A New Approach to Independence Friendly Logic

Author: Jouko Väänänen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139465155

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 384

Dependence is a common phenomenon, wherever one looks: ecological systems, astronomy, human history, stock markets - but what is the logic of dependence? This book is the first to carry out a systematic logical study of this important concept, giving on the way a precise mathematical treatment of Hintikka's independence friendly logic. Dependence logic adds the concept of dependence to first order logic. Here the syntax and semantics of dependence logic are studied, dependence logic is given an alternative game theoretic semantics, and results about its complexity are proven. This is a graduate textbook suitable for a special course in logic in mathematics, philosophy and computer science departments, and contains over 200 exercises, many of which have a full solution at the end of the book. It is also accessible to readers, with a basic knowledge of logic, interested in new phenomena in logic.
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Theory and Applications

Author: Samson Abramsky,Juha Kontinen,Jouko Väänänen,Heribert Vollmer

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3319318039

Category: Mathematics

Page: 276

View: 9626

In this volume, different aspects of logics for dependence and independence are discussed, including both the logical and computational aspects of dependence logic, and also applications in a number of areas, such as statistics, social choice theory, databases, and computer security. The contributing authors represent leading experts in this relatively new field, each of whom was invited to write a chapter based on talks given at seminars held at the Schloss Dagstuhl Leibniz Center for Informatics in Wadern, Germany (in February 2013 and June 2015) and an Academy Colloquium at the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (March 2014). Altogether, these chapters provide the most up-to-date look at this developing and highly interdisciplinary field and will be of interest to a broad group of logicians, mathematicians, statisticians, philosophers, and scientists. Topics covered include a comprehensive survey of many propositional, modal, and first-order variants of dependence logic; new results concerning expressive power of several variants of dependence logic with different sets of logical connectives and generalized dependence atoms; connections between inclusion logic and the least-fixed point logic; an overview of dependencies in databases by addressing the relationships between implication problems for fragments of statistical conditional independencies, embedded multivalued dependencies, and propositional logic; various Markovian models used to characterize dependencies and causality among variables in multivariate systems; applications of dependence logic in social choice theory; and an introduction to the theory of secret sharing, pointing out connections to dependence and independence logic.
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16th International Workshop, WoLLIC 2009, Tokyo, Japan, June 21-24, 2009, Proceedings

Author: Hiroakira Ono,Makoto Kanazawa,Ruy de Queiroz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 364202260X

Category: Computers

Page: 409

View: 5805

Edited in collaboration with FoLLI, the Association of Logic, Language and Information, this book constitutes the 4th volume of the FoLLI LNAI subline; containing the refereed proceedings of the 16h International Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Computation, WoLLIC 2009, held in Tokyo, Japan, in June 2009. The 25 revised full papers presented together with six tutorials and invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 57 submissions. The papers cover some of the most active areas of research on the frontiers between computation, logic, and linguistics, with particular interest in cross-disciplinary topics. Typical areas of interest are: foundations of computing and programming; novel computation models and paradigms; broad notions of proof and belief; formal methods in software and hardware development; logical approach to natural language and reasoning; logics of programs, actions and resources; foundational aspects of information organization, search, flow, sharing, and protection.
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Essays on Set Theory, Model Theory, Philosophical Logic and Philosophy of Mathematics

Author: Åsa Hirvonen,Juha Kontinen,Roman Kossak,Andrés Villaveces

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 1614519323

Category: Philosophy

Page: 438

View: 1301

In recent years, mathematical logic has developed in many directions, the initial unity of its subject matter giving way to a myriad of seemingly unrelated areas. The articles collected here, which range from historical scholarship to recent research in geometric model theory, squarely address this development. These articles also connect to the diverse work of Väänänen, whose ecumenical approach to logic reflects the unity of the discipline.
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Essays Dedicted to Samson Abramsky on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday

Author: Bob Coecke,Luke Ong,Prakash Panangaden

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642381642

Category: Computers

Page: 365

View: 8409

This Festschrift volume, published in honor of Samson Abramsky, contains contributions written by some of his colleagues, former students, and friends. In celebration of the 60th birthday of Samson Abramsky, a conference was held in Oxford, UK, during May 28-30, 2010. The papers in this volume represent his manifold contributions to semantics, logic, games, and quantum mechanics.
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23rd International Workshop, WoLLIC 2016, Puebla, Mexico, August 16-19th, 2016. Proceedings

Author: Jouko Väänänen,Åsa Hirvonen,Ruy de Queiroz

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662529211

Category: Mathematics

Page: 447

View: 6304

Edited in collaboration with FoLLI, the Association of Logic, Language and Information this book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 23rd Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Communication, WoLLIC 2016, held in Puebla, Mexico, in August 2016.The 23 contributed papers, presented together with 9 invited lectures and tutorials, were carefully reviewed and selected from 33 submissions. The focus of the workshop is to provide a forum on inter-disciplinary research involving formal logic, computing and programming theory, and natural language and reasoning.
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Author: Ben Lambert

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1526418266

Category: Social Science

Page: 520

View: 8373

Supported by a wealth of learning features, exercises, and visual elements as well as online video tutorials and interactive simulations, this book is the first student-focused introduction to Bayesian statistics. Without sacrificing technical integrity for the sake of simplicity, the author draws upon accessible, student-friendly language to provide approachable instruction perfectly aimed at statistics and Bayesian newcomers. Through a logical structure that introduces and builds upon key concepts in a gradual way and slowly acclimatizes students to using R and Stan software, the book covers: An introduction to probability and Bayesian inference Understanding Bayes' rule Nuts and bolts of Bayesian analytic methods Computational Bayes and real-world Bayesian analysis Regression analysis and hierarchical methods This unique guide will help students develop the statistical confidence and skills to put the Bayesian formula into practice, from the basic concepts of statistical inference to complex applications of analyses.
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An Introduction to Analysis on Manifolds

Author: Steven Rosenberg

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521468312

Category: Mathematics

Page: 172

View: 4484

This text on analysis of Riemannian manifolds is aimed at students who have had a first course in differentiable manifolds.
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The Growth of Scientific Knowledge

Author: Karl Popper

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135971374

Category: Philosophy

Page: 608

View: 8090

Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.
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Author: Frances Clare Kirwan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521423533

Category: Mathematics

Page: 264

View: 6324

This development of the theory of complex algebraic curves was one of the peaks of nineteenth century mathematics. They have many fascinating properties and arise in various areas of mathematics, from number theory to theoretical physics, and are the subject of much research. By using only the basic techniques acquired in most undergraduate courses in mathematics, Dr. Kirwan introduces the theory, observes the algebraic and topological properties of complex algebraic curves, and shows how they are related to complex analysis.
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Author: Arnaud Beauville

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521498425

Category: Mathematics

Page: 132

View: 2312

The classification of algebraic surfaces is an intricate and fascinating branch of mathematics, developed over more than a century and still an active area of research today. In this book, Professor Beauville gives a lucid and concise account of the subject, expressed simply in the language of modern topology and sheaf theory, and accessible to any budding geometer. A chapter on preliminary material ensures that this volume is self-contained while the exercises succeed both in giving the flavor of the classical subject, and in equipping the reader with the techniques needed for research. The book is aimed at graduate students in geometry and topology.
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A Game-Theoretic Approach

Author: Allen L. Mann,Gabriel Sandu,Merlijn Sevenster

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139495917

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 4376

Bringing together over twenty years of research, this book gives a complete overview of independence-friendly logic. It emphasizes the game-theoretical approach to logic, according to which logical concepts such as truth and falsity are best understood via the notion of semantic games. The book pushes the paradigm of game-theoretical semantics further than the current literature by showing how mixed strategies and equilibria can be used to analyze independence-friendly formulas on finite models. The book is suitable for graduate students and advanced undergraduates who have taken a course on first-order logic. It contains a primer of the necessary background in game theory, numerous examples and full proofs.
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A God-Centered Approach to the Foundation of Western Thought

Author: Vern S. Poythress

Publisher: Crossway

ISBN: 1433532328

Category: Religion

Page: 736

View: 4379

For the well-rounded Christian looking to improve their critical thinking skills, here is an accessible introduction to the study of logic (parts 1 & 2) as well as an in-depth treatment of the discipline (parts 3 & 4) from a professor with 6 academic degrees and over 30 years experience teaching. Questions for further reflection are included at the end of each chapter as well as helpful diagrams and charts that are appropriate for use in high school, home school, college, and graduate-level classrooms. Overall, Vern Poythress has undertaken a radical recasting of the study of logic in this revolutionary work from a Christian worldview.
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Author: Charles Miller Grinstead,James Laurie Snell

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821894145

Category: Probabilities

Page: 510

View: 5163

This text is designed for an introductory probability course at the university level for sophomores, juniors, and seniors in mathematics, physical and social sciences, engineering, and computer science. It presents a thorough treatment of ideas and techniques necessary for a firm understanding of the subject. The text is also recommended for use in discrete probability courses. The material is organized so that the discrete and continuous probability discussions are presented in a separate, but parallel, manner. This organization does not emphasize an overly rigorous or formal view of probability and therefore offers some strong pedagogical value. Hence, the discrete discussions can sometimes serve to motivate the more abstract continuous probability discussions. Features: Key ideas are developed in a somewhat leisurely style, providing a variety of interesting applications to probability and showing some nonintuitive ideas. Over 600 exercises provide the opportunity for practicing skills and developing a sound understanding of ideas. Numerous historical comments deal with the development of discrete probability. The text includes many computer programs that illustrate the algorithms or the methods of computation for important problems. The book is a beautiful introduction to probability theory at the beginning level. The book contains a lot of examples and an easy development of theory without any sacrifice of rigor, keeping the abstraction to a minimal level. It is indeed a valuable addition to the study of probability theory. --Zentralblatt MATH
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From Tenure-track to Emeritus

Author: Steven George Krantz

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821846299

Category: Mathematics

Page: 310

View: 6966

"One of the themes of the book is how to have a fulfilling professional life. In order to achieve this goal, Krantz discusses keeping a vigorous scholarly program going and finding new challenges, as well as dealing with the everyday tasks of research, teaching, and administration." "In short, this is a survival manual for the professional mathematician - both in academics and in industry and government agencies. It is a sequel to the author's A Mathematician's Survival Guide."--BOOK JACKET.
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Author: Mark Haddon

Publisher: Anchor Canada

ISBN: 0307371565

Category: Fiction

Page: 240

View: 3549

Narrated by a fifteen-year-old autistic savant obsessed with Sherlock Holmes, this dazzling novel weaves together an old-fashioned mystery, a contemporary coming-of-age story, and a fascinating excursion into a mind incapable of processing emotions. Christopher John Francis Boone knows all the countries of the world and their capitals and every prime number up to 7,057. Although gifted with a superbly logical brain, Christopher is autistic. Everyday interactions and admonishments have little meaning for him. At fifteen, Christopher’s carefully constructed world falls apart when he finds his neighbour’s dog Wellington impaled on a garden fork, and he is initially blamed for the killing. Christopher decides that he will track down the real killer, and turns to his favourite fictional character, the impeccably logical Sherlock Holmes, for inspiration. But the investigation leads him down some unexpected paths and ultimately brings him face to face with the dissolution of his parents’ marriage. As Christopher tries to deal with the crisis within his own family, the narrative draws readers into the workings of Christopher’s mind. And herein lies the key to the brilliance of Mark Haddon’s choice of narrator: The most wrenching of emotional moments are chronicled by a boy who cannot fathom emotions. The effect is dazzling, making for one of the freshest debut in years: a comedy, a tearjerker, a mystery story, a novel of exceptional literary merit that is great fun to read.
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Author: Peter J. Cameron

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521653787

Category: Mathematics

Page: 220

View: 2662

This book summarizes recent developments in the study of permutation groups for beginning graduate students.
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Author: Karl Popper

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134470029

Category: Philosophy

Page: 480

View: 6661

Described by the philosopher A.J. Ayer as a work of 'great originality and power', this book revolutionized contemporary thinking on science and knowledge. Ideas such as the now legendary doctrine of 'falsificationism' electrified the scientific community, influencing even working scientists, as well as post-war philosophy. This astonishing work ranks alongside The Open Society and Its Enemies as one of Popper's most enduring books and contains insights and arguments that demand to be read to this day.
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Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist

Author: Kate Raworth

Publisher: Chelsea Green Publishing

ISBN: 160358675X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 5396

A Financial Times "Best Book of 2017: Economics” 800-CEO-Read “Best Business Book of 2017: Current Events & Public Affairs” Economics is the mother tongue of public policy. It dominates our decision-making for the future, guides multi-billion-dollar investments, and shapes our responses to climate change, inequality, and other environmental and social challenges that define our times. Pity then, or more like disaster, that its fundamental ideas are centuries out of date yet are still taught in college courses worldwide and still used to address critical issues in government and business alike. That’s why it is time, says renegade economist Kate Raworth, to revise our economic thinking for the 21st century. In Doughnut Economics, she sets out seven key ways to fundamentally reframe our understanding of what economics is and does. Along the way, she points out how we can break our addiction to growth; redesign money, finance, and business to be in service to people; and create economies that are regenerative and distributive by design. Named after the now-iconic “doughnut” image that Raworth first drew to depict a sweet spot of human prosperity (an image that appealed to the Occupy Movement, the United Nations, eco-activists, and business leaders alike), Doughnut Economics offers a radically new compass for guiding global development, government policy, and corporate strategy, and sets new standards for what economic success looks like. Raworth handpicks the best emergent ideas—from ecological, behavioral, feminist, and institutional economics to complexity thinking and Earth-systems science—to address this question: How can we turn economies that need to grow, whether or not they make us thrive, into economies that make us thrive, whether or not they grow? Simple, playful, and eloquent, Doughnut Economics offers game-changing analysis and inspiration for a new generation of economic thinkers.
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Author: Jaakko Hintikka

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521624985

Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

View: 5302

This book, written by one of philosophy's pre-eminent logicians, argues that many of the basic assumptions common to logic, philosophy of mathematics and metaphysics are in need of change. It is therefore a book of critical importance to logical theory. Jaakko Hintikka proposes a new basic first-order logic and uses it to explore the foundations of mathematics. This new logic enables logicians to express on the first-order level such concepts as equicardinality, infinity, and truth in the same language. The famous impossibility results by Gödel and Tarski that have dominated the field for the last sixty years turn out to be much less significant than has been thought. All of ordinary mathematics can in principle be done on this first-order level, thus dispensing with the existence of sets and other higher-order entities.
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