Author: Donald Yau

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470427230

Category: Algebra, Homological

Page: 428

View: 7989

The subject of this book is the theory of operads and colored operads, sometimes called symmetric multicategories. A (colored) operad is an abstract object which encodes operations with multiple inputs and one output and relations between such operations. The theory originated in the early 1970s in homotopy theory and quickly became very important in algebraic topology, algebra, algebraic geometry, and even theoretical physics (string theory). Topics covered include basic graph theory, basic category theory, colored operads, and algebras over colored operads. Free colored operads are discussed in complete detail and in full generality. The intended audience of this book includes students and researchers in mathematics and other sciences where operads and colored operads are used. The prerequisite for this book is minimal. Every major concept is thoroughly motivated. There are many graphical illustrations and about 150 exercises. This book can be used in a graduate course and for independent study.
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Author: Alexander Kirillov Jr.

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470423073

Category: Algebraic geometry -- Cycles and subschemes -- Parametrization (Chow and Hilbert schemes)

Page: 295

View: 3240

This book is an introduction to the theory of quiver representations and quiver varieties, starting with basic definitions and ending with Nakajima's work on quiver varieties and the geometric realization of Kac–Moody Lie algebras. The first part of the book is devoted to the classical theory of quivers of finite type. Here the exposition is mostly self-contained and all important proofs are presented in detail. The second part contains the more recent topics of quiver theory that are related to quivers of infinite type: Coxeter functor, tame and wild quivers, McKay correspondence, and representations of Euclidean quivers. In the third part, topics related to geometric aspects of quiver theory are discussed, such as quiver varieties, Hilbert schemes, and the geometric realization of Kac–Moody algebras. Here some of the more technical proofs are omitted; instead only the statements and some ideas of the proofs are given, and the reader is referred to original papers for details. The exposition in the book requires only a basic knowledge of algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and the theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras. Some sections use the language of derived categories; however, the use of this language is reduced to a minimum. The many examples make the book accessible to graduate students who want to learn about quivers, their representations, and their relations to algebraic geometry and Lie algebras.
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Author: Benoit Fresse

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470434814

Category: Algebraic topology -- Homotopy theory -- Rational homotopy theory

Page: 532

View: 5796

The Grothendieck–Teichmüller group was defined by Drinfeld in quantum group theory with insights coming from the Grothendieck program in Galois theory. The ultimate goal of this book is to explain that this group has a topological interpretation as a group of homotopy automorphisms associated to the operad of little 2-discs, which is an object used to model commutative homotopy structures in topology. This volume gives a comprehensive survey on the algebraic aspects of this subject. The book explains the definition of an operad in a general context, reviews the definition of the little discs operads, and explains the definition of the Grothendieck–Teichmüller group from the viewpoint of the theory of operads. In the course of this study, the relationship between the little discs operads and the definition of universal operations associated to braided monoidal category structures is explained. Also provided is a comprehensive and self-contained survey of the applications of Hopf algebras to the definition of a rationalization process, the Malcev completion, for groups and groupoids. Most definitions are carefully reviewed in the book; it requires minimal prerequisites to be accessible to a broad readership of graduate students and researchers interested in the applications of operads.
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Author: Jan de Gier,Cheryl E. Praeger,Terence Tao

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319722999

Category: Mathematics

Page: 656

View: 2622

MATRIX is Australia’s international, residential mathematical research institute. It facilitates new collaborations and mathematical advances through intensive residential research programs, each lasting 1-4 weeks. This book is a scientific record of the five programs held at MATRIX in its first year, 2016: Higher Structures in Geometry and Physics (Chapters 1-5 and 18-21); Winter of Disconnectedness (Chapter 6 and 22-26); Approximation and Optimisation (Chapters 7-8); Refining C*-Algebraic Invariants for Dynamics using KK-theory (Chapters 9-13); Interactions between Topological Recursion, Modularity, Quantum Invariants and Low-dimensional Topology (Chapters 14-17 and 27). The MATRIX Scientific Committee selected these programs based on their scientific excellence and the participation rate of high-profile international participants. Each program included ample unstructured time to encourage collaborative research; some of the longer programs also included an embedded conference or lecture series. The articles are grouped into peer-reviewed contributions and other contributions. The peer-reviewed articles present original results or reviews on selected topics related to the MATRIX program; the remaining contributions are predominantly lecture notes based on talks or activities at MATRIX.
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Author: Jean-Louis Loday,Bruno Vallette

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642303625

Category: Mathematics

Page: 636

View: 5001

In many areas of mathematics some “higher operations” are arising. These havebecome so important that several research projects refer to such expressions. Higher operationsform new types of algebras. The key to understanding and comparing them, to creating invariants of their action is operad theory. This is a point of view that is 40 years old in algebraic topology, but the new trend is its appearance in several other areas, such as algebraic geometry, mathematical physics, differential geometry, and combinatorics. The present volume is the first comprehensive and systematic approach to algebraic operads. An operad is an algebraic device that serves to study all kinds of algebras (associative, commutative, Lie, Poisson, A-infinity, etc.) from a conceptual point of view. The book presents this topic with an emphasis on Koszul duality theory. After a modern treatment of Koszul duality for associative algebras, the theory is extended to operads. Applications to homotopy algebra are given, for instance the Homotopy Transfer Theorem. Although the necessary notions of algebra are recalled, readers are expected to be familiar with elementary homological algebra. Each chapter ends with a helpful summary and exercises. A full chapter is devoted to examples, and numerous figures are included. After a low-level chapter on Algebra, accessible to (advanced) undergraduate students, the level increases gradually through the book. However, the authors have done their best to make it suitable for graduate students: three appendices review the basic results needed in order to understand the various chapters. Since higher algebra is becoming essential in several research areas like deformation theory, algebraic geometry, representation theory, differential geometry, algebraic combinatorics, and mathematical physics, the book can also be used as a reference work by researchers.
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Author: Donald Yau, Mark W. Johnson

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470421976

Category: Algebra, Homological

Page: 311

View: 7261

PROPs and their variants are extremely general and powerful machines that encode operations with multiple inputs and multiple outputs. In this respect PROPs can be viewed as generalizations of operads that would allow only a single output. Variants of PROPs are important in several mathematical fields, including string topology, topological conformal field theory, homotopical algebra, deformation theory, Poisson geometry, and graph cohomology. The purpose of this monograph is to develop, in full technical detail, a unifying object called a generalized PROP. Then with an appropriate choice of pasting scheme, one recovers (colored versions of) dioperads, half-PROPs, (wheeled) operads, (wheeled) properads, and (wheeled) PROPs. Here the fundamental operation of graph substitution is studied in complete detail for the first time, including all exceptional edges and loops as examples of a new definition of wheeled graphs. A notion of generators and relations is proposed which allows one to build all of the graphs in a given pasting scheme from a small set of basic graphs using graph substitution. This provides information at the level of generalized PROPs, but also at the levels of algebras and of modules over them. Working in the general context of a symmetric monoidal category, the theory applies for both topological spaces and chain complexes in characteristic zero. This book is useful for all mathematicians and mathematical physicists who want to learn this new powerful technique.
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Author: Emily Riehl

Publisher: Courier Dover Publications

ISBN: 0486820807

Category: Mathematics

Page: 272

View: 9540

Introduction to concepts of category theory — categories, functors, natural transformations, the Yoneda lemma, limits and colimits, adjunctions, monads — revisits a broad range of mathematical examples from the categorical perspective. 2016 edition.
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Author: David I. Spivak

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262320533

Category: Mathematics

Page: 496

View: 7899

Category theory was invented in the 1940s to unify and synthesize different areas in mathematics, and it has proven remarkably successful in enabling powerful communication between disparate fields and subfields within mathematics. This book shows that category theory can be useful outside of mathematics as a rigorous, flexible, and coherent modeling language throughout the sciences. Information is inherently dynamic; the same ideas can be organized and reorganized in countless ways, and the ability to translate between such organizational structures is becoming increasingly important in the sciences. Category theory offers a unifying framework for information modeling that can facilitate the translation of knowledge between disciplines. Written in an engaging and straightforward style, and assuming little background in mathematics, the book is rigorous but accessible to non-mathematicians. Using databases as an entry to category theory, it begins with sets and functions, then introduces the reader to notions that are fundamental in mathematics: monoids, groups, orders, and graphs -- categories in disguise. After explaining the "big three" concepts of category theory -- categories, functors, and natural transformations -- the book covers other topics, including limits, colimits, functor categories, sheaves, monads, and operads. The book explains category theory by examples and exercises rather than focusing on theorems and proofs. It includes more than 300 exercises, with solutions. Category Theory for the Sciences is intended to create a bridge between the vast array of mathematical concepts used by mathematicians and the models and frameworks of such scientific disciplines as computation, neuroscience, and physics.
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Author: Tom Leinster

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107044243

Category: Mathematics

Page: 190

View: 2605

A short introduction ideal for students learning category theory for the first time.
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Local and Global Analysis

Author: Terence Tao

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821841432

Category: Mathematics

Page: 373

View: 3040

"Starting only with a basic knowledge of graduate real analysis and Fourier analysis, the text first presents basic nonlinear tools such as the bootstrap method and perturbation theory in the simpler context of nonlinear ODE, then introduces the harmonic analysis and geometric tools used to control linear dispersive PDE. These methods are then combined to study four model nonlinear dispersive equations. Through extensive exercises, diagrams, and informal discussion, the book gives a rigorous theoretical treatment of the material, the real-world intuition and heuristics that underlie the subject, as well as mentioning connections with other areas of PDE, harmonic analysis, and dynamical systems.".
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Author: Alain Connes,Institut Henri Poincaré,Institut des hautes études scientifiques (Paris, France),Institut de mathématiques de Jussieu

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821852035

Category: Mathematics

Page: 675

View: 3773

The work of Alain Connes has cut a wide swath across several areas of mathematics and physics. Reflecting its broad spectrum and profound impact on the contemporary mathematical landscape, this collection of articles covers a wealth of topics at the forefront of research in operator algebras, analysis, noncommutative geometry, topology, number theory and physics. Specific themes covered by the articles are as follows: entropy in operator algebras, regular $C^*$-algebras of integral domains, properly infinite $C^*$-algebras, representations of free groups and 1-cohomology, Leibniz seminorms and quantum metric spaces; von Neumann algebras, fundamental Group of $\mathrm{II}_1$ factors, subfactors and planar algebras; Baum-Connes conjecture and property T, equivariant K-homology, Hermitian K-theory; cyclic cohomology, local index formula and twisted spectral triples, tangent groupoid and the index theorem; noncommutative geometry and space-time, spectral action principle, quantum gravity, noncommutative ADHM and instantons, non-compact spectral triples of finite volume, noncommutative coordinate algebras; Hopf algebras, Vinberg algebras, renormalization and combinatorics, motivic renormalization and singularities; cyclotomy and analytic geometry over $F_1$, quantum modular forms; differential K-theory, cyclic theory and S-cohomology.
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Author: Donald Yau

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814417858

Category: Mathematics

Page: 195

View: 5080

This book is an introductory text on real analysis for undergraduate students. The prerequisite for this book is a solid background in freshman calculus in one variable. The intended audience of this book includes undergraduate mathematics majors and students from other disciplines who use real analysis. Since this book is aimed at students who do not have much prior experience with proofs, the pace is slower in earlier chapters than in later chapters. There are hundreds of exercises, and hints for some of them are included.
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Author: Ralph L. Cohen,Kathryn Hess,Alexander A. Voronov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783764373887

Category: Mathematics

Page: 163

View: 9645

This book explores string topology, Hochschild and cyclic homology, assembling material from a wide scattering of scholarly sources in a single practical volume. The first part offers a thorough and elegant exposition of various approaches to string topology and the Chas-Sullivan loop product. The second gives a complete and clear construction of an algebraic model for computing topological cyclic homology.
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Author: Kevin Costello,Owen Gwilliam

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107163102

Category: Mathematics

Page: 398

View: 8186

This first volume develops factorization algebras with a focus upon examples exhibiting their use in field theory, which will be useful for researchers and graduates.
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Author: Ralph M. Kaufmann,Benjamin C. Ward

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9782856298527

Category: Categories (Mathematics)

Page: 161

View: 6947

In this book, the authors give a new foundational, categorical formulation for operations and relations and objects parameterizing them. This generalizes and unifies the theory of operads and all their cousins including but not limited to PROPs, modular operads, twisted (modular) operads, properads, hyperoperads, their colored versions, as well as algebras over operads and an abundance of other related structures, such as crossed simplicial groups, the augmented simplicial category or FI-modules.
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Conference and Workshop in Honor of Ross Street's 60th Birthday, July 11-16/July 18-21, 2005, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia

Author: Alexei Davydov

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821839705

Category: Mathematics

Page: 467

View: 1762

Category theory has become the universal language of modern mathematics. This book is a collection of articles applying methods of category theory to the areas of algebra, geometry, and mathematical physics. Among others, this book contains articles on higher categories and their applications and on homotopy theoretic methods. The reader can learn about the exciting new interactions of category theory with very traditional mathematical disciplines.
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Author: Philip Hackney,Marcy Robertson,Donald Yau

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319205471

Category: Mathematics

Page: 358

View: 3925

The topic of this book sits at the interface of the theory of higher categories (in the guise of (∞,1)-categories) and the theory of properads. Properads are devices more general than operads and enable one to encode bialgebraic, rather than just (co)algebraic, structures. The text extends both the Joyal-Lurie approach to higher categories and the Cisinski-Moerdijk-Weiss approach to higher operads, and provides a foundation for a broad study of the homotopy theory of properads. This work also serves as a complete guide to the generalised graphs which are pervasive in the study of operads and properads. A preliminary list of potential applications and extensions comprises the final chapter. Infinity Properads and Infinity Wheeled Properads is written for mathematicians in the fields of topology, algebra, category theory, and related areas. It is written roughly at the second year graduate level, and assumes a basic knowledge of category theory.
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Author: Igor Kriz,Ales Pultr

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3034806361

Category: Mathematics

Page: 510

View: 3394

The book begins at the level of an undergraduate student assuming only basic knowledge of calculus in one variable. It rigorously treats topics such as multivariable differential calculus, Lebesgue integral, vector calculus and differential equations. After having built on a solid foundation of topology and linear algebra, the text later expands into more advanced topics such as complex analysis, differential forms, calculus of variations, differential geometry and even functional analysis. Overall, this text provides a unique and well-rounded introduction to the highly developed and multi-faceted subject of mathematical analysis, as understood by a mathematician today.​
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Author: Robert H. Dijkgraaf,Carel Faber,Gerard B.M. van der Geer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461242649

Category: Mathematics

Page: 563

View: 5259

The moduli space Mg of curves of fixed genus g – that is, the algebraic variety that parametrizes all curves of genus g – is one of the most intriguing objects of study in algebraic geometry these days. Its appeal results not only from its beautiful mathematical structure but also from recent developments in theoretical physics, in particular in conformal field theory.
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