Symbols, Space, and Society
Author: Elizabeth Guffey
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Designing Disability traces the emergence of an idea and an ideal – physical access for the disabled – through the evolution of the iconic International Symbol of Access (ISA). The book draws on design history, material culture and recent critical disability studies to examine not only the development of a design icon, but also the cultural history surrounding it. Infirmity and illness may be seen as part of human experience, but 'disability' is a social construct, a way of thinking about and responding to a natural human condition. Elizabeth Guffey's highly original and wide-ranging study considers the period both before and after the introduction of the ISA, tracing the design history of the wheelchair, a product which revolutionised the mobility needs of many disabled people from the 1930s onwards. She also examines the rise of 'barrier-free architecture' in the reception of the ISA, and explores how the symbol became widely adopted and even a mark of identity for some, especially within the Disability Rights Movement. Yet despite the social progress which is inextricably linked to the ISA, a growing debate has unfurled around the symbol and its meanings. The most vigorous critiques today have involved guerrilla art, graffiti and studio practice, reflecting new challenges to the relationship between design and disability in the twenty-first century.
Author: Graham Pullin
Publisher: MIT Press
How design for disabled people and mainstream design could inspire, provoke, and radically change each other.
Universal Design and the Politics of Disability
Author: Aimi Hamraie
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
“All too often,” wrote disabled architect Ronald Mace, “designers don’t take the needs of disabled and elderly people into account.” Building Access investigates twentieth-century strategies for designing the world with disability in mind. Commonly understood in terms of curb cuts, automatic doors, Braille signs, and flexible kitchens, Universal Design purported to create a built environment for everyone, not only the average citizen. But who counts as “everyone,” Aimi Hamraie asks, and how can designers know? Blending technoscience studies and design history with critical disability, race, and feminist theories, Building Access interrogates the historical, cultural, and theoretical contexts for these questions, offering a groundbreaking critical history of Universal Design. Hamraie reveals that the twentieth-century shift from “design for the average” to “design for all” took place through liberal political, economic, and scientific structures concerned with defining the disabled user and designing in its name. Tracing the co-evolution of accessible design for disabled veterans, a radical disability maker movement, disability rights law, and strategies for diversifying the architecture profession, Hamraie shows that Universal Design was not just an approach to creating new products or spaces, but also a sustained, understated activist movement challenging dominant understandings of disability in architecture, medicine, and society. Illustrated with a wealth of rare archival materials, Building Access brings together scientific, social, and political histories in what is not only the pioneering critical account of Universal Design but also a deep engagement with the politics of knowing, making, and belonging in twentieth-century United States.
Reconceptualising Disability Studies
Author: Elizabeth DePoy,Stephen Gilson
Category: Social Science
Over the past fifty years, design and branding have become omnipotent in the market and have made their way to other domains as well. Given their potential to divide humans into categories and label their worth and value, design and branding can wield immense but currently unharnessed powers of social change. Groups designed as devalued can be undesigned, redesigned and rebranded to seamlessly and equivalently participate in community, work and civic life. This innovative book argues that disability as a concept and category is created, reified, and segregated through current design and branding that begs for creative change. Transcending models of disability that locate it either as an embodied medical condition or as a socially constructed entity, this book challenges the very existence and usefulness of the category itself. Proposing and illustrating creative and responsible design, DePoy and Gilson include thinking and action strategies that are useful and potent for "undesigning", redesigning, and rebranding to meet the full range of human needs and to enhance full participation in local through global communities. Divided into two parts, the first section presents a critical examination of disability as a designed and branded phenomenon, exploring what exactly is being designed and branded and how. The second part investigates the redesign of disability and provides principles for redesign and rebranding illustrated with examples from high-tech to place-based sustainable strategies. The book provides a unique and contemporary framework for thinking about disability as well as providing relevant design and branding guidance to designers and engineers interested in embodiment issues.
Author: Selwyn Goldsmith
Selwyn Goldsmith's Designing for the Disabled has, since it was first published in 1963, been a bible for practising architects around the world. Now, as a new book with a radical new vision, comes his Designing for the Disabled: The New Paradigm. Goldsmith's new paradigm is based on the concept of architectural disability. As a version of the social model of disability, it is not exclusively the property of physically disabled people. Others who are afflicted by it include women, since men customarily get proportionately four times as many amenities in public toilets as women - and women have to queue where men do not - and those with infants in pushchairs, because normal WC facilities are invariably too small to get a pushchair and infant into. To counter architectural disability, Goldsmith's line is that the axiom for legislation action has to be 'access for everyone' - it should not just be 'access for the disabled', as it presently is with the Part M building regulation and relevant provisions of the 1995 Disability Discrimination Act. In a 40-page annex to his book he sets out the terms that a new-style Part M regulation and its Approved Document might take, one that would cover alterations to existing buildings as well as new buildings. But architects and building control officers need not, he says, wait for new a legislation to apply new practical procedures to meet the requirements of the current Part M regulation; they can, as he advises, act positively now. This is a book which will oblige architects to rethink the methodology of designing for the disabled. It is a book that no practising architect, building control officer, local planning officer or access officer can afford to be without.
An alternative handbook on architecture, dis/ability and designing for everyday life
Author: Jos Boys
This ground-breaking book aims to take a new and innovative view on how disability and architecture might be connected. Rather than putting disability at the end of the design process, centred mainly on compliance, it sees disability – and ability – as creative starting points for the whole design process. It asks the intriguing question: can working from dis/ability actually generate an alternative kind of architectural avant-garde? To do this, Doing Disability Differently: explores how thinking about dis/ability opens up to critical and creative investigation our everyday social attitudes and practices about people, objects and space argues that design can help resist and transform underlying and unnoticed inequalities introduces architects to the emerging and important field of disability studies and considers what different kinds of design thinking and doing this can enable asks how designing for everyday life – in all its diversity – can be better embedded within contemporary architecture as a discipline offers examples of what doing disability differently can mean for architectural theory, education and professional practice aims to embed into architectural practice, attitudes and approaches that creatively and constructively refuse to perpetuate body 'norms' or the resulting inequalities in access to, and support from, built space. Ultimately, this book suggests that re-addressing architecture and disability involves nothing less than re-thinking how to design for the everyday occupation of space more generally.
Achieving Business Success Through Disability
Author: Rich Donovan
Publisher: ECW Press
Category: Business & Economics
If you discovered a new market comprising 53% of the world’s population, would you act to invest in it? There are 1.3 billion people around the world who identify as having a disability. When you include friends and family, the disability market touches 53% of all consumers. It is the world’s largest emerging market. Unleash Different illustrates how companies like Google, PepsiCo, and Nordstrom are attracting people with disabilities as customers and as employees. Replacing “nice to do” with “return on investment” allows market forces to take over and the world’s leading brands to do what they do best: serve a market segment — in this case, the disability market. Business managers will come to understand how taking a charity-oriented approach to people with disabilities has failed, what action is required to capitalize on the world’s biggest emerging market, and how their organizations can grow revenue and cut costs by attracting people with disabilities as customers and talent. Rich gives the reader a peek into how he rose from a Canadian school for “crippled children” to manage $6 billion for one of Wall Street’s leading firms. He makes it easy to relate to the business goal of serving disability — because he has actually done it.
Designing for The 2010 Americans with Disabilities Act Standards for Accessible Design in Multiple Building Types
Author: Marcela A. Rhoads
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
A guide to real-world applications of The 2010 Americans with Disabilities Act Standards for Accessible Design Applying the ADA helps architects and developers understand better how the rules for eliminating barriers in the built environment apply to everyday life and how to best implement them in the design and construction of a broad variety of buildings and facilities. By showing how The 2010 Americans with Disabilities Act Standards for Accessible Design have been applied in various contexts and building types, this extensively illustrated guide helps readers quickly understand the requirements of the standards and how to apply them to both new construction and renovation. Written by an architect who consults regularly on accessibility issues for design professionals, building owners, and facility managers, this user-friendly guide features 100 photos and 150 drawings that take the guesswork out of applying the standards to real-world projects. Building types covered include: Healthcare and senior living facilities and hospitals College and university facilities Elementary and high schools Hotels and other transient lodging facilities Amusement parks and play areas Historic preservation and remodels Retail and office spaces Applying the ADA is an indispensable resource for architects, interior designers, owners, developers, and facility managers. It is also important reading for students of architecture and interior design.
Author: Michael Rembis,Catherine J. Kudlick,Kim Nielsen
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Disability history exists outside of the institutions, healers, and treatments it often brings to mind. It is a history where disabled people live not just as patients or cure-seekers, but rather as people living differently in the world--and it is also a history that helps define the fundamental concepts of identity, community, citizenship, and normality. The Oxford Handbook of Disability History is the first volume of its kind to represent this history and its global scale, from ancient Greece to British West Africa. The twenty-seven articles, written by thirty experts from across the field, capture the diversity and liveliness of this emerging scholarship. Whether discussing disability in modern Chinese cinema or on the American antebellum stage, this collection provides new and valuable insights into the rich and varied lives of disabled people across time and place.
Creating Inclusive Environments
Author: Edward Steinfeld,Jordana Maisel
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
A much-needed reference to the latest thinking in universal design Universal Design: Creating Inclusive Environments offers a comprehensive survey of best practices and innovative solutions in universal design. Written by top thinkers at the Center for Inclusive Design and Environmental Access (IDeA), it demonstrates the difference between universal design and accessibility and identifies its relationship to sustainable design and active living. Hundreds of examples from all areas of design illustrate the practical application of this growing field. Complete, in-depth coverage includes: • The evolution of universal design, from its roots in the disability rights movement to present-day trends • How universal design can address the needs of an aging population without specialization or adaptation to reduce the need for expensive and hard-to-find specialized products and services • Design practices for human performance, health and wellness, and social participation • Strategies for urban and landscape design, housing, interior design, product design, and transportation Destined to become the standard professional reference on the subject, Universal Design: Creating Inclusive Environments is an invaluable resource for architects, interior designers, urban planners, landscape architects, product designers, and anyone with an interest in how we access, use, and enjoy the environment.
Designing Service for Riders with Disabilities
Author: Aaron Steinfeld,Jordana L. Maisel,Edward Steinfeld
Category: Political Science
The United States is home to more than 54 million people with disabilities. This book looks at public transit and transportation systems with a focus on new and emerging needs for individuals with disabilities, including the elderly. The book covers the various technologies, policies, and programs that researchers and transportation stakeholders are exploring or putting into place. Examples of innovations are provided, with close attention to inclusive solutions that serve the needs of all transportation users.
Inclusive Course Design for Students with Disabilities
Author: Norman Coombs
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Making Online Teaching Accessible offers online teachers, instructional designers, and content developers a comprehensive resource for designing online courses and delivering course content that is accessible for all students including those with visual and audio disabilities. Grounded in the theories of learner-centered teaching and successful course design, Making Online Teaching Accessible outlines the key legislation, decisions, and guidelines that govern online learning. The book also demystifies assistive technologies and includes step-by-step guidance for creating accessible online content using popular programs like Microsoft Office and Adobe Acrobat, as well as multimedia tools. Including a wealth of helpful tips and suggestions for effectively communicating with disabled students, the book contains practical advice on purchasing accessible course management systems, developing solutions for inaccessibility issues, and creating training materials for faculty and staff to make online learning truly accessible. "This valuable how-to book is a critical tool for all instructional designers and faculty who teach online. Coombs' many years as a pioneer of online teaching show in his deep knowledge of the principles that can allow the reader to apply these lessons to any learning management system (LMS)." —Sally M. Johnstone, provost and vice president academic affairs, Winona State University, Minnesota; former executive director of WCET at WICHE "As more and more of our social and professional lives come to be mediated by technology, online accessibility is a fundamental right, not a luxury. This book is a must-read for anyone concerned with maximizing access to learning." —Richard N. Katz, former vice president and founding director, EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research "This valuable book reflects Coombs' unique experience and commitment to the best teaching, learning, and accessibility options for all kinds of students and teachers." —Steven W. Gilbert, founder and president, The TLT Group-Teaching, Learning, and Technology Group
A History of Disability and Design
Author: Bess Williamson
Publisher: NYU Press
A history of design that is often overlooked—until we need it Have you ever hit the big blue button to activate automatic doors? Have you ever used an ergonomic kitchen tool? Have you ever used curb cuts to roll a stroller across an intersection? If you have, then you’ve benefited from accessible design—design for people with physical, sensory, and cognitive disabilities. These ubiquitous touchstones of modern life were once anything but. Disability advocates fought tirelessly to ensure that the needs of people with disabilities became a standard part of public design thinking. That fight took many forms worldwide, but in the United States it became a civil rights issue; activists used design to make an argument about the place of disabled people in public life. In the aftermath of World War II, with injured veterans returning home and the polio epidemic reaching the Oval Office, the needs of people with disabilities came forcibly into the public eye as they never had before. The U.S. became the first country to enact federal accessibility laws, beginning with the Architectural Barriers Act in 1968 and continuing through the landmark Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990, bringing about a wholesale rethinking of our built environment. This progression wasn’t straightforward or easy. Early legislation and design efforts were often haphazard or poorly implemented, with decidedly mixed results. Political resistance to accommodating the needs of people with disabilities was strong; so, too, was resistance among architectural and industrial designers, for whom accessible design wasn’t “real” design. Williamson provides an extraordinary look at everyday design, marrying accessibility with aesthetic, to provide an insight into a world in which we are all active participants, but often passive onlookers. Richly detailed, with stories of politics and innovation, Bess Williamson’s Accessible America takes us through this important history, showing how American ideas of individualism and rights came to shape the material world, often with unexpected consequences.
Author: Jos Boys
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Disability, Space, Architecture: A Reader takes a groundbreaking approach to exploring the interconnections between disability, architecture and cities. The contributions come from architecture, geography, anthropology, health studies, English language and literature, rhetoric and composition, art history, disability studies and disability arts and cover personal, theoretical and innovative ideas and work. Richer approaches to disability – beyond regulation and design guidance – remain fragmented and difficult to find for architectural and built environment students, educators and professionals. By bringing together in one place some seminal texts and projects, as well as newly commissioned writings, readers can engage with disability in unexpected and exciting ways that can vibrantly inform their understandings of architecture and urban design. Most crucially, Disability, Space, Architecture: A Reader opens up not just disability but also ability – dis/ability – as a means of refusing the normalisation of only particular kinds of bodies in the design of built space. It reveals how our everyday social attitudes and practices about people, objects and spaces can be better understood through the lens of disability, and it suggests how thinking differently about dis/ability can enable innovative and new kinds of critical and creative architectural and urban design education and practice.
A Guide for Students and Practitioners
Author: David Cobley
Category: Social Science
Despite growing evidence of a close and complex relationship between disability and poverty, development policy, planning and programming has often failed to take full account of the concerns of disabled people. However, following the 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, which promises to ‘leave no one behind’, there have been increasing calls from governments and development agencies for disability to be mainstreamed into all development planning. Disability and International Development provides a comprehensive overview of key themes in the field of disability and development, including issues around identity, poverty, disability rights, education, health, livelihoods, disaster recovery and approaches to researching disability. The book engages with relevant theory and draws on existing literature in the field, as well as the author’s own research and teaching experience, to explore key issues using a range of examples taken from around the world. Written in an accessible and engaging style to suit both students and practitioners, the book also includes a wide range of reflection exercises, discussion questions and further reading suggestions, making it the perfect introduction to disability and international development.
Global Perspectives and Human Rights Approaches
Author: Sonali Shah,Caroline Bradbury-Jones
Category: Social Science
This is the first book to explore the interplay of disability, gender and violence over the life course from researcher, practitioner and survivor perspectives. It gives due weight to the accounts of disabled children and adults who have survived institutional or individual violence, evidencing barriers to recognition, disclosure and reporting. Written by disabled and non-disabled women from around the world, Disability, Gender and Violence over the Life Course addresses the dearth of voices and experiences of disabled women and girls in empirical research, policy and practice on issues of violence, victimisation, protection, support and prevention. Divided into three parts – Childhood, Adulthood and Older Life – this collection offers diverse perspectives on the intersectionality of disability, age, ethnicity, sexuality and violence that have hitherto been absent. This book will be an invaluable resource for students and practitioners of multiple fields of practice and academic studies, including health and social care, nursing, social work, childhood studies, gender studies, disability studies, safeguarding and child protection, equality and human rights, sociology and criminology.
How Inclusion Shapes Design
Author: Kat Holmes
Publisher: MIT Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
How inclusive methods can build elegant design solutions that work for all. Sometimes designed objects reject their users: a computer mouse that doesn't work for left-handed people, for example, or a touchscreen payment system that only works for people who read English phrases, have 20/20 vision, and use a credit card. Something as simple as color choices can render a product unusable for millions. These mismatches are the building blocks of exclusion. In Mismatch, Kat Holmes describes how design can lead to exclusion, and how design can also remedy exclusion. Inclusive design methods—designing objects with rather than for excluded users—can create elegant solutions that work well and benefit all. Holmes tells stories of pioneers of inclusive design, many of whom were drawn to work on inclusion because of their own experiences of exclusion. A gamer and designer who depends on voice recognition shows Holmes his “Wall of Exclusion,” which displays dozens of game controllers that require two hands to operate; an architect shares her firsthand knowledge of how design can fail communities, gleaned from growing up in Detroit's housing projects; an astronomer who began to lose her eyesight adapts a technique called “sonification” so she can “listen” to the stars. Designing for inclusion is not a feel-good sideline. Holmes shows how inclusion can be a source of innovation and growth, especially for digital technologies. It can be a catalyst for creativity and a boost for the bottom line as a customer base expands. And each time we remedy a mismatched interaction, we create an opportunity for more people to contribute to society in meaningful ways.
A Guide to Universal Usability for Web Designers
Author: Sarah Horton
Publisher: New Riders
In just over a decade, the Web has evolved from an experimental tool for a limited community of technically inclined people into a day-to-day necessity for millions upon millions of users. Today’s¿Web designers must consider not only the content needs of the sites they create, but also the wide range of additional needs their users may have: for example, those with physical or cognitive disabilities, those with slow modems or small screens, and those with limited education or familiarity with the Web. Bestselling author Sarah Horton argues that simply meeting the official standards and guidelines for Web accessibility is not enough. Her goal is universal usability, and in Access by Design: A Guide to Universal Usability for Web Designers, Sarah describes a design methodology¿ that addresses accessibility requirements but then goes beyond. As a result, designers learn how to optimize page designs to work more effectively for more users, disabled or not. Working through each of the main functional features of Web sites, she provides clear principles for using HTML and CSS to deal with elements such as text, forms, images, and tables, illustrating each with an example drawn from the real world. Through these guidelines, Sarah makes a convincing case that good design principles benefit all users of the Web. In this book you will find: Clear principles for using HTML and CSS to design functional and accessible Web sites Best practices for each of the main elements of Web pages—text, forms, images, tables, frames, links, interactivity, and page layout Seasoned advice for using style sheets that provide flexibility to both designer and user without compromising usability Illustrations of actual Web sites, from which designers can model their own pages Instructions for providing keyboard accessibility, flexible layouts, and user-controlled environments Practical tips on markup, and resources
Author: Bodil Ravneberg,Sylvia Söderström
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Category: Social Science
The provision of assistive technology is an important individual and collective service of the welfare state. The state plays a significant role towards linking users and products, and the matching of devices and users is both a science and an art. However, many people feel it is stigmatising to use individually designed assistive technologies as they often, in a subtle way, convey discriminating barriers in society. The major challenges of assistive technology are thus to reduce social exclusion and marginalisation and, importantly, to reduce individual risks and societal costs related to non-use due to deficiencies in usability, aesthetics and design of the technologies. This groundbreaking book discusses the relationships among society, disability and technology by using different empirical examples (e.g., school, everyday life) to show why the combination of disability studies and STS-studies (science, technology and society) is a fruitful approach to understanding and meeting these challenges. The book explores the significance of the technologies for users, society and the field; identifies challenges to designing, adopting and using assistive technologies; and points at theoretical challenges in research as well as professional challenges in assistive technology service provision. The book also scrutinises the role of assistive technology devices, as well as the organisational structure of the assistive technology market, in relation to disabled people’s lives. This book will be valuable reading for students, academics, teachers and social educators interested in Disability Studies, STS Studies, Product Design, Sociology, Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, as well as engineers working in the field of assistive technology.
From Principles to Practice
Author: Sheryl E. Burgstahler
This second edition of the classic "Universal Design in Higher Education" is a comprehensive, up-to-the-minute guide for creating fully accessible college and university programs. The second edition has been thoroughly revised and expanded, and it addresses major recent changes in universities and colleges, the law, and technology. As larger numbers of people with disabilities attend postsecondary educational institutions, there have been increased efforts to make the full array of classes, services, and programs accessible to all students. This revised edition provides both a full survey of those measures and practical guidance for schools as they work to turn the goal of universal accessibility into a reality. This book makes a compelling case for adopting universal design in "all" postsecondary offerings in order to support a diverse educational community and an inclusive approach to academic excellence. There is something here for everyone. From the foreword by Michael K. Young, president, Texas A&M University Fresh, comprehensive, and engaging, "Universal Design in Higher Education" is expertly written, thoughtfully crafted, and a 'must-add' to your resource collection. Stephan J. Smith, executive director, Association on Higher Education And Disability Sheryl Burgstahler has assembled a great set of chapters and authors on universal design in higher education. It's a must-have book for all universities, as it covers universal design of instruction, physical spaces, student services, technology, and provides examples of best practices. Jonathan Lazar, professor of computer and information sciences, Towson University, and coauthor of "Ensuring Digital Accessibility through Process and Policy" Sheryl E. Burgstahler is an affiliate professor in the College of Education at the University of Washington in Seattle, and founder and director of the university s Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking, and Technology (DO-IT) and Access Technology Centers. Michael K. Young is the president of Texas A&M University and a professor of public policy at the Bush School of Government and Public Service."