Implications for Justice Policy

Author: John F. MacLeod,Peter Grove,David Farrington

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199697248

Category: Law

Page: 256

View: 2305

A PDF version of this book is available for free in open access via www.oup.com/uk as well as the OAPEN Library platform, www.oapen.org. It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license and is part of the OAPEN-UK research project. Explaining Criminal Careers presents a simple but influential theory of crime, conviction and reconviction. The assumptions of the theory are derived directly from a detailed analysis of cohort samples extracted from the Home Office Offenders Index - a unique database which contains records of all criminal (standard list) convictions in England and Wales since 1963. In particular, the theory explains the well-known Age/Crime curve. Based on the idea that there are only three types of offenders, who commit crimes at either high or low (constant) rates and have either a high or low (constant) risk of reoffending, this simple theory makes exact quantitative predictions about criminal careers and age-crime curves. Purely from the birth-rate over the second part of the 20th century, the theory accurately predicts (to within 2%) the prison population contingent on a given sentencing policy. The theory also suggests that increasing the probability of conviction after each offence is the most effective way of reducing crime, although there is a role for treatment programmes for some offenders. The authors indicate that crime is influenced by the operation of the Criminal Justice System and that offenders do not 'grow out' of crime as commonly supposed; they are persuaded to stop or decide to stop after (repeated) convictions, with a certain fraction of offenders desisting after each conviction. Simply imprisoning offenders will not reduce crime either by individual deterrence or by incapacitation. With comprehensive explanations of the formulae used and complete mathematical appendices allowing for individual interpretations and further development of the theory, Explaining Criminal Careers represents an innovative and meticulous investigation into criminal activity and the influences behind it. With clear policy implications and a wealth of original and significant discussions, this book marks a ground-breaking chapter in the criminological debate surrounding criminal careers.
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Author: Per-Olof H. Wikström

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199592845

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 479

View: 6795

Breaking new ground in the study of crime in urban environments, Breaking Rules examines the findings, theoretical basis, and new methodology of The Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+). This major longitudinal study investigates the role of the social environment on crime causation, involving a cohort of 700 young people from the age of 12. A particular aim of PADS+ is to employ a new theory, known as Situational ActionTheory, as well as the innovative methodology of ecometrics combined with space-time budgets to improve the study of young people's offending and its changes.
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An International Exploration

Author: Justice Tankebe,Alison Liebling

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780198701996

Category: Law

Page: 384

View: 4752

Brings together internationally renowned scholars from a range of disciplines, including criminology, international relations, sociology and political science, to examine the meaning of legitimacy and the implications for its future empirical analysis in the context of criminal justice.
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Criminology and Genocide

Author: Augustine Brannigan

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780199674626

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 1370

Offering the author's reflections on how to interpret genocide as a crime, this book endeavours to understand how the theories of criminal motivation might shed light on these stunning events and make them comprehensible, including a new and compelling account of the dynamics of the 1994 Rwanda genocide.
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Author: Mike Maguire,Rodney Morgan,Robert Reiner

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199205442

Category: Law

Page: 1185

View: 2008

teachers and students of criminology and is a sourcebook for professionals.
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Author: Kevin R. Reitz

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190203544

Category: Law

Page: 560

View: 1829

The idea of American exceptionalism has made frequent appearances in discussions of criminal justice policies--as it has in many other areas--to help portray or explain problems that are especially acute in the U.S., including mass incarceration, retention of the death penalty, racial and ethnic disparities, and the War on Drugs. While scholars do not universally agree that it is an apt or useful framework, there is no question that the U.S. is an outlier, when compared with other industrialized democracies, in its punitive and exclusionary criminal justice policies. This volume of essays deepens the debate of American exceptionalism in crime and punishment through comparative political, economic, and historical analyses, with an orientation toward forward-looking prescriptions for American law, policy, and institutions of government. The chapters expand the literature to neglected areas such as community supervision, parole release, and collateral consequences of conviction; explore claims of causation, in particular the view that the U.S. history of slavery and racial inequality has been a primary driver of crime policy; examine arguments that the framework of multiple governments and localized crime control, populist style of democracy, and laissez-faire economy are implicated in problems of both crime and punishment; and assess theories that cultural values are the most salient predictors of penal severity and violent crime. With an outstanding list of contributors edited by a leading authority on punishment, this volume demonstrates that the largest problems of crime and justice cannot be brought into focus from the perspective of single jurisdiction, and that comparative inquiries are necessary for an understanding of the current predicament in the US.
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How the War on Crime Transformed American Democracy and Created a Culture of Fear

Author: Jonathan Simon

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195181085

Category: History

Page: 330

View: 2740

Across America today gated communities sprawl out from urban centers, employers enforce mandatory drug testing, and schools screen students with metal detectors. Social problems ranging from welfare dependency to educational inequality have been reconceptualized as crimes, with an attendant focus on assigning fault and imposing consequences. Even before the recent terrorist attacks, non-citizen residents had become subject to an increasingly harsh regime of detention and deportation, and prospective employees subjected to background checks. How and when did our everyday world become dominated by fear, every citizen treated as a potential criminal?In this startlingly original work, Jonathan Simon traces this pattern back to the collapse of the New Deal approach to governing during the 1960s when declining confidence in expert-guided government policies sent political leaders searching for new models of governance. The War on Crime offered a ready solution to their problem: politicians set agendas by drawing analogies to crime and redefined the ideal citizen as a crime victim, one whose vulnerabilities opened the door to overweening government intervention. By the 1980s, this transformation of the core powers of government had spilled over into the institutions that govern daily life. Soon our schools, our families, our workplaces, and our residential communities were being governed through crime.This powerful work concludes with a call for passive citizens to become engaged partners in the management of risk and the treatment of social ills. Only by coming together to produce security, can we free ourselves from a logic of domination by others, and from the fear that currently rules our everyday life.
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Exploring Causes, Repairing Harms

Author: Mark Austin Walters

Publisher: Oxford University Press (UK)

ISBN: 9780199684496

Category: Law

Page: 314

View: 7764

The product of an 18 month empirical study which examined the use of restorative justice for hate crime in the United Kingdom, this book draws together theory and practice in order to examine the causes and consequences of hate crime victimisation. Hate Crime and Restorative Justice: Exploring Causes, Repairing Harms also identifies the key process variables within restorative practice that can help to repair the harms of hatred. In doing so, it challenges commonly held conceptions of both 'hate crime' and 'restorative justice' through its use of qualitative research of restorative interventions across the UK. The study's findings provide original data on the contextual variables that are intrinsic to both the cause and effect of hate-motivated offences, revealing complex socio-cultural and socio-economic factors that are fundamental, both to our understanding of hate crime and to how such incidents can be best resolved. Through meticulous analysis and discussion, the book also provides new information on how restorative processes can be used to repair the harms of hate and challenge the prejudices which give rise to hate-motivated conflicts. The issue of group identity and cultural 'difference' amongst participants of restorative justice is explored and examined through the use of detailed case studies, allowing assessment of whether dialogical barriers to reconciliation can limit the success of restorative processes. In particular, the notion of 'community', a fundamental concept of restorative justice theory and practice, is reconceptualised by exploring both its healing and harming features. Utilising data from the first study of its kind, Hate Crime and Restorative Justice draws together theoretical assumptions about restorative philosophy and empirical evidence of its use for hate crime to offer a more holistic understanding of how restorative justice can help repair the harms caused by processes of hate, while simultaneously challenging the identity-based prejudices that continue to pervade our multicultural communities.
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Author: Ian Shaw,Ian Graham Ronald Shaw,Jennifer C Greene,Melvin M Mark

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446270556

Category: Social Science

Page: 632

View: 1313

In this comprehensive handbook, an examination of the complexities of contemporary evaluation contributes to the ongoing dialogue that arises in professional efforts to evaluate people-related programs, policies, and practices. The SAGE Handbook of Evaluation is a unique and authoritative resource consisting of 25 chapters covering a range of evaluation theories and techniques in a single, accessible volume. With contributions from world-leading figures in their fields overseen by an eminent international editorial board, this handbook is an extensive and user-friendly resource.
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Clinical, Legal and Ethical Issues, Second Edition

Author: John Gunn,Pamela Taylor

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1444165062

Category: Law

Page: 1035

View: 9709

Highly Commended, BMA Medical Book Awards 2014 Comprehensive and erudite, Forensic Psychiatry: Clinical, Legal and Ethical Issues, Second Edition is a practical guide to the psychiatry of offenders, victims, and survivors of crime. This landmark publication has been completely updated but retains all the features that made the first edition such a well-established text. It integrates the clinical, legal, and ethical aspects of forensic psychiatry with contributions from internationally regarded experts from a range of clinical professions. The Second Edition features updates to all current chapters and several new chapters that explore: The genetics of antisocial behavior Disorders of brain structure and function that relate to crime Offenders with intellectual disabilities Older people and the criminal justice system Deviant and mentally ill staff Although the book focuses on jurisdictions in the UK, a substantial comparative chapter written by an international group from all five continents explores the different philosophies, legal principles, and style of services elsewhere. This book is an essential reference for specialists and postgraduate trainees in forensic psychiatry but also for general psychiatrists, and clinical and forensic psychologists. It is also an invaluable resource for other forensic mental health professionals, including nurses, social workers, occupational therapists, probation service staff, police, attorneys, criminologists, and sociologists.
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The Philosophy of Action and Its Implications for Criminal Law

Author: Michael S. Moore

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199599505

Category: Law

Page: 413

View: 571

What implications are there for the criminal law from the philosophy of action? Providing a unified account of the theory of action presupposed by both Anglo-American criminal law and the morality that underlies it, Moore develops a coherent theory of action in philosophy and assesses its effects on criminal law.
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Author: Barry Godfrey,Pamela Cox,Heather Shore,Zoe Alker

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191092754

Category: Law

Page: 256

View: 3411

Young Criminal Lives is the first cradle-to-grave study of the experiences of some of the thousands of delinquent, difficult and destitute children passing through the early English juvenile reformatory system. The book breaks new ground in crime research, speaking to pressing present-day concerns around child poverty and youth justice, and resonating with a powerful public fascination for family history. Using innovative digital methods to unlock the Victorian life course, the authors have reconstructed the lives, families and neighbourhoods of 500 children living within, or at the margins of, the early English juvenile reformatory system. Four hundred of them were sent to reformatory and industrial schools in the north west of England from courts around the UK over a fifty-year period from the 1860s onwards. Young Criminal Lives is based on one of the most comprehensive sets of official and personal data ever assembled for a historical study of this kind. For the first time, these children can be followed on their journey in and out of reform and then though their adulthood and old age. The book centres on institutions celebrated in this period for their pioneering new approaches to child welfare and others that were investigated for cruelty and scandal. Both were typical of the new kind of state-certified provision offered, from the 1850s on, to children who had committed criminal acts, or who were considered 'vulnerable' to predation, poverty and the 'inheritance' of criminal dispositions. The notion that interventions can and must be evaluated in order to determine 'what works' now dominates public policy. But how did Victorian and Edwardian policy-makers and practitioners deal with this question? By what criteria, and on the basis of what kinds of evidence, did they judge their own successes and failures? Young Criminal Lives ends with a critical review of the historical rise of evidence-based policy-making within criminal justice. It will appeal to scholars and students of crime and penal policy, criminologists, sociologists, and social policy researchers and practitioners in youth justice and child protection.
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Author: Barry S Godfrey,Paul Lawrence,Chris A Williams

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1849202354

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 825

This lively and accessible text provides an introduction to the history of crime and crime control. It explains the historical background that is essential for an understanding of contemporary criminal justice, and examines the historical context for contemporary criminological debates. Topics covered include: Crime statistics Constructions of criminality Policing Prisons Surveillance Governance White-collar crime Immigration and crime For each topic, the book provides an overview of current research, comment on current arguments and links to wider debates. The Key Approaches to Criminology series celebrates the removal of traditional barriers between disciplines and, specifically, reflects criminology’s interdisciplinary nature and focus. It brings together some of the leading scholars working at the intersections of criminology and related subjects. Each book in the series helps readers to make intellectual connections between criminology and other discourses, and to understand the importance of studying crime and criminal justice within the context of broader debates. The series is intended to have appeal across the entire range of undergraduate and postgraduate studies and beyond, comprising books which offer introductions to the fields as well as advancing ideas and knowledge in their subject areas.
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Street Segments and Our Understanding of the Crime Problem

Author: David Weisburd,Elizabeth R. Groff,Sue-Ming Yang

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199709106

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 3772

The study of crime has focused primarily on why particular people commit crime or why specific communities have higher crime levels than others. In The Criminology of Place, David Weisburd, Elizabeth Groff, and Sue-Ming Yang present a new and different way of looking at the crime problem by examining why specific streets in a city have specific crime trends over time. Based on a 16-year longitudinal study of crime in Seattle, Washington, the book focuses our attention on small units of geographic analysis-micro communities, defined as street segments. Half of all Seattle crime each year occurs on just 5-6 percent of the city's street segments, yet these crime hot spots are not concentrated in a single neighborhood and street by street variability is significant. Weisburd, Groff, and Yang set out to explain why. The Criminology of Place shows how much essential information about crime is inevitably lost when we focus on larger units like neighborhoods or communities. Reorienting the study of crime by focusing on small units of geography, the authors identify a large group of possible crime risk and protective factors for street segments and an array of interventions that could be implemented to address them. The Criminology of Place is a groundbreaking book that radically alters traditional thinking about the crime problem and what we should do about it.
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A Historical Study of Habitual Criminals

Author: Barry S. Godfrey,David J. Cox,Stephen Farrall

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 019959466X

Category: Law

Page: 241

View: 4192

Serious Offenders examines the criminal careers of persistent offenders in northwest England between the 1840s and 1940s. It explores the triggers that propelled minor offenders towards serious persistent offending and draws on the lessons to be learnt about the regulation and surveillance of serious offenders.
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A Guide to the Sociology of Crime and Rule-Breaking

Author: David Downes,Paul Rock,Eugene McLaughlin

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198747349

Category:

Page: 424

View: 4348

In Understanding Deviance, Seventh Edition, leading experts David Downes, Paul Rock, and Eugene McLaughlin examine the major sociological theories behind crime and deviance, covering their development, recent research, and varying perspectives on their explanations of criminality. The authors discuss key debates in depth, challenging students to question assumptions and explore new avenues of scholarship. An extensive bibliography provides references to a wide range of both classic and lesser-known texts.
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How the Democratic Process Shapes the Way America Punishes Offenders

Author: Vanessa Barker

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199708468

Category: Law

Page: 264

View: 4207

The attention devoted to the unprecedented levels of imprisonment in the United States obscure an obvious but understudied aspect of criminal justice: there is no consistent punishment policy across the U.S. It is up to individual states to administer their criminal justice systems, and the differences among them are vast. For example, while some states enforce mandatory minimum sentencing, some even implementing harsh and degrading practices, others rely on community sanctions. What accounts for these differences? The Politics of Imprisonment seeks to document and explain variation in American penal sanctioning, drawing out the larger lessons for America's overreliance on imprisonment. Grounding her study in a comparison of how California, Washington, and New York each developed distinctive penal regimes in the late 1960s and early 1970s--a critical period in the history of crime control policy and a time of unsettling social change--Vanessa Barker concretely demonstrates that subtle but crucial differences in political institutions, democratic traditions, and social trust shape the way American states punish offenders. Barker argues that the apparent link between public participation, punitiveness, and harsh justice is not universal but dependent upon the varying institutional contexts and patterns of civic engagement within the U.S. and across liberal democracies. A bracing examination of the relationship between punishment and democracy, The Politics of Imprisonment not only suggests that increased public participation in the political process can support and sustain less coercive penal regimes, but also warns that it is precisely a lack of civic engagement that may underpin mass incarceration in the United States.
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Ideas, Interests, and Institutions

Author: Nicola Lacey

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191084069

Category: Law

Page: 200

View: 3635

What makes someone responsible for a crime and therefore liable to punishment under the criminal law? Modern lawyers will quickly and easily point to the criminal law's requirement of concurrent actus reus and mens rea, doctrines of the criminal law which ensure that someone will only be found criminally responsible if they have committed criminal conduct while possessing capacities of understanding, awareness, and self-control at the time of offense. Any notion of criminal responsibility based on the character of the offender, meaning an implication of criminality based on reputation or the assumed disposition of the person, would seem to today's criminal lawyer a relic of the 18th Century. In this volume, Nicola Lacey demonstrates that the practice of character-based patterns of attribution was not laid to rest in 18th Century criminal law, but is alive and well in contemporary English criminal responsibility-attribution. Building upon the analysis of criminal responsibility in her previous book, Women, Crime, and Character, Lacey investigates the changing nature of criminal responsibility in English law from the mid-18th Century to the early 21st Century. Through a combined philosophical, historical, and socio-legal approach, this volume evidences how the theory behind criminal responsibility has shifted over time. The character and outcome responsibility which dominated criminal law in the 18th Century diminished in ideological importance in the following two centuries, when the idea of responsibility as founded in capacity was gradually established as the core of criminal law. Lacey traces the historical trajectory of responsibility into the 21st Century, arguing that ideas of character responsibility and the discourse of responsibility as founded in risk are enjoying a renaissance in the modern criminal law. These ideas of criminal responsibility are explored through an examination of the institutions through which they are produced, interpreted and executed; the interests which have shaped both doctrines and institutions; and the substantive social functions which criminal law and punishment have been expected to perform at different points in history.
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Promoting Community Alternatives for Individuals with Serious Mental Illness

Author: Patricia A. Griffin,Kirk Heilbrun,Edward P. Mulvey,David DeMatteo,Carol A. Schubert

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199826757

Category: Psychology

Page: 302

View: 6046

"Authored by academic, policy, and practice experts in this area, Criminal Justice and Mental Illness offers an overview of the changes in correctional policy and practice during the last decade that reflect an increased focus on community-based alternatives for offenders"--
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