Author: David Jou,Jose Casas-Vazquez,Georgy Lebon

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642976719

Category: Science

Page: 383

View: 8242

Modern technology strives towards higher speed, higher power, and higher miniaturiza tion. In these conditions, the classical transport equations must be updated in order to incorporate memory, non-local, and non-linear effects. These effects have been studied by starting from microscopic models which are specific to particular systems and whose solution requires mathematical approximations and boundary conditions. The aim of extended irreversible thermodynamics is to complement such microscopic analyses with a macroscopic framework which could play, with respect to the generalized trans port equations incorporating the aforementioned effects, a role similar to the one played by classical thermodynamics with respect to the classical transport equations. Such a macroscopic framework is particularly useful for comparing the results obtained from various microscopic models, for placing some restrictions on the range of validity of different approximations, and for settling a discussion on some basic concepts that arise unavoidably in a formalism that crosses the frontiers of the local-equilibrium theory. Extended irreversible thermodynamics is not at all in conflict with the classical theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and rational thermodynamics but must be viewed as a relevant extension of the scope of these descriptions. For the student or the researcher, it may be stimulating to go beyond the classical theories and to enter a of new ideas, new applications, and new problems.
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Author: D. Jou,J. Casas-Vazquez,G. Lebon

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642565654

Category: Science

Page: 463

View: 2242

Covers a wide spectrum of applications and contains a wide discussion of the foundations and the scope of the most current theories of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The new edition reflects new developments and contains a new chapter on the interplay between hydrodynamics and thermodynamics.
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Author: David Jou,Georgy Lebon,José Casas-Vázquez

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048130740

Category: Science

Page: 483

View: 2377

The fast progress in many areas of research related to non-equilibrium ther- dynamics has prompted us to write a fourth edition of this book. Like in the previous editions, our main concern is to open the subject to the widest au- ence, including students, teachers, and researchers in physics, chemistry, engine- ing, biology, and materials sciences. Our objective is to present a general view on several open problems arising in non-equilibrium situations, and to afford a wide perspective of applications illustrating their practical outcomes and con- quences. A better comprehension of the foundations is generally correlated to an increase of the range of applications, implying mutual feedback and cross fert- ization. Truly, thermodynamic methods are widely used in many areas of science but, surprisingly, the active dynamism of thermodynamics as a ?eld on its own is not suf?ciently perceived outside a relatively reduced number of specialized researchers. Extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT) goes beyond the classical f- malisms based on the local equilibrium hypothesis; it was also referred to in an earlier publication by the authors (Lebon et al. 1992) as a thermodynamics of the third type, as it provides a bridge between classical irreversible thermodynamics and rational thermodynamics, enlarging at the same time their respective range of application. The salient feature of the theory is that the ?uxes are incorporated into the set of basic variables.
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Author: Roberto Luzzi,Aurea R. Vasconcellos,J. Galvao Ramos

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3322800199

Category: Science

Page: 182

View: 3218

Some aspects of the physics of many-body systems arbitrarily away from equilibrium, mainly the characterization and irreversible evolution of their macroscopic state, are considered. The present status of phenomenological irreversible thermodynamics is described. An approach for building a statistical thermodynamics - dubbed Informational-Statistical-Thermodynamics - based on a non-equilibrium statistical ensemble formalism is presented. The formalism can be considered as encompassed within the scope of the so-called Predictive Statistical Mechanics, in which the predictability of future states in terms of the knowledge of present and past states, and the question of historicity in the case of systems with complex behaviour, is its main characteristic. The book is recommended for researchers in the area of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, as well as a textbook for advanced courses for graduate students in the area of condensed matter physics.
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Author: David Jou,José Casas-Vázquez,Manuel Criado-Sancho

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400701991

Category: Science

Page: 301

View: 7350

This is the second edition of the book “Thermodynamics of Fluids under Flow,” which was published in 2000 and has now been corrected, expanded and updated. This is a companion book to our other title Extended irreversible thermodynamics (D. Jou, J. Casas-Vázquez and G. Lebon, Springer, 4th edition 2010), and of the textbook Understanding non-equilibrium thermodynamics (G. Lebon, D. Jou and J. Casas-Vázquez, Springer, 2008. The present book is more specialized than its counterpart, as it focuses its attention on the non-equilibrium thermodynamics of flowing fluids, incorporating non-trivial thermodynamic contributions of the flow, going beyond local equilibrium theories, i.e., including the effects of internal variables and of external forcing due to the flow. Whereas the book's first edition was much more focused on polymer solutions, with brief glimpses into ideal and real gases, the present edition covers a much wider variety of systems, such as: diluted and concentrated polymer solutions, polymer blends, laminar and turbulent superfluids, phonon hydrodynamics and heat transport in nanosystems, nuclear collisions, far-from-equilibrium ideal gases, and molecular solutions. It also deals with a variety of situations, emphasizing the non-equilibrium flow contribution: temperature and entropy in flowing ideal gases, shear-induced effects on phase transitions in real gases and on polymer solutions, stress-induced migration and its application to flow chromatography, Taylor dispersion, anomalous diffusion in flowing systems, the influence of the flow on chemical reactions, and polymer degradation. The new edition is not only broader in scope, but more educational in character, and with more emphasis on applications, in keeping with our times. It provides many examples of how a deeper theoretical understanding may bring new and more efficient applications, forging links between theoretical progress and practical aims. This updated version expands on the trusted content of its predecessor, making it more interesting and useful for a larger audience.
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Author: S. R. De Groot,P. Mazur

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486153509

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 506

Classic monograph treats irreversible processes and phenomena of thermodynamics: non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Covers statistical foundations and applications with chapters on fluctuation theory, theory of stochastic processes, kinetic theory of gases, more.
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theory and applications

Author: Katrine Seip Førland,Tormod Førland

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc

ISBN: 9780471917069

Category: Science

Page: 281

View: 4222

Irreversible thermodynamics is an extension of classical thermodynamics which provides a unified method of examining transport processes and, in particular, cases where simultaneous transport processes need to be studied together. These are common in various fields such as electrochemistry, chemical engineering, biochemistry and biophysics, metallurgy and geology. In this book, the basic equations of irreversible thermodynamics are derived simply, using a minimum of mathematics firstly for very simple systems, and by example extended into more complex cases. The second part of the book then utilizes this theoretical background to discuss the applications in different fields. Important problems are used as case studies to highlight the use of irreversible thermodynamics in, for example, ion selective electrodes, biological systems and frost heave situations. Irreversible thermodynamics is an increasingly important tool in a number of disciplines and this volume will provide an ideal int
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Author: R. P. Rastogi

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080551807

Category: Science

Page: 356

View: 2603

Introduction to Non-equilibrium Physical Chemistry presents a critical and comprehensive account of Non-equilibrium Physical Chemistry from theoretical and experimental angle. It covers a wide spectrum of non-equilibrium phenomena from steady state close to equilibrium to non-linear region involving transition to bistability, temporal oscillations, spatio-temporal oscillations and finally to far from equilibrium phenomena such as complex pattern formation, dynamic instability at interfaces, Chaos and complex growth phenomena (fractals) in Physico-chemical systems. Part I of the book deals with theory and experimental studies concerning transport phenomena in membranes (Thermo-osmosis,Electroosmotic ) and in continuous systems (Thermal diffusion,Soret effect) close to equilibrium Experimental tests provide insight into the domain of validity of Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics ,which is the major theoretical tool for this region. Later developments in Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics and Non-equilibrium Molecular dynamics have been discussed in the Appendix. Part II deals with non-linear steady states and bifurcation to multistability, temporal and spatio- temporal oscillations (Chemical waves). Similarly Part II deals with more complex phenomena such as Chaos and fractal growth occurring in very far from equilibrium region. Newer mathematical techniques for investigating such phenomena along with available experimental studies. Part IV deals with analogous non-equilibrium phenomena occurring in the real systems (Socio-political, Finance and Living systems etc.) for which physico-chemical systems discussed in earlier chapters provide a useful model for development of theories based on non-linear science and science of complexity. The book provides a critical account of theoretical studies on non-equilibrium phenomenon from region close to equilibrium to far equilibrium Experimental studies have been reported which provide test of the theories and their limitations Impacts of the concepts developed in non-equilibrium Physical Chemistry in sociology, economics and other social science and living systems has been discussed
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Author: Ingo Müller,Tommaso Ruggeri

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468404474

Category: Science

Page: 230

View: 4099

Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics through the exploitation of its predictions for measurements of light scattering and sound propagation.
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Foundations, Applications, Frontiers

Author: Georgy Lebon,David Jou

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540742524

Category: Science

Page: 326

View: 2082

Discover the many facets of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The first part of this book describes the current thermodynamic formalism recognized as the classical theory. The second part focuses on different approaches. Throughout the presentation, the emphasis is on problem-solving applications. To help build your understanding, some problems have been analyzed using several formalisms to underscore their differences and their similarities.
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Foundations, Applications, Frontiers

Author: Georgy Lebon,David Jou

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540742524

Category: Science

Page: 326

View: 9384

Discover the many facets of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The first part of this book describes the current thermodynamic formalism recognized as the classical theory. The second part focuses on different approaches. Throughout the presentation, the emphasis is on problem-solving applications. To help build your understanding, some problems have been analyzed using several formalisms to underscore their differences and their similarities.
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Dedicated to the Memory of Professor Theodor Lehmann

Author: W. Muschik

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3709143217

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 329

View: 5504

This book puts emphasis on developing the basic ideas behind the different approaches to non-equilibrium thermodynamics and on applying them to solids. After a survey about different approaches an introduction to their common fundamentals is given in the first part. In the second part the mechanical behavior of special materials such as viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, viscoelastoplasticity, and thermoplasticity are discussed. The third part is devoted to extended thermodynamics. The basic ideas, phenomenological as well as microscopical, are reviewed and applied to thermo- and viscoelastic materials. Electromagnetic solids showing dielectric relaxation, such as ceramics, showing electromagneto-mechanical hysteresis and superconductivity are treated in the fourth part. In the last part stability with regard to constitutive equations is investigated. Especially stability of quasi-static processes and of elastic-plastic systems are discussed.
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Author: Stanislaw Sieniutycz

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128093390

Category: Science

Page: 738

View: 2998

Thermodynamic Approaches in Engineering Systems responds to the need for a synthesizing volume that throws light upon the extensive field of thermodynamics from a chemical engineering perspective that applies basic ideas and key results from the field to chemical engineering problems. This book outlines and interprets the most valuable achievements in applied non-equilibrium thermodynamics obtained within the recent fifty years. It synthesizes nontrivial achievements of thermodynamics in important branches of chemical and biochemical engineering. Readers will gain an update on what has been achieved, what new research problems could be stated, and what kind of further studies should be developed within specialized research. Presents clearly structured chapters beginning with an introduction, elaboration of the process, and results summarized in a conclusion Written by a first-class expert in the field of advanced methods in thermodynamics Provides a synthesis of recent thermodynamic developments in practical systems Presents very elaborate literature discussions from the past fifty years
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Transport and Rate Processes in Physical, Chemical and Biological Systems

Author: Yasar Demirel

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0444595813

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 792

View: 5357

Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapter on stochastic approaches to include the statistical thermodynamics, mesoscopic nonequilibrium thermodynamics, fluctuation theory, information theory, and modeling the coupled biochemical systems in thermodynamic analysis. This new addition also comes with more examples and practice problems. Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field Contributions from leading authorities and industry experts A useful text for seniors and graduate students from diverse engineering and science programs to analyze some nonequilibrium, coupled, evolutionary, stochastic, and dissipative processes Highlights fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics, transport processes and chemical reactions Expands the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and its use in coupled transport processes and chemical reactions in physical, chemical, and biological systems Presents a unified analysis for transport and rate processes in various time and space scales Discusses stochastic approaches in thermodynamic analysis including fluctuation and information theories Has 198 fully solved examples and 287 practice problems An Instructor Resource containing the Solution Manual can be obtained from the author: [email protected]
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The Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes and Generalized Hydrodynamics

Author: Byung Chan Eu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306480492

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 1900

Despite a long history of almost 180 years stretching back to the times of Carnot and, later, Clausius and Lord Kelvin, amongst others following him, the subject of thermodynamics has not as yet seen its full maturity, in the sense that the theory of irreversible processes has remained incomplete. The works of L. Onsager, J. Meixner, I. Prigogine on the thermodyn- ics of linear irreversible processes are, in effect, the early efforts toward the desired goal of giving an adequate description of irreversible processes, but their theory is confined to near-equilibrium phenomena. The works in recent years by various research workers on the extension of the aforem- tioned thermodynamic theory of linear irreversible processes are further efforts toward the goal mentioned. The present work is another of such efforts and a contribution to the subject of generalizing the thermodyn- ics of reversible processes, namely, equilibrium thermodynamics, to that of irreversible processes—non-equilibrium thermodynamics, without being restricted to linear irreversible processes. In this context the terms ‘far - moved from equilibrium’ is often used in the literature, and such states of macroscopic systems and non-linear irreversible phenomena in them are the objects of interest in this work. The thermodynamics of processes, either reversible or irreversible, is a continuum mechanical theory of matter and energy and their exchange between different parts of the system, and as such it makes no direct r- erence to the molecules constituting the substance under consideration.
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Ensemble Method

Author: Byung Chan Eu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401724385

Category: Science

Page: 394

View: 8429

In this monograph, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics is developed by means of ensemble methods on the basis of the Boltzmann equation, the generic Boltzmann equations for classical and quantum dilute gases, and a generalised Boltzmann equation for dense simple fluids. The theories are developed in forms parallel with the equilibrium Gibbs ensemble theory in a way fully consistent with the laws of thermodynamics. The generalised hydrodynamics equations are the integral part of the theory and describe the evolution of macroscopic processes in accordance with the laws of thermodynamics of systems far removed from equilibrium. Audience: This book will be of interest to researchers in the fields of statistical mechanics, condensed matter physics, gas dynamics, fluid dynamics, rheology, irreversible thermodynamics and nonequilibrium phenomena.
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Energy Flow, Thermodynamics, and Life

Author: Eric D. Schneider,Dorion Sagan

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226739368

Category: Science

Page: 362

View: 8897

Demonstrates how the second law of thermodynamics--which refers to energy's tendency to change from being concentrated in one place to being spread out over time--is behind evolution, ecology, economics, and even the origins of life itself in this scientific tour de force that explores how complex systems emerge, enlarge, and reproduce in a chaotic world.
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Author: Paul McEvoy

Publisher: MicroAnalytix

ISBN: 9781930832022

Category: Science

Page: 550

View: 6465

This handbook explains the theory of local nonequilibrium thermodynamics that is constructed from microscopic particle statistical mechanics. Each thermodynamic quantity is based on a particle analog.
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