student. Some regard themselves as excluded from the profound insights of hyperbolic geometry so that this enormous portion of human achievement is a closed door to them. The mission of this book is to open that door by making the hyperbolic geometry of Bolyai and Lobachevsky, as well as the special relativity theory of Einstein that it regulates, accessible to a wider audience in terms of novel analogies that the modern and unknown share with the classical and familiar. These novel analogies that this book captures stem from Thomas gyration, which is the mathematical abstraction of the relativistic effect known as Thomas precession. Remarkably, the mere introduction of Thomas gyration turns Euclidean geometry into hyperbolic geometry, and reveals mystique analogies that the two geometries share. Accordingly, Thomas gyration gives rise to the prefix "gyro" that is extensively used in the gyrolanguage of this book, giving rise to terms like gyrocommutative and gyroassociative binary operations in gyrogroups, and gyrovectors in gyrovector spaces. Of particular importance is the introduction of gyrovectors into hyperbolic geometry, where they are equivalence classes that add according to the gyroparallelogram law in full analogy with vectors, which are equivalence classes that add according to the parallelogram law. A gyroparallelogram, in turn, is a gyroquadrilateral the two gyrodiagonals of which intersect at their gyromidpoints in full analogy with a parallelogram, which is a quadrilateral the two diagonals of which intersect at their midpoints. Table of Contents: Gyrogroups / Gyrocommutative Gyrogroups / Gyrovector Spaces / Gyrotrigonometry
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Author: Aarhus universitet. Matematisk institut

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 8483

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Awe-Inspiring Geometric Designs

Author: Eric Gjerde

Publisher: A K Peters/CRC Press

ISBN: 9781568814513

Category: Mathematics

Page: 128

View: 7137

Eric Gjerde demonstrates 25 of his favorite tessellations and turns them into projects for newcomers as well as experienced origamists. With step-by-step instructions, illustrated crease patterns, and how-to photos, you'll learn to create these wonderful designs yourself. Eric's first book covers the fundamentals of origami tessellations, provides history, and describes simple beginning techniques with detailed illustrations and photographs. An extensive gallery showcases tessellations folded by the world's leading origami fine artists---inspiring you to experiment, innovate, and eventually create your own unique designs.
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Lectures at a Summer School in Nordfjordeid, Norway

Author: Jan Hendrik Bruinier,Gerard van der Geer,Günter Harder,Don Zagier

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540741190

Category: Mathematics

Page: 266

View: 8976

This book grew out of three series of lectures given at the summer school on "Modular Forms and their Applications" at the Sophus Lie Conference Center in Nordfjordeid in June 2004. The first series treats the classical one-variable theory of elliptic modular forms. The second series presents the theory of Hilbert modular forms in two variables and Hilbert modular surfaces. The third series gives an introduction to Siegel modular forms and discusses a conjecture by Harder. It also contains Harder's original manuscript with the conjecture. Each part treats a number of beautiful applications.
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Author: Jiri Matousek,Bernd Gärtner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540307176

Category: Mathematics

Page: 226

View: 1212

The book is an introductory textbook mainly for students of computer science and mathematics. Our guiding phrase is "what every theoretical computer scientist should know about linear programming". A major focus is on applications of linear programming, both in practice and in theory. The book is concise, but at the same time, the main results are covered with complete proofs and in sufficient detail, ready for presentation in class. The book does not require more prerequisites than basic linear algebra, which is summarized in an appendix. One of its main goals is to help the reader to see linear programming "behind the scenes".
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Author: Abraham A. Ungar

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812772294

Category: Science

Page: 628

View: 4532

This book presents a powerful way to study Einstein's special theory of relativity and its underlying hyperbolic geometry in which analogies with classical results form the right tool. It introduces the notion of vectors into analytic hyperbolic geometry, where they are called gyrovectors. Newtonian velocity addition is the common vector addition, which is both commutative and associative. The resulting vector spaces, in turn, form the algebraic setting for the standard model of Euclidean geometry. In full analogy, Einsteinian velocity addition is a gyrovector addition, which is both gyrocommutative and gyroassociative. The resulting gyrovector spaces, in turn, form the algebraic setting for the Beltrami–Klein ball model of the hyperbolic geometry of Bolyai and Lobachevsky. Similarly, Mצbius addition gives rise to gyrovector spaces that form the algebraic setting for the Poincarי ball model of hyperbolic geometry. In full analogy with classical results, the book presents a novel relativistic interpretation of stellar aberration in terms of relativistic gyrotrigonometry and gyrovector addition. Furthermore, the book presents, for the first time, the relativistic center of mass of an isolated system of noninteracting particles that coincided at some initial time t = 0. The novel relativistic resultant mass of the system, concentrated at the relativistic center of mass, dictates the validity of the dark matter and the dark energy that were introduced by cosmologists as ad hoc postulates to explain cosmological observations about missing gravitational force and late-time cosmic accelerated expansion. The discovery of the relativistic center of mass in this book thus demonstrates once again the usefulness of the study of Einstein's special theory of relativity in terms of its underlying analytic hyperbolic geometry.
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Foundations, Algorithms, and Methods

Author: J. Andreas Bærentzen,Jens Gravesen,François Anton,Henrik Aanæs

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447140753

Category: Computers

Page: 326

View: 3549

This book reviews the algorithms for processing geometric data, with a practical focus on important techniques not covered by traditional courses on computer vision and computer graphics. Features: presents an overview of the underlying mathematical theory, covering vector spaces, metric space, affine spaces, differential geometry, and finite difference methods for derivatives and differential equations; reviews geometry representations, including polygonal meshes, splines, and subdivision surfaces; examines techniques for computing curvature from polygonal meshes; describes algorithms for mesh smoothing, mesh parametrization, and mesh optimization and simplification; discusses point location databases and convex hulls of point sets; investigates the reconstruction of triangle meshes from point clouds, including methods for registration of point clouds and surface reconstruction; provides additional material at a supplementary website; includes self-study exercises throughout the text.
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