Methods and Applications

Author: Henry M. Levin,Patrick J. McEwan

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761919346

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 308

View: 5269

This Second Edition of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis continues to provide the most current, step-by-step guide to planning and implementing a cost analysis study. Henry M. Levin and Patrick J. McEwan use detailed and varied examples from studies and articles, ranging from education to public health, to introduce the principles and practice of cost-effectiveness analysis. The authors take account of both the costs and the effects of selecting alternatives, and suggest methods of minimizing the costs of research. New to this edition: expanded coverage of cost effectiveness from types of technique to use, to how to interpret the data; the latest information on cost benefits analysis and how to relate it to outcome measures; in-depth chapter-end exercises to enable readers to sharpen their ability to evaluate policy options and program effectiveness; feedback appendix for readers to evaluate their responses to exercises; comprehensive bibliography of methodological sources on cost analysis and educational settings grouped by category. This thorough volume primes the reader to deal with any evaluation situation by studying cost-effective analysis in relation to cost-benefit analysis, cost-utility analysis, and cost-feasibility analysis.
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Author: Roger Hussey,Audra Ong

Publisher: Business Expert Press

ISBN: 1947098969

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 188

View: 6230

Increasing business competition is compelling managers not only to develop realistic and achievable strategies but also to analyze goals in financial terms and to evaluate performance. But where do you, as a manager, learn about the key methods and techniques of strategic cost analysis? This text explains in simple language the methods and techniques of cost analysis that can be applied strategically at any level in an organization—be it manufacturing, service, or the nonprofit sector. Since the interaction of the organization’s activities, the influences of the external world, and your responsibilities as a manager need to be captured in financial terms to help plan, control, and make decisions, this book is what you’ll require in today’s world.
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Cost-Effectiveness and Benefit-Cost Analysis

Author: Henry M. Levin,Patrick J. McEwan,Clive Belfield,A. Brooks Bowden,Robert Shand

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 148338179X

Category: Education

Page: 376

View: 4163

The past decade has seen increased attention to cost-effectiveness and benefit-cost analysis in education as administrators are being asked to accomplish more with the same or even fewer resources, philanthropists are keen to calculate their “return on investment” in social programs, and the general public is increasingly scrutinizing how resources are allocated to schools and colleges. Economic Evaluation in Education: Cost-Effectiveness and Benefit-Cost Analysis (titled Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: Methods and Applications in its previous editions) is the only full-length book to provide readers with the step-by-step methods they need to plan and implement a benefit-cost analysis in education. Authors Henry M. Levin, Patrick J. McEwan, Clive Belfield, Alyshia Brooks Bowden, and Robert Shand examine a range of issues, including how to identify, measure, and distribute costs; how to measure effectiveness, utility, and benefits; and how to incorporate cost evaluations into the decision-making process. The updates to the Third Edition reflect the considerable methodological development in the evaluation literature, and the greater empiricism practiced by education researchers, to help readers learn to apply more advanced methods to their own analyses.
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WHO Guide to Cost-effectiveness Analysis

Author: Tessa Tan-Torres Edejer,World Health Organization

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9789241546010

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 318

View: 1483

This guide provides information on the concepts involved in using cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to evaluate the costs and health effects of specific health policy interventions, taking into account the efficiency of current and proposed interventions and seeking to maximise the transferability of cost estimates across settings. Issues discussed include: a brief description of this 'generalized CEA' approach and its methodological differences to more traditional methods, study design, cost estimation, discounting, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, and results reporting. The second part of the publication contains a series of papers on selected technical issues and applications, originally published in journals.
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Author: Andrew Briggs,Mark Sculpher,Karl Claxton

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191004952

Category: Medical

Page: 256

View: 9796

In financially constrained health systems across the world, increasing emphasis is being placed on the ability to demonstrate that health care interventions are not only effective, but also cost-effective. This book deals with decision modelling techniques that can be used to estimate the value for money of various interventions including medical devices, surgical procedures, diagnostic technologies, and pharmaceuticals. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of the appropriate representation of uncertainty in the evaluative process and the implication this uncertainty has for decision making and the need for future research. This highly practical guide takes the reader through the key principles and approaches of modelling techniques. It begins with the basics of constructing different forms of the model, the population of the model with input parameter estimates, analysis of the results, and progression to the holistic view of models as a valuable tool for informing future research exercises. Case studies and exercises are supported with online templates and solutions. This book will help analysts understand the contribution of decision-analytic modelling to the evaluation of health care programmes. ABOUT THE SERIES: Economic evaluation of health interventions is a growing specialist field, and this series of practical handbooks will tackle, in-depth, topics superficially addressed in more general health economics books. Each volume will include illustrative material, case histories and worked examples to encourage the reader to apply the methods discussed, with supporting material provided online. This series is aimed at health economists in academia, the pharmaceutical industry and the health sector, those on advanced health economics courses, and health researchers in associated fields.
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Mental, Neurological, and Substance Use Disorders

Author: Vikram Patel,Dan Chisholm,Tarun Dua,Ramanan Laxminarayan,Mari'a Lena Medina-Mora,Theo Vos

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464804281

Category: Medical

Page: 304

View: 582

Mental, neurological, and substance use disorders are common, highly disabling, and associated with significant premature mortality. The impact of these disorders on the social and economic well-being of individuals, families, and societies is large, growing, and underestimated. Despite this burden, these disorders have been systematically neglected, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, with pitifully small contributions to scaling up cost-effective prevention and treatment strategies. Systematically compiling the substantial existing knowledge to address this inequity is the central goal of this volume. This evidence-base can help policy makers in resource-constrained settings as they prioritize programs and interventions to address these disorders.
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Materials, Technologies, Optimization and Case Studies

Author: Fernando Pacheco-Torgal,Claes Goeran Granqvist,Bjørn Peter Jelle,Giuseppe Peter Vanoli,Nicola Bianco,Jarek Kurnitski

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 0081012276

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 632

View: 5947

Cost-Effective Energy Efficient Building Retrofitting:Materials, Technologies, Optimization and Case Studies provides essential knowledge for civil engineers, architects, and other professionals working in the field of cost-effective energy efficient building retrofitting. The building sector is responsible for high energy consumption and its global demand is expected to grow as each day there are approximately 200,000 new inhabitants on planet Earth. The majority of electric energy will continue to be generated from the combustion of fossil fuels releasing not only carbon dioxide, but also methane and nitrous oxide. Energy efficiency measures are therefore crucial to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of the building sector. Energy efficient building retrofitting needs to not only be technically feasible, but also economically viable. New building materials and advanced technologies already exist, but the knowledge to integrate all active components is still scarce and far from being widespread among building industry stakeholders. Emphasizes cost-effective methods for the refurbishment of existing buildings, presenting state-of-the-art technologies Includes detailed case studies that explain various methods and Net Zero Energy Explains optimal analysis and prioritization of cost effective strategies
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Author: Gianluca Baio,Andrea Berardi,Anna Heath

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319557181

Category: Medical

Page: 168

View: 8357

The book provides a description of the process of health economic evaluation and modelling for cost-effectiveness analysis, particularly from the perspective of a Bayesian statistical approach. Some relevant theory and introductory concepts are presented using practical examples and two running case studies. The book also describes in detail how to perform health economic evaluations using the R package BCEA (Bayesian Cost-Effectiveness Analysis). BCEA can be used to post-process the results of a Bayesian cost-effectiveness model and perform advanced analyses producing standardised and highly customisable outputs. It presents all the features of the package, including its many functions and their practical application, as well as its user-friendly web interface. The book is a valuable resource for statisticians and practitioners working in the field of health economics wanting to simplify and standardise their workflow, for example in the preparation of dossiers in support of marketing authorisation, or academic and scientific publications.
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A Primer

Author: Henry M. Levin

Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated

ISBN: 9780803921535

Category: Social Science

Page: 162

View: 2953

In times of economic recession, cost-effectiveness and business evaluation assume a very important role in resource planning. Using the example of education, Levin introduces to administrators and evaluators alike the principles and practice of cost-effectiveness analysis -- to take account of both the costs and the effects of selecting alternatives, and suggests methods of minimizing the costs of research. Cost-effective analysis is studied in relation to cost-benefit analysis, cost-utility analysis, and cost-feasibility analysis, in the hope that the work might prime the reader to deal with any evaluation situation.
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Essential Surgery

Author: Haile T. Debas,Peter Donkor,Atul Gawande,Dean T. Jamison,Margaret E. Kruk,Charles N. Mock

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464803676

Category: Medical

Page: 442

View: 2017

Essential Surgery is part of a nine volume series for Disease Control Priorities which focuses on health interventions intended to reduce morbidity and mortality. The Essential Surgery volume focuses on four key aspects including global financial responsibility, emergency procedures, essential services organization and cost analysis.
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Theory and practice

Author: Francois Melese,Anke Richter,Binyam Solomon

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317531728

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 434

View: 9492

This is the first comprehensive book on Military Cost-Benefit Analysis and provides novel approaches to structuring cost-benefit and affordability analysis amidst an uncertain defense environment and cloudy fiscal prospects. Lifting the veil on military Cost-Benefit Analysis, this volume offers several new practical tools designed to guide defense investments (and divestments), combined with a selection of real-world applications. The widespread employment of Cost-Benefit Analysis offers a unique opportunity to transform legacy defense forces into efficient, effective, and accountable 21st century organizations. A synthesis of economics, statistics and decision theory, CBA is currently used in a wide range of defense applications in countries around the world: i) to shape national security strategy, ii) to set acquisition policy, and iii) to inform critical investments in people, equipment, infrastructure, services and supplies. As sovereign debt challenges squeeze national budgets, and emerging threats disrupt traditional notions of security, this volume offers valuable tools to navigate the political landscape, meet calls for fiscal accountability, and boost the effectiveness of defense investments to help guarantee future peace and stability. A valuable resource for scholars, practitioners, novices and experts, this book offers a comprehensive overview of Military Cost-Benefit Analysis and will appeal to anyone interested or involved in improving national security, and will also be of general interest to those responsible for major government programs, projects or policies.
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Author: Fernando Pacheco-Torgal,Robert Melchers,Nele de Belie,Xianming Shi,Kim Van Tittelboom,Andres Saez Perez

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 0081021828

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 632

View: 2599

Eco-efficient Repair and Rehabilitation of Concrete Infrastructures provides an updated state-of-the-art review on eco-efficient repair and rehabilitation of concrete infrastructure. The first section focuses on deterioration assessment methods, and includes chapters on stress wave assessment, ground-penetrating radar, monitoring of corrosion, SHM using acoustic emission and optical fiber sensors. Other sections discuss the development and application of several new innovative repair and rehabilitation materials, including geopolymer concrete, sulfoaluminate cement-based concrete, engineered cementitious composites (ECC) based concrete, bacteria-based concrete, concrete with encapsulated polyurethane, and concrete with super absorbent polymer (SAPs), amongst other topics. Final sections focus on crucial design aspects, such as quality control, including lifecycle and cost analysis with several related case studies on repair and rehabilitation. The book will be an essential reference resource for materials scientists, civil and structural engineers, architects, structural designers and contractors working in the construction industry. Delivers the latest research findings with contributions from leading international experts Provides fully updated information on the European standard on materials for concrete repair (EN 1504) Includes an entire sections on the state-of-the-art in NDT, innovative repair and rehabilitation materials, as well as LCC and LCA information
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Analytical Tools and Practical Applications

Author: Pedro Belli

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821348505

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 264

View: 901

This books presents general principles and methodologies of quantitative risk analysis; provides theory and practice of how to evaluate health, transport and education projects and describes how to assess the environmental impact of projects. It looks at how the tools of cost benefit analysis can be applied from the point of view of the private sector, public sector, bankers, and the country as a whole. It encourages analysts to answer a number of key questions that are likely to increase success rather than simply describing techniques. This book as aimed at all concerned with resource allocation and is presented in an accessible fashion. It is required reading at World bank Institute courses.
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Methods and Applications to Economic Policy, Public Health, and Education

Author: Jean-Michel Josselin,Benoît Le Maux

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319528270

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 531

View: 4478

This book provides a self-contained presentation of the statistical tools required for evaluating public programs, as advocated by many governments, the World Bank, the European Union, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. After introducing the methodological framework of program evaluation, the first chapters are devoted to the collection, elementary description and multivariate analysis of data as well as the estimation of welfare changes. The book then successively presents the tools of ex-ante methods (financial analysis, budget planning, cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and multi-criteria evaluation) and ex-post methods (benchmarking, experimental and quasi-experimental evaluation). The step-by-step approach and the systematic use of numerical illustrations equip readers to handle the statistics of program evaluation. It not only offers practitioners from public administrations, consultancy firms and nongovernmental organizations the basic tools and advanced techniques used in program assessment, it is also suitable for executive management training, upper undergraduate and graduate courses, as well as for self-study.
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Techniques and Strategies

Author: Frank J. Fabozzi,Sergio M. Focardi,Petter N. Kolm

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470617526

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 512

View: 5637

A comprehensive look at the tools and techniques used in quantitative equity management Some books attempt to extend portfolio theory, but the real issue today relates to the practical implementation of the theory introduced by Harry Markowitz and others who followed. The purpose of this book is to close the implementation gap by presenting state-of-the art quantitative techniques and strategies for managing equity portfolios. Throughout these pages, Frank Fabozzi, Sergio Focardi, and Petter Kolm address the essential elements of this discipline, including financial model building, financial engineering, static and dynamic factor models, asset allocation, portfolio models, transaction costs, trading strategies, and much more. They also provide ample illustrations and thorough discussions of implementation issues facing those in the investment management business and include the necessary background material in probability, statistics, and econometrics to make the book self-contained. Written by a solid author team who has extensive financial experience in this area Presents state-of-the art quantitative strategies for managing equity portfolios Focuses on the implementation of quantitative equity asset management Outlines effective analysis, optimization methods, and risk models In today's financial environment, you have to have the skills to analyze, optimize and manage the risk of your quantitative equity investments. This guide offers you the best information available to achieve this goal.
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Author: Erdener Kaynak,Belay Seyoum

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134730470

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 504

View: 938

Learn the ins and outs of the export-import business! Export-Import Theory, Practices, and Procedures is a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of international trade theories and techniques. International trade professionals, researchers, students, and members of chambers of commerce will benefit from concepts and theories that explain international trade operations and give clearly defined goals and procedures for your business. This excellent text offers chapter summaries, references, World Wide Web addresses, and features learning aids such as figures, tables, vignettes, and other illustrations to help you compete in the global marketplace and better educate students in the field. With this informative text, you will explore trade agreements such as the GATT/WTO, NAFTA, and the European Economic Community (EEC), and how they affect trade. For example, you will read about the investment and intellectual property policies, as well as rules on government procurements, safeguards, and services of NAFTA. Export-Import Theory, Practices, and Procedures examines export-import marketing and strategy concepts from setting up businesses to solving typical international logistics and transportation questions. Other areas you will examine include: documentation, risks, and different forms of insurance price setting in international trade export sales contracts documenting export-import trade the risks of foreign trade exchange rates and international trade methods of payment for exporting and importing goods the benefits and theories of countertrade the entry process for imports import relief to domestic industry Export-Import Theory, Practices, and Procedures covers everything you need to know to start and run an export-import business. With over 100 tables and figures and a plethora of Web sites and Internet addresses to visit, this excellent text assists you in understanding the theories, practices, and procedures of exporting and importing to help you make informed and profitable business decisions.
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Author: S. Suzanne Nielsen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319457764

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 649

View: 2640

This fifth edition provides information on techniques needed to analyze foods for chemical and physical properties. The book is ideal for undergraduate courses in food analysis and is also an invaluable reference to professionals in the food industry. General information chapters on regulations, labeling, sampling, and data handling provide background information for chapters on specific methods to determine chemical composition and characteristics, physical properties, and objectionable matter and constituents. Methods of analysis covered include information on the basic principles, advantages, limitations, and applications. Sections on spectroscopy and chromatography along with chapters on techniques such as immunoassays, thermal analysis, and microscopy from the perspective of their use in food analysis have been expanded. Instructors who adopt the textbook can contact the editor for access to a website with related teaching materials.
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Author: Constantine Gatsonis,Sally C. Morton

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466511974

Category: Mathematics

Page: 568

View: 1006

Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is the generation and synthesis of evidence that compares the benefits and harms of alternative methods to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor a clinical condition or to improve the delivery of care (IOM 2009). CER is conducted to develop evidence that will aid patients, clinicians, purchasers, and health policy makers in making informed decisions at both the individual and population levels. CER encompasses a very broad range of types of studies—experimental, observational, prospective, retrospective, and research synthesis. This volume covers the main areas of quantitative methodology for the design and analysis of CER studies. The volume has four major sections—causal inference; clinical trials; research synthesis; and specialized topics. The audience includes CER methodologists, quantitative-trained researchers interested in CER, and graduate students in statistics, epidemiology, and health services and outcomes research. The book assumes a masters-level course in regression analysis and familiarity with clinical research.
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With Applications to Linear Models, Logistic and Ordinal Regression, and Survival Analysis

Author: Frank Harrell

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319194259

Category: Mathematics

Page: 582

View: 7190

This highly anticipated second edition features new chapters and sections, 225 new references, and comprehensive R software. In keeping with the previous edition, this book is about the art and science of data analysis and predictive modeling, which entails choosing and using multiple tools. Instead of presenting isolated techniques, this text emphasizes problem solving strategies that address the many issues arising when developing multivariable models using real data and not standard textbook examples. It includes imputation methods for dealing with missing data effectively, methods for fitting nonlinear relationships and for making the estimation of transformations a formal part of the modeling process, methods for dealing with "too many variables to analyze and not enough observations," and powerful model validation techniques based on the bootstrap. The reader will gain a keen understanding of predictive accuracy and the harm of categorizing continuous predictors or outcomes. This text realistically deals with model uncertainty and its effects on inference, to achieve "safe data mining." It also presents many graphical methods for communicating complex regression models to non-statisticians. Regression Modeling Strategies presents full-scale case studies of non-trivial datasets instead of over-simplified illustrations of each method. These case studies use freely available R functions that make the multiple imputation, model building, validation and interpretation tasks described in the book relatively easy to do. Most of the methods in this text apply to all regression models, but special emphasis is given to multiple regression using generalized least squares for longitudinal data, the binary logistic model, models for ordinal responses, parametric survival regression models and the Cox semi parametric survival model. A new emphasis is given to the robust analysis of continuous dependent variables using ordinal regression. As in the first edition, this text is intended for Masters' or Ph.D. level graduate students who have had a general introductory probability and statistics course and who are well versed in ordinary multiple regression and intermediate algebra. The book will also serve as a reference for data analysts and statistical methodologists, as it contains an up-to-date survey and bibliography of modern statistical modeling techniques. Examples used in the text mostly come from biomedical research, but the methods are applicable anywhere predictive models ("analytics") are useful, including economics, epidemiology, sociology, psychology, engineering and marketing.
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Author: Roger L. Brauer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119219183

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 608

View: 653

Safety and Health for Engineers, 3rd Edition, addresses the fundamentals of safety, legal aspects, hazard recognition and control, and techniques for managing safety decisions, as well as: Completely revises and updates all 38 chapters in the book New edition adds more than 110 stories and cases from practice to illustrate various topics or issues New topics on adapting to new safety concerns that arise from technology innovations; convergence of safety, health and environmental departments in many organizations; the concept of prevention through design; and emphasis on safety management systems and risk management and analysis Includes learning exercises and computational examples based on real world situations along with in-depth references for each chapter Includes a detailed solutions manual for academic adopters Covers the primary topics included in certification exams for professional safety, such as CSP/ASP
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