Author: Anna Riddell,Brendan Plant
Publisher: British Institute for International & Comparative Law
Some recent contentious issues about the use of evidence in cases before the International Court of Justice have highlighted the importance of fact-finding and the use of evidence before this Court. This major study on the issue of evidence before the International Court of Justice has examined all aspects of the Court's relationship with facts in both contentious and advisory proceedings from the recently refined procedure for submitting late evidence, to the hearing of live witness testimony in the Peace Palace. Considerations of flexibility and respect for the sovereignty of the State Parties before the Court have traditionally deterred the Court from constructing concrete rules on matters of evidence, but the increasing numbers of cases, in which a thorough consideration of the facts has been essential, has highlighted that some detailed procedural guidance is necessary in order to ensure a well-functioning system of adjudication. It is apparent that the Court has paid an incre
Author: Anna Riddell,Brendan Plant
Publisher: British Inst of International & Comparative
Some recent contentious issues about the use of evidence in cases before the International Court of Justice have highlighted the importance of fact-finding and the use of evidence before this Court. This major study on the issue of evidence before the International Court of Justice has examined all aspects of the Court's relationship with facts - in both contentious and advisory proceedings - from the recently refined procedure for submitting late evidence, to the hearing of live witness testimony in the Peace Palace. Considerations of flexibility and respect for the sovereignty of the State Parties before the Court have traditionally deterred the Court from constructing concrete rules on matters of evidence, but the increasing numbers of cases, in which a thorough consideration of the facts has been essential, has highlighted that some detailed procedural guidance is necessary in order to ensure a well-functioning system of adjudication. It is apparent that the Court has paid an increasing amount of attention to its evidentiary proceedings as a result, often encountering difficulties in the inherent tensions between the common and civil law traditions and thus a divergence of opinions on the Bench. This book examines the history and development of the treatment of evidence, including the early days of the Permanent Court of International Justice - the predecessor of the International Court of Justice - up to the recent Nicaragua v Honduras judgment, critically analyzing the Statute and Rules of the Court, dicta from judgments and separate and dissenting opinions, the newly developed Practice Directions, and academic writings on the subject. The book not only provides an academic discussion of the subject, but also acts as a guide to practitioners appearing before the Court.
Author: James Gerard Devaney
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Fact-Finding before the International Court of Justice examines a number of significant recent criticisms of the way in which the ICJ deals with facts. The book takes the position that such criticisms are warranted and that the ICJ's current approach to fact-finding falls short of adequacy, both in cases involving abundant, particularly complex or technical facts, and in those involving a scarcity of facts. The author skilfully examines how other courts such as the WTO and inter-State arbitrations conduct fact-finding and makes a number of select proposals for reform, enabling the ICJ to address some of the current weaknesses in its approach. The proposals include, but are not limited to, the development of a power to compel the disclosure of information, greater use of provisional measures, and a clear strategy for the use of expert evidence.
Practice and Procedure
Author: Juan José Quintana
Litigation at the International Court of Justice provides a systematic guide to questions of procedure arising when States come before the International Court of Justice to take part in contentious litigation.
Author: Robert Kolb
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Winner of the 2014 American Society of International Law Certificate of Merit for High Technical Craftsmanship and Utility to Practicing Lawyers and Scholars The International Court of Justice (in French, the Cour internationale de justice), also commonly known as the World Court or ICJ, is the oldest, most important and most famous judicial arm of the United Nations. Established by the United Nations Charter in 1945 and based in the Peace Palace in the Hague, the primary function of the Court is to adjudicate in disputes brought before it by states, and to provide authoritative, influential advisory opinions on matters referred to it by various international organisations, agencies and the UN General Assembly. This new work, by a leading academic authority on international law who also appears as an advocate before the Court, examines the Statute of the Court, its procedures, conventions and practices, in a way that will provide invaluable assistance to all international lawyers. The book covers matters such as: the composition of the Court and elections, the office and role of ad hoc judges, the significance of the occasional use of smaller Chambers, jurisdiction, the law applied, preliminary objections, the range of contentious disputes which may be submitted to the Court, the status of advisory opinions, relationship to the Security Council, applications to intervene, the status of judgments and remedies. Referring to a wealth of primary and secondary sources, this work provides international lawyers with a readable, comprehensive and authoritative work of reference which will greatly enhance understanding and knowledge of the ICJ. The book has been translated and lightly updated from the French original, R Kolb, La Cour international de Justice (Paris, Pedone, 2013), by Alan Perry, Solicitor of the Senior Courts of England and Wales.
Author: Hugh Thirlway
Publisher: Oxford University Press
An easily accessible and comprehensive study of the International Court of Justice, this book succinctly explains all aspects of the world's most important court, including an overview of its composition and operation, jurisdiction, procedure, and the nature and impact of its judgments.
Author: Durward Valdamir Sandifer
This study is based on an examination of all available records in the field of evidence from the 18th century to date. Acid-free reprint of University of Virginia Press, 1975. Distributed by William S. Hein & Co., Inc.
The Case of Chile and Peru
Author: Julio Faundez
The origins of the maritime dispute between Chile and Peru go back to 1952, when these countries, along with Ecuador, asserted sovereignty over 200 nautical miles from their coasts. This maritime claim is widely regarded as one of the most important contributions by a group of developing countries to the law of the sea. Peru then asked the Court of International Justice to delimit its lateral boundary with Chile in accordance with principles of international law. Chile asked the Court to dismiss the request. The question before the ICJ Justice was whether the treaty concluded by the parties when they made their claim had also delimited their lateral boundary. This book provides a critical analysis of the approach to treaty interpretation by the International Court of Justice in Maritime Disputes. Focusing on the case of Chile and Peru, the book explores two main issues: the interpretation of the Santiago Declaration and its connected treaties; and the tacit agreement that established a lateral maritime boundary with a seaward extension of 80 nautical miles. Part I argues that the Court’s finding that the Santiago Declaration did not delimit the lateral boundary is mistaken because it ignores its context, as well as its object and purpose. Part II argues that the finding that the parties had entered into a tacit agreement is an unjustified legal inference derived from a hasty interpretation of the Special Agreement of 1954. It questions that the reliability of the evidence used to determine the seaward extent of the lateral boundary and argues that the Court failed to demonstrate the bearing of contemporaneous developments in the law of the sea on the content of the tacit agreement.
Impacts on International Law
Author: Edgardo Sobenes Obregon,Benjamin Samson
This book analyses Nicaragua's role in the development of international law, through its participation in cases that have come before the International Court of Justice. Nicaragua has appeared before the ICJ in fourteen cases, either as an applicant, respondent or intervening State, thus setting an important example of committment to the peaceful judicial settlement of disputes. The “Nicaraguan” cases have enabled the ICJ to take positions on and clarify a whole range of important procedural, jurisdictional and substantive legal issues, which have inspired the jurisprudence of international and regional courts and tribunals and influenced the development of international law. The book focuses on reviewing Nicaragua's cases before the ICJ, using a thematic approach to identify their impact on international law. Each chapter includes a discussion of the relevant cases on a particular theme and their impact over time on general as well as specific branches of international law, notably through their use as precedent by other international and regional courts and tribunals.
The Dirty Stories of International Law
Author: W. Michael Reisman,Christina Skinner
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Domestic lawyers are, above all, officers of the court. By contrast, the public international lawyer representing states before international tribunals is torn between loyalties to the state and loyalties to international law. As the stakes increase for the state concerned, the tension between these loyalties can become acute and lead to practices that would be condemned in developed national legal systems but have hitherto been ignored by international tribunals in international legal scholarship. They are the 'dirty stories' of international law. This detailed and contextually sensitive presentation of eight important cases before a variety of public international tribunals dissects some of the reasons for the resort to fraudulent evidence in international litigation and the profession's baffling reaction. Fraudulent evidence is resorted to out of greed, moral mediocrity or inherent dishonesty. In public international litigation, by contrast, the reasons are often more complex, with roots in the dynamics of international politics.
Standard of Review and Margin of Appreciation
Author: Lukasz Gruszczynski,Wouter Werner
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
International courts use two key methodologies to determine the degree of deference granted to states in their implementation of international obligations: the standard of review and margin of appreciation. This book investigates how these doctrines are applied in international courts, analysing where their approaches converge and diverge.
Author: Andreas Zimmermann,Karin Oellers-Frahm,Christian Tomuschat,Christian J. Tams
Publisher: OUP Oxford
The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations and plays a central role in both the peaceful settlement of international disputes and the development of international law. This comprehensive Commentary on the Statute of the International Court of Justice, now in its second edition, analyses in detail not only the Statute of the Court itself but also the related provisions of the United Nations Charter as well as the relevant provisions of the Court's Rules of Procedure. Five years after the first edition was published, the second edition of the Commentary embraces current events before the International Court of Justice as well as before other courts and tribunals relevant for the interpretation and application of its Statute. The Commentary provides a comprehensive overview and analysis of all legal questions and issues the Court has had to address in the past and will have to address in the future. It illuminates the central issues of procedure and substance that the Court and counsel appearing before it face in their day-to-day work. In addition to commentary covering all of the articles of the Statute of the ICJ, plus the relevant articles of the Charter of the United Nations, the book includes three scene-setting chapters: Historical Introduction, General Principles of Procedural Law, and Discontinuation and Withdrawal. The second edition of the Commentary adds two important and instructive chapters on Counter-Claims and Evidentiary Issues. The combination of expert editors and commentators, and their assessment of new developments in the important work of the ICJ, make this a landmark publication in the field of international law.
Author: Karim A. A. Khan,Caroline Buisman,Christopher Gosnell
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Category: Evidence (Law)
Principles of Evidence in International Criminal Justice provides an overview of the procedure and practice concerning the admission and evaluation of evidence before the international criminal tribunals. The book is both descriptive and critical and its emphasis is on day-to-day practice, drawing on the experience of the Yugoslavia, Rwanda and Sierra Leone Tribunals. This book is an attempt to define and explain the core principles and rules that have developed at those ad hoc Tribunals; the rationale and origin of those rules; and to assess the suitability of those rules in the particular context of the International Criminal Court which is still at its early stages. The ICC differs in structure from the ad hoc Tribunals and approaches the legal issues it has to resolve differently from its predecessors. The ICC is however confronted with many of the same questions. The book examines the differences between the ad hoc Tribunals and the ICC and seeks to offer insights as to how and in which circumstances the principles established over years of practice at the ICTY, ICTR and SCSL may serve as guidance to the ICC practitioners of today and the future. The contributors represent a cross-section of the practicing international criminal bar, drawn from the ranks of the Bench, the Prosecution and the Defence and bringing with them different legal domestic cultures. Their mixed background underlines the recurring theme in this book which is the manner in which a legal culture has gradually taken shape in the international Tribunals, drawing on the various traditions and experiences of its participants.
Author: James Green
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
The legal rules governing the use of force between States are one of the most fundamental, and the most controversial, aspects of international law. An essential part of this subject is the question of when, and to what extent, a State may lawfully use force against another in self-defence. However, the parameters of this inherent right remain obscure, despite the best efforts of scholars and, notably, the International Court of Justice. This book examines the burgeoning relationship between the ICJ and the right of self-defence. Since 2003 there have been three major decisions of the ICJ that have dealt directly with the law governing self-defence actions, in contrast to only two such cases in the preceding fifty years. This, then, is an opportune moment to reconsider the jurisprudence of the Court on this issue. This book is the first of its kind to comprehensively draw together and then assess the merits of this jurisprudence. It argues that the contribution of the ICJ has been confused and unhelpful, and compounds inadequacies in existing customary international law. The ICJ's fundamental conception of a primary criterion of 'armed attack' as constituting a qualitatively grave use of force is brought into question. The book then goes on to examine the underlying causes of the problems that have emerged in the jurisprudence on this crucial issue. Winner of the American Society of International Law's Lieber Society Book Prize 2009 Dr Green's monograph demonstrates a thorough understanding of the law of self-defence, coupled with an informed and evaluative discussion of the role and function of the International Court. It is an impressive analysis of the International Court of Justice's jurisprudence on self-defence. Professor Iain Scobbie, Judge of the American Society of International Law's Lieber Society Book Prize 2009, Sir Joseph Hotung Research Professor, School of Oriental and African Studies, London James Green's "The International Court of Justice and Self-Defence in International Law" usefully draws together the jurisprudence of the International Court of Justice on the international law governing self-defence. The work could not be more timely in light of both contemporary State practice and the Court's recent controversial judgements on the topic. Of particular note is his analysis of the very complex, and as yet unsettled, notion of "armed attack." Professor Michael Schmitt, Chairman of the American Society of International Law's Lieber Society Book Prize Committee, Chair of Public International Law, Durham University Winner of the University of Reading Faculty of Social Sciences outputs prize for the best research output in 2010.
Author: A. Mark Weisburd
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Failings of the International Court of Justice critically examines the jurisprudence of the International Court of Justice. Even though the legal instrument that establishes the Court provides that its judgments have no formal precedential value, those judgments are treated as authoritative by international lawyers throughout the world. In this book, A. Mark Weisburd argues that the Court's decisions are, in a large minority of cases, poorly reasoned and doubtful as a matter of law, and therefore ought not to be accorded the deference they receive. The book seeks to demonstrate its thesis by a careful review of the Court's errors. It begins with an examination of the law that created and empowered the Court. It then describes the body of law upon which the Court was intended to base its decisions, and the mistakes in the arguments supporting the Court's drawing legal rules from other sources. The book goes on to analyze in detail cases in which the Court has made serious legal errors, first addressing procedural errors, then turning to mistakes in the application of substantive international law. The book closes with a quantitative summing up of the Court's performance, and a tentative explanation for its relatively disappointing record.
Its Contribution to Interpreting and Developing International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Rules and Principles
Author: Gentian Zyberi
Publisher: Intersentia Uitgevers N V
This book represents the first effort in assessing the role and contribution of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in interpreting and developing rules and principles of international human rights and humanitarian law. First, the book addresses the Court's possibilities and limitations in the fields of international human rights and humanitarian law. Second, in exposing the contribution of the Court, the book provides a detailed analysis of relevant case law stretching from its establishment in 1946 to the end of 2007. It should be noted that through its case law, the Court has managed to wed international law to humanitarian demands for protection and respect for individual human rights, human life, and human dignity. The third component of the book looks into the relationship between the ICJ and specialized international human rights and humanitarian law courts and tribunals and international quasi-judicial bodies. Finally, the author offers a number of conclusions and recommendations aimed at enhancing the possible role and impact of the ICJ and improving the international legal system concerned with the promotion and the protection of human rights. Intersentia is proud to announce that both Antoine Buyse and Gentian Zyberi won the Max van der Stoel Human Rights Award 2008.Ë
Author: Thomas G. Weiss,Sam Daws
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Political Science
This Handbook provides in one volume an authoritative and independent treatment of the UN's seventy-year history, written by an international cast of more than 50 distinguished scholars, analysts, and practitioners. It provides a clear and penetrating examination of the UN's development since 1945 and the challenges and opportunities now facing the organization. It assesses the implications for the UN of rapid changes in the world - from technological innovation to shifting foreign policy priorities - and the UN's future place in a changing multilateral landscape. Citations and additional readings contain a wealth of primary and secondary references to the history, politics, and law of the world organization. This key reference also contains appendices of the UN Charter, the Statute of the International Court of Justice, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Procedure and Evidence
Author: Vladimir Tochilovsky
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
The book provides a comprehensive guide to the jurisprudence of the criminal tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, Special Court for Sierra Leone, the International Criminal Court, and the European Court of Human Rights on procedural and evidential matters.