Author: D. Jou,J. Casas-Vazquez,G. Lebon

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642565654

Category: Science

Page: 463

View: 8677

Covers a wide spectrum of applications and contains a wide discussion of the foundations and the scope of the most current theories of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The new edition reflects new developments and contains a new chapter on the interplay between hydrodynamics and thermodynamics.
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Author: David Jou,Georgy Lebon,José Casas-Vázquez

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048130740

Category: Science

Page: 483

View: 1607

The fast progress in many areas of research related to non-equilibrium ther- dynamics has prompted us to write a fourth edition of this book. Like in the previous editions, our main concern is to open the subject to the widest au- ence, including students, teachers, and researchers in physics, chemistry, engine- ing, biology, and materials sciences. Our objective is to present a general view on several open problems arising in non-equilibrium situations, and to afford a wide perspective of applications illustrating their practical outcomes and con- quences. A better comprehension of the foundations is generally correlated to an increase of the range of applications, implying mutual feedback and cross fert- ization. Truly, thermodynamic methods are widely used in many areas of science but, surprisingly, the active dynamism of thermodynamics as a ?eld on its own is not suf?ciently perceived outside a relatively reduced number of specialized researchers. Extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT) goes beyond the classical f- malisms based on the local equilibrium hypothesis; it was also referred to in an earlier publication by the authors (Lebon et al. 1992) as a thermodynamics of the third type, as it provides a bridge between classical irreversible thermodynamics and rational thermodynamics, enlarging at the same time their respective range of application. The salient feature of the theory is that the ?uxes are incorporated into the set of basic variables.
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Foundations, Applications, Frontiers

Author: Georgy Lebon,David Jou

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540742524

Category: Science

Page: 326

View: 7443

Discover the many facets of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The first part of this book describes the current thermodynamic formalism recognized as the classical theory. The second part focuses on different approaches. Throughout the presentation, the emphasis is on problem-solving applications. To help build your understanding, some problems have been analyzed using several formalisms to underscore their differences and their similarities.
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Author: David Jou i Mirabent,David Jou,José Casas-Vázquez,Manuel Criado-Sancho,M. Criado-Sancho

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540678458

Category: Science

Page: 231

View: 6452

From the reviews: "This is an excellent monograph presenting comprehensively the state-of-art in one of the fast developing branches of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. [...] It can be recommended for using in advanced courses for graduate students." Zentralblatt der Mathematik
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Dedicated to the Memory of Professor Theodor Lehmann

Author: W. Muschik

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3709143217

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 329

View: 9341

This book puts emphasis on developing the basic ideas behind the different approaches to non-equilibrium thermodynamics and on applying them to solids. After a survey about different approaches an introduction to their common fundamentals is given in the first part. In the second part the mechanical behavior of special materials such as viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, viscoelastoplasticity, and thermoplasticity are discussed. The third part is devoted to extended thermodynamics. The basic ideas, phenomenological as well as microscopical, are reviewed and applied to thermo- and viscoelastic materials. Electromagnetic solids showing dielectric relaxation, such as ceramics, showing electromagneto-mechanical hysteresis and superconductivity are treated in the fourth part. In the last part stability with regard to constitutive equations is investigated. Especially stability of quasi-static processes and of elastic-plastic systems are discussed.
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Volume I Background and Theory Volume II Applications

Author: Vladimir V. Uchaikin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642339115

Category: Science

Page: 385

View: 4548

The first derivative of a particle coordinate means its velocity, the second means its acceleration, but what does a fractional order derivative mean? Where does it come from, how does it work, where does it lead to? The two-volume book written on high didactic level answers these questions. Fractional Derivatives for Physicists and Engineers— The first volume contains a clear introduction into such a modern branch of analysis as the fractional calculus. The second develops a wide panorama of applications of the fractional calculus to various physical problems. This book recovers new perspectives in front of the reader dealing with turbulence and semiconductors, plasma and thermodynamics, mechanics and quantum optics, nanophysics and astrophysics. The book is addressed to students, engineers and physicists, specialists in theory of probability and statistics, in mathematical modeling and numerical simulations, to everybody who doesn't wish to stay apart from the new mathematical methods becoming more and more popular. Prof. Vladimir V. UCHAIKIN is a known Russian scientist and pedagogue, a Honored Worker of Russian High School, a member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. He is the author of about three hundreds articles and more than a dozen books (mostly in Russian) in Cosmic ray physics, Mathematical physics, Levy stable statistics, Monte Carlo methods with applications to anomalous processes in complex systems of various levels: from quantum dots to the Milky Way galaxy.
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Fundamentals and Applications

Author: J.S. Shiner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306469324

Category: Science

Page: 246

View: 2440

Entropy and entropy generation play essential roles in our understanding of many diverse phenomena ranging from cosmology to biology. Their importance is manifest in areas of immediate practical interest such as the provision of global energy as well as in others of a more fundamental flavour such as the source of order and complexity in nature. They also form the basis of most modern formulations of both equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Today much progress is being made in our understanding of entropy and entropy generation in both fundamental aspects and application to concrete problems. The purpose of this volume is to present some of these recent and important results in a manner that not only appeals to the entropy specialist but also makes them accessible to the nonspecialist looking for an overview of the field. This book contains fourteen contributions by leading scientists in their fields. The content covers such topics as quantum thermodynamics, nonlinear processes, gravitational and irreversible thermodynamics, the thermodynamics of Taylor dispersion, higher order transport, the mesoscopic theory of liquid crystals, simulated annealing, information and biological aspects, global energy, photovoltaics, heat and mass transport and nonlinear electrochemical systems. Audience: This work will be of value to physicists, chemists, biologists and engineers interested in the theory and applications of entropy and its generation.
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From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures

Author: Dilip Kondepudi,Ilya Prigogine

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118698703

Category: Science

Page: 552

View: 7718

Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Second Edition presents a comprehensive introduction to 20th century thermodynamics that can be applied to both equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems, unifying what was traditionally divided into ‘thermodynamics’ and ‘kinetics’ into one theory of irreversible processes. This comprehensive text, suitable for introductory as well as advanced courses on thermodynamics, has been widely used by chemists, physicists, engineers and geologists. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition includes the following updates and features: Includes a completely new chapter on Principles of Statistical Thermodynamics. Presents new material on solar and wind energy flows and energy flows of interest to engineering. Covers new material on self-organization in non-equilibrium systems and the thermodynamics of small systems. Highlights a wide range of applications relevant to students across physical sciences and engineering courses. Introduces students to computational methods using updated Mathematica codes. Includes problem sets to help the reader understand and apply the principles introduced throughout the text. Solutions to exercises and supplementary lecture material provided online at http://sites.google.com/site/modernthermodynamics/. Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Second Edition is an essential resource for undergraduate and graduate students taking a course in thermodynamics.
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Author: David Jou,José Casas-Vázquez,Manuel Criado-Sancho

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400701991

Category: Science

Page: 301

View: 2168

This is the second edition of the book “Thermodynamics of Fluids under Flow,” which was published in 2000 and has now been corrected, expanded and updated. This is a companion book to our other title Extended irreversible thermodynamics (D. Jou, J. Casas-Vázquez and G. Lebon, Springer, 4th edition 2010), and of the textbook Understanding non-equilibrium thermodynamics (G. Lebon, D. Jou and J. Casas-Vázquez, Springer, 2008. The present book is more specialized than its counterpart, as it focuses its attention on the non-equilibrium thermodynamics of flowing fluids, incorporating non-trivial thermodynamic contributions of the flow, going beyond local equilibrium theories, i.e., including the effects of internal variables and of external forcing due to the flow. Whereas the book's first edition was much more focused on polymer solutions, with brief glimpses into ideal and real gases, the present edition covers a much wider variety of systems, such as: diluted and concentrated polymer solutions, polymer blends, laminar and turbulent superfluids, phonon hydrodynamics and heat transport in nanosystems, nuclear collisions, far-from-equilibrium ideal gases, and molecular solutions. It also deals with a variety of situations, emphasizing the non-equilibrium flow contribution: temperature and entropy in flowing ideal gases, shear-induced effects on phase transitions in real gases and on polymer solutions, stress-induced migration and its application to flow chromatography, Taylor dispersion, anomalous diffusion in flowing systems, the influence of the flow on chemical reactions, and polymer degradation. The new edition is not only broader in scope, but more educational in character, and with more emphasis on applications, in keeping with our times. It provides many examples of how a deeper theoretical understanding may bring new and more efficient applications, forging links between theoretical progress and practical aims. This updated version expands on the trusted content of its predecessor, making it more interesting and useful for a larger audience.
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Transport and Rate Processes in Physical & Biological Systems

Author: Yasar Demirel

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080479729

Category: Science

Page: 420

View: 1156

The book begins with a brief review of equilibrium systems and transport and rate processes, then covers the following areas: theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics; dissipation function; entropy and exergy; analysis and case studies on using the second law of thermodynamics; economic impact of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics theory; analysis of transport and rate processes; membrane transport; dissipative structures and biological systems; and other thermodynamic approaches and extended nonequilibrium thermodynamics. · Summarizes new applications of thermodynamics as tools for design and optimisation · Covers second law and exergy analysis for sustainable development · Promotes understanding of the coupled phenomena of natural processes
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The Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes and Generalized Hydrodynamics

Author: Byung Chan Eu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306480492

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 3930

Despite a long history of almost 180 years stretching back to the times of Carnot and, later, Clausius and Lord Kelvin, amongst others following him, the subject of thermodynamics has not as yet seen its full maturity, in the sense that the theory of irreversible processes has remained incomplete. The works of L. Onsager, J. Meixner, I. Prigogine on the thermodyn- ics of linear irreversible processes are, in effect, the early efforts toward the desired goal of giving an adequate description of irreversible processes, but their theory is confined to near-equilibrium phenomena. The works in recent years by various research workers on the extension of the aforem- tioned thermodynamic theory of linear irreversible processes are further efforts toward the goal mentioned. The present work is another of such efforts and a contribution to the subject of generalizing the thermodyn- ics of reversible processes, namely, equilibrium thermodynamics, to that of irreversible processes—non-equilibrium thermodynamics, without being restricted to linear irreversible processes. In this context the terms ‘far - moved from equilibrium’ is often used in the literature, and such states of macroscopic systems and non-linear irreversible phenomena in them are the objects of interest in this work. The thermodynamics of processes, either reversible or irreversible, is a continuum mechanical theory of matter and energy and their exchange between different parts of the system, and as such it makes no direct r- erence to the molecules constituting the substance under consideration.
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Author: Byung Chan Eu

Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 732

View: 8112

For almost 20 years the author has conducted research on both macroscopic and molecular theories. The results of his investigation, which can be found in this work, are that irreversible thermodynamics and kinetic theory of matter are not separable especially for nonlinear irreversible processes occurring in systems removed far from equilibrium and thus must be examined together in a mutually consistent manner. Includes coverage of such topics as mass and momentum conservation law, bilinear and quadratic forms for entropy production, viscous phenomena, boundary conditions for velocities and much more.
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A Nonequilibrium Ensemble Formalism

Author: Roberto Luzzi,Áurea R. Vasconcellos,J. Galvão Ramos

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402004827

Category: Science

Page: 301

View: 7093

Within the framework of Jaynes' "Predictive Statistical Mechanics", this book presents a detailed derivation of an ensemble formalism for open systems arbitrarily away from equilibrium. This involves a large systematization and extension of the fundamental works and ideas of the outstanding pioneers Gibbs and Boltzmann, and of Bogoliubov, Kirkwood, Green, Mori, Zwanzig, Prigogine and Zubarev, among others. Chapters 1 to 5 include a description of the philosophy, foundations, and construction (methodology) of the formalism, including the derivation of a nonequilibrium grand-canonical ensemble for far-from-equilibrium systems as well as the derivation of a quantum nonlinear kinetic theory and a response function theory together with a theory of scattering. In chapter 6 applications of the theory are cataloged, making comparisons with experimental data (a basic step for the validation of any theory). Chapter 7 is devoted to the description of irreversible thermodynamics, providing a far-reaching generalization of Informational-Statistical Thermodynamics. The last chapter gives an overall picture of the formalism, and questions and criticisms related to it are discussed. Audience: This book is directed at an audience of researchers in the field of Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics of open nonequilibrium systems. In addition, it is relevant for the study of far-from-equilibrium processes in condensed matter, particularly semiconductor physics, as well as molecular Hydrodynamics, Rheology, many-body systems with complex behavior and areas of engineering, etc. The book can also be used as a complement to advanced graduate courses in Statistical Mechanics.
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Author: R. P. Rastogi

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080551807

Category: Science

Page: 356

View: 483

Introduction to Non-equilibrium Physical Chemistry presents a critical and comprehensive account of Non-equilibrium Physical Chemistry from theoretical and experimental angle. It covers a wide spectrum of non-equilibrium phenomena from steady state close to equilibrium to non-linear region involving transition to bistability, temporal oscillations, spatio-temporal oscillations and finally to far from equilibrium phenomena such as complex pattern formation, dynamic instability at interfaces, Chaos and complex growth phenomena (fractals) in Physico-chemical systems. Part I of the book deals with theory and experimental studies concerning transport phenomena in membranes (Thermo-osmosis,Electroosmotic ) and in continuous systems (Thermal diffusion,Soret effect) close to equilibrium Experimental tests provide insight into the domain of validity of Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics ,which is the major theoretical tool for this region. Later developments in Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics and Non-equilibrium Molecular dynamics have been discussed in the Appendix. Part II deals with non-linear steady states and bifurcation to multistability, temporal and spatio- temporal oscillations (Chemical waves). Similarly Part II deals with more complex phenomena such as Chaos and fractal growth occurring in very far from equilibrium region. Newer mathematical techniques for investigating such phenomena along with available experimental studies. Part IV deals with analogous non-equilibrium phenomena occurring in the real systems (Socio-political, Finance and Living systems etc.) for which physico-chemical systems discussed in earlier chapters provide a useful model for development of theories based on non-linear science and science of complexity. The book provides a critical account of theoretical studies on non-equilibrium phenomenon from region close to equilibrium to far equilibrium Experimental studies have been reported which provide test of the theories and their limitations Impacts of the concepts developed in non-equilibrium Physical Chemistry in sociology, economics and other social science and living systems has been discussed
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Author: Evaristo Riande,Ricardo Diaz-Calleja

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420030471

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 600

View: 8688

Electrical Properties of Polymers describes the electric phenomena responsible for determining the chemical and supramolecular structure of polymers and polymeric materials. The authors explore the properties of quasi-static dipoles, reviewing Brownian motion, Debye theory, Langevin and Smoluchowski equations, and the Onsager model. This reference displays Maxwell and entropy equations, along with several others, that depict the thermodynamics of dielectric relaxation. Featuring end-of-chapter problems and useful appendices, the book reviews molecular dynamics simulations of dynamic dielectric properties and inspects mean-square dipole moments of gases, liquids, polymers, and fixed conformations.
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Author: Dieter Straub

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080527079

Category: Science

Page: 377

View: 5973

Alternative Mathematical Theory of Non-equilibrium Phenomena presents an entirely new theoretical approach to complex non-equilibrium phenomena, especially Gibbs/Falk thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. This innovative new theory allows for inclusion of all state variables and introduces a new vector-dissipation velocity-which leads to useful restatements of momentum, the Second Law, and tensors for the laws of motion, friction, and heat conduction. This application-oriented text is relatively self-contained and is an excellent guide-book for engineers with a strong interest in fundamentals, or for professionals using applied mathematics and physics in engineering applications. This book emphasizes macroscopic phenomena, focusing specifically on gaseous states, though relations to liquid and crystalline states are also considered. The author presents a new Alternative Continuum Theory of Compressible Fluids (AT) which providesa qualitative description of the subject in predominantly physical terms, minimizing the mathematical premises. The methodology discussed has applications in a wide range of fields outside of physics in areas including General System Theory, TheoreticalEconomics, and Biophysics and Medicine. Presents the first theory capable of handling non-equilibria phenomena Offers a unified theory of all branches of macroscopic physics Considers a consistent and uniform view of reality, supported by modern mathematics, leading to results different than those produced by classical theories Results in a change of paradigms in physics, engineering, and natural philosophy
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