Author: John S. Buckleton,Jo-Anne Bright,Duncan Taylor

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1315360128

Category: Law

Page: 496

View: 6119

Now in its second edition, Forensic DNA Evidence Interpretation is the most comprehensive resource for DNA casework available today. Written by leaders in the fields of biology and statistics, including a contribution from Peter Gill, the father of DNA analysis, the book emphasizes the interpretation of test results and provides the necessary formulae in an easily accessible manner. This latest edition is fully updated and includes current and emerging techniques in this fast-moving field. The book begins by reviewing all pertinent biology, and then provides information on every aspect of DNA analysis. This includes modern interpretation methods and contemporary population genetic models available for estimating DNA frequencies or likelihood ratios. Following a chapter on procedures for validating databases, the text presents overviews and performance assessments of both modern sampling uncertainty methods and current paternity testing techniques, including new guidelines on paternity testing in alignment with the International Society for Forensic Genetics. Later chapters discuss the latest methods for mixture analysis, LCN (ultra trace) analysis and non-autosomal (mito, X, and Y) DNA analysis. The text concludes with an overview of procedures for disaster victim identification and information on DNA intelligence databases. Highlights of the second edition include: New information about PCR processes, heterozygote balance and back and forward stuttering New information on the interpretation of low template DNA, drop models and continuous models Additional coverage of lineage marker subpopulation effects, mixtures and combinations with autosomal markers This authoritative book provides a link among the biological, forensic, and interpretative domains of the DNA profiling field. It continues to serve as an invaluable resource that allows forensic scientists, technicians, molecular biologists and attorneys to use forensic DNA evidence to its greatest potential.
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Author: Christopher M. Triggs,John S. Buckleton,Simon J. Walsh

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849330179

Category: Law

Page: 552

View: 1103

Forensic DNA Evidence Interpretation is the most comprehensive resource for DNA casework available today. Written by leaders in the fields of biology and statistics, the book emphasizes the interpretation of test results and provides the necessary formulae in an easily accessible manner. The book begins by reviewing all pertinent biology, and then provides information on every aspect of DNA analysis, including modern interpretation methods and issues, and contemporary population genetic models available for estimating DNA frequencies or likelihood ratios. Following a chapter on procedures for validating databases, the text presents overviews and performance assessments of both modern sampling uncertainty methods and current paternity testing techniques. Later chapters discuss the latest methods for mixture analysis, LCN (ultra trace) analysis, and non-autosomal (mito, X, and Y) DNA analysis. The text concludes with procedures for disaster victim identification and information on DNA intelligence databases. Supported by numerous tables and over 800 references, this authoritative book provides a link among the biological, forensic, and interpretative domains of the DNA profiling field. It is a valuable resource that allows forensic scientists and technicians, molecular biologists, and attorneys to use forensic DNA evidence to its greatest potential.
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Author: Norah Rudin,Keith Inman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420058505

Category: Law

Page: 312

View: 7996

Significant advances in DNA analysis techniques have surfaced since the 1997 publication of the bestselling An Introduction to Forensic DNA Analysis. DNA typing has become increasingly automated and miniaturized. Also, with the advent of Short Tandem Repeat (STR) technology, even the most minute sample of degraded DNA can yield a profile, providing valuable case information. However, just as the judicial system slowly and reluctantly accepted RFLP and AmpliType® PM+DQA1 typing, it is now scrutinizing the admissibility of STRs. Acknowledging STR typing as the current system of choice, An Introduction to Forensic DNA Analysis, Second Edition translates new and established concepts into plain English so that laypeople can gain insight into how DNA analysis works, from sample collection to interpretation of results. In response to the shift toward more efficient techniques, the authors cover the legal admissibility of STR typing, expand the chapter on DNA databases, and revise the section on automated analysis. They also present key decisions and appellate or supreme court rulings that provide precedent at the state and federal levels. Discussing forensic DNA issues from both a scientific and a legal perspective, the authors of An Introduction to Forensic DNA Analysis, Second Edition present the material in a manner understandable by professionals in the legal system, law enforcement, and forensic science. They cover general principles in a clear fashion and include a glossary of terms and other useful appendices for easy reference.
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Biology, Technology, and Genetics of STR Markers

Author: John M. Butler

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080470610

Category: Law

Page: 688

View: 3232

Forensic DNA Typing, Second Edition, is the only book available that specifically covers detailed information on mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome. It examines the science of current forensic DNA typing methods by focusing on the biology, technology, and genetic interpretation of short tandem repeat (STR) markers, which encompass the most common forensic DNA analysis methods used today. The book covers topics from introductory level right up to cutting edge research. High-profile cases are addressed throughout the text, near the sections dealing with the science or issues behind these cases. Ten new chapters have been added to accommodate the explosion of new information since the turn of the century. These additional chapters cover statistical genetic analysis of DNA data, an emerging field of interest to DNA research. Several chapters on statistical analysis of short tandem repeat (STR) typing data have been contributed by Dr. George Carmody, a well-respected professor in forensic genetics. Specific examples make the concepts of population genetics more understandable. This book will be of interest to researchers and practitioners in forensic DNA analysis, forensic scientists, population geneticists, military and private and public forensic laboratories (for identifying individuals through remains), and students of forensic science. *The only book available that specifically covers detailed information on mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome *Chapters cover the topic from introductory level right up to "cutting edge" research *High-profile cases are addressed throughout the book, near the sections dealing with the science or issues behind these cases *NEW TO THIS EDITION: D.N.A. Boxes--boxed "Data, Notes & Applications" sections throughout the book offer higher levels of detail on specific questions
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Author: David E. Newton

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1440850488

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 4834

This accessibly written book introduces readers to DNA—one of the most important technologies for the manipulation of all forms of life, from simple bacteria to plants and animals. It also addresses the most important social, ethical, political, economic, and other issues raised by this form of technology. • Provides an engaging and readable introduction to the topic of DNA technology that enables anyone—even readers with a minimal background in science—to understand the science and technology involved in many of today's key social issues • Offers a thoroughly updated version of the information and topics first presented in the successful first edition of this book • Presents an extensive range of reference materials that include an extended annotated bibliography and extensive endnotes • Includes a Documents and Data chapter that provides excerpts from important laws, court cases, government reports, and other primary sources
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Science and the Criminal Law, Second Edition

Author: Terrence F. Kiely

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420038060

Category: Law

Page: 536

View: 1813

One of the greatest challenges encountered by those in the forensic sciences is anticipating what the state and federal courts will – or will not – allow as valid physical evidence. With this in mind, the author of Forensic Evidence: Science and the Criminal Law, Second Edition analyzes and explains the judicial system’s response to the applicability of forensic science in the investigation, prosecution, and defense of criminal activity. Each chapter of this comprehensive yet accessible resource provides an overview and analysis of the scientific and legal aspects of a particular forensic discipline. An important new feature of this second edition is that each chapter focuses on discussions of recent forensics literature reviews from Interpol’s 14th Annual Forensic Science Symposium. This latest edition also updates previously discussed cases and presents the most recent applications of the Frye and Daubert standards, the admissibility of eyewitness identification, the upsurge of cases and statutes that involve post-conviction DNA, and the increased interest in re-examining cold cases. As challenges to forensic evidence become increasingly rigorous, so does the need for intense preparation. Forensic Evidence: Science and the Criminal Law, Second Edition is the book that those in the forensic sciences need to have on hand to successfully prepare for what may await them in the courtroom.
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Author: John M. Butler

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080961767

Category: Law

Page: 520

View: 2650

Fundamentals of Forensic DNA Typing is written with a broad viewpoint. It examines the methods of current forensic DNA typing, focusing on short tandem repeats (STRs). It encompasses current forensic DNA analysis methods, as well as biology, technology and genetic interpretation. This book reviews the methods of forensic DNA testing used in the first two decades since early 1980’s, and it offers perspectives on future trends in this field, including new genetic markers and new technologies. Furthermore, it explains the process of DNA testing from collection of samples through DNA extraction, DNA quantitation, DNA amplification, and statistical interpretation. The book also discusses DNA databases, which play an important role in law enforcement investigations. In addition, there is a discussion about ethical concerns in retaining DNA profiles and the issues involved when people use a database to search for close relatives. Students of forensic DNA analysis, forensic scientists, and members of the law enforcement and legal professions who want to know more about STR typing will find this book invaluable. Includes a glossary with over 400 terms for quick reference of unfamiliar terms as well as an acronym guide to decipher the DNA dialect Continues in the style of Forensic DNA Typing, 2e, with high-profile cases addressed in D.N.A.Boxes-- "Data, Notes & Applications" sections throughout Ancillaries include: instructor manual Web site, with tailored set of 1000+ PowerPoint slides (including figures), links to online training websites and a test bank with key
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Author: Richard Li

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439889724

Category: Law

Page: 567

View: 8346

Over the last several years, new research and developments in analysis methods and practice have led to rapid advancements in forensic biology. Identifying critical points of knowledge and new methodological approaches in the field, Forensic Biology, Second Edition focuses on forensic serology and forensic DNA analysis. It provides students and professionals with a scientific grounding in biological evidence—both the techniques used to identify it and the methodology to analyze it. This second edition: Introduces the language of forensic biology, enabling students to become comfortable with usage and terminology Provides clear explanations of the principles of forensic identification and analysis of biological evidence Explains forensic serology and DNA techniques used in the field and the laboratory Discusses the benefits and limitations that apply to various forensic biology techniques Includes schematic illustrations to clarify concepts Presents three new chapters created for this edition Adds more than two hundred new color figures Covering the full scope of forensic biology, the book uses an accessible, straightforward style designed to enhance students’ education and training so they are prepared, both in the laboratory and in the field.
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The Basics, Second Edition

Author: Jay A. Siegel,Kathy Mirakovits

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849346316

Category: Law

Page: 560

View: 6018

Forensic Science: The Basics explains every aspects of crime scene investigation, moving from basic areas of criminalistics and beyond to pathology, anthropology, and engineering. It also explores new and emerging areas such as forensic entomology. With no previous knowledge of either science or law required, information is self-contained and conveyed at the lowest possible non-scientific level, making this text suitable for both lower level academic adoptions as well as for a general audience. It also offers a complete package of ancillary material for instructors. Comprehensive and Up-to-Date • Covers DNA, drugs, firearms, fingerprints, and trace evidence • Includes cutting-edge material on spectroscopy, chromatography, microscopy, odontology, and entomology • Demonstrates the practical application of modern chemistry, biology, and other laboratory sciences Each chapter: • Opens with learning objectives, a chapter outline, and an introduction • Closes with a summary and review questions for self-testing • Contains real-life examples, many from the author’s own experience Build an exceptional classroom experience with this dynamic resource! • More than 200 full color nongraphic illustrations • Countless figures, tables, and charts • A wealth of supporting material including lecture slides and test questions available on www.classwire.com • Real case studies to demonstrate forensic concepts in action • Suggested student projects to reinforce learning Appropriate for High School and University Students • Written in the lucid and concise style of a master teacher • Fully explains the scientific basics required • Omits potentially traumatic photographs and subject matter About the Author Eminently qualified to create this work, Jay Siegel is both a practicing forensic expert and a master instructor. He has worked for the Virginia Bureau of Forensic Sciences and published extensively in the field. He continues to be called upon as an expert witness, having testified over 200 times in state, federal, and military courts across the country. With nearly thirty years of teaching experience, he is highly active in curriculum development for forensic science classes taught at all levels, from junior high through graduate school. He is currently director of the Forensic and Investigative Sciences Program at Purdue University in Indiana. In February of 2009, Mr. Siegel received the "Distinguished Fellow" award from the American Academy of Forensic Sciences at its annual meeting. This is the highest honor that the Academy bestows upon a fellow. In addition, George Washington University has selected Mr. Siegel for the 2008-2009 "Distinguished Alumni Scholar." This award, the highest that the University bestows upon its alumni, is designated for those who have made truly outstanding contributions to the knowledge base of their disciplines. For Instructors Only: Develop and Customize Your Curriculum Draw from hundreds of PowerPoint® slides and illustrations to supplement your lectures Organize your class with Dr. Siegel’s helpful outlines and learning objectives Review answers to end-of-chapter questions Build exams for different levels from a giant test bank of problems This book also works in conjunction with Forensic Science Laboratory Manual and Workbook, Revised Edition. All ancillary material will be available in convenient website format at www.classwire.com. Upon request, photographs, lecture slides, and a test bank are also available to instructors on CD.
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Identification and DNA Analysis of Biological Evidence

Author: Richard Li

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 430

View: 2532

Designed as an accessible introduction to basic scientific principles and their application in professional practice, Forensic Biology provides a concise overview of the field. Focusing solely on the science behind the forensic analysis of biological evidence, this book highlights the principles, methods, and techniques used in forensic serologic and forensic DNA analysis. Divided into two areas, the first addresses the identification of biological fluids including blood, semen, and saliva. Chapters instruct on the identification techniques involved in presumptive and confirmatory tests. The second area covers the individualization of biological evidence using forensic DNA techniques. The book demonstrates extraction methods, quantization methods, DNA profiling analysis, and interpretation of results. Each technique introduced in this text is preceded by a brief background of its development and the basic principles that support the technique and its applications. All methods are discussed in detail and accompanied by schematic illustrations where appropriate. Each chapter presents study questions, and references. Instructors have access to a CD containing PowerPoint lecture slides. Emphasizing the fundamentals of basic science and its application to forensic biology, this book provides a solid scientific grounding and familiarity with not just the principles of biological and biochemical processes that occur in forensic analysis, but also the language and vocabulary of forensic biology. The explanations are accessible and straightforward, and informative to facilitate effective learning.
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Author: David J. Balding,Christopher D. Steele

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111881455X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 240

View: 4764

DNA evidence is widely used in the modern justice system. Statistical methodology plays a key role in ensuring that this evidence is collected, interpreted, analysed and presented correctly. This book is a guide to assessing DNA evidence and presenting that evidence in a courtroom setting. It offers practical guidance to forensic scientists with little dependence on mathematical ability, and provides the scientist with the understanding they require to apply the methods in their work. Since the publication of the first edition of this book in 2005 there have been many incremental changes, and one dramatic change which is the emergence of low template DNA (LTDNA) profiles. This second edition is edited and expanded to cover the basics of LTDNA technology. The author′s own open–source R code likeLTD is described and used for worked examples in the book. Commercial and free software are also covered.
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Author: William G. Eckert

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439821909

Category: Law

Page: 404

View: 8214

Introduction to Forensic Sciences, Second Edition is the current edition of this bestselling introductory textbook. Dr. William Eckert, one of the world's foremost authorities in the area of forensic medicine, presents each of the distinct fields that collectively comprise the forensic sciences in a logical, relatively non-technical fashion. Each chapter is written by a well-known expert in his/her respective field, and each specialty area is thoroughly treated. When appropriate, the various methods of applying these sciences in different countries are covered. Heavily illustrated, the Second Edition has been updated to include current procedures and techniques that were not available or usefully developed when the first edition was published. Features include:
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Author: Vincent J.M. DiMaio, M.D.,Suzanna E. Dana, M.D.

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849392870

Category: Law

Page: 326

View: 446

Handbook of Forensic Pathology, Second Edition is an up-to-date, concise manual illustrating all core aspects of modern forensic pathology. This edition retains the outline format of the original, which allows for quick access and rapid assimilation. Written in no-nonsense, easily understandable language, this precise and thorough yet compact resource contains extensively detailed entries from two of the nation’s foremost authorities on gunshot wounds and forensic pathology. With numerous instructional charts and diagrams and color photographs, it organizes a wealth of instructional and immediately applicable information. Features of the second edition include a chapter on nursing home death, added information on gunshot residue, and research on tasers, pepper spray, and excited delirium syndrome. Introducing medicolegal casework and documentation, this book explains protocols for the collection and recovery of evidence and DNA analysis and lists factors used to determine time of death and identity of the deceased. It identifies the natural causes of death in children and adults before devoting the remaining chapters to the myriad of non-natural causes including homicide, suicide, accidental, and undetermined. With meticulous detail and instant access to extensive information, this handbook is an indispensable tool for forensic pathologists, law enforcement, and legal personnel, as well as pathologists in training.
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Author: David R. Senn,Paul G. Stimson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420078374

Category: Law

Page: 470

View: 6430

The identification of unknown individuals and the estimation of age, race, and gender are among the chief functions of forensic dentistry. Other important applications include the investigation and analysis of bitemarks and oral injuries in abuse cases and evaluating, reporting, and testifying in civil litigation cases. Twelve years after the benchmark first edition of this book explored these topics, the long-awaited Forensic Dentistry, Second Edition offers a comprehensive update and revision of the material. Offering insight from many new contributors on the cutting edge of forensic science and odontology, this new edition expands the book’s scope to include a broader historical and theoretical analysis, a thorough assessment of the past decade’s developments, and a far-reaching projection of future trends. New topics in the second edition include: Forensic dental radiography Age estimation Jurisprudence and legal issues History of forensic dentistry Landmark cases, including September 11th and Hurricane Katrina In order for forensic odontology to continue to progress as a specialty of forensic science, there must be a consistent stream of new ideas and original and applied research. Heavily illustrated and enhanced with a 16-page color insert with additional photos, this volume captures the critical issues that confront today’s forensic dentist, explores the field’s limitations, and provides a window on the future of this crucial sector within the forensic identification science arena.
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The Basics, Second Edition

Author: Kathy Mirakovits

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439895058

Category: Law

Page: 525

View: 1630

As forensic science continues to play a wider role in the investigation of crimes and apprehension of criminals, those without crime scene or crime lab training must now become familiar with the techniques and language of the forensic scientist. Avoiding the complicated science and graphic violence typical of most forensic references, this book is written specifically for those without forensic science experience. While it provides a professional reference for those not steeped in the details of forensic science, the wealth of instructor material available for teachers and its pedagogical approach make this an ideal textbook for high school and introductory level courses. Following up on the tremendously popular first edition, Forensic Science: The Basics, Second Edition now adds the insight of a new co-author who is known nationally for training instructors how to teach forensic science at all levels of education. The book takes readers from the initial evidence collection process, through the evaluation procedures, right up to and including the courtroom presentation. Packed with case studies, photographs, and exercises, this book provides everything the non-scientist needs to be able to understand and utilize the vital research approaches that forensic science can offer. "Test Yourself" questions at the end of each chapter familiarize you with the language and approaches needed to understand and communicate with experienced crime scene investigators and laboratory personnel. Offering the forensic sciences at their most accessible, Forensic Science: The Basics, Second Edition is a valuable resource for detectives, journalists, prosecutors, defense attorneys, and other non-science professionals who need to understand, interpret, and report on the newest advances in crime scene investigation. PowerPoint® lecture slides, test bank, and other ancillary material on CD-ROM is available with qualifying course adoption
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An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques, Second Edition

Author: Stuart H. James,Jon J. Nordby,Suzanne Bell,Jon J. Nordby, Ph.D.

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849327476

Category: Law

Page: 778

View: 4502

Written by highly respected forensic scientists and legal practitioners, Forensic Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques, Second Edition covers the latest theories and practices in areas such as DNA testing, toxicology, chemistry of explosives and arson, and vehicle accident reconstruction. This second edition offers a cutting-edge presentation of criminalistics and related laboratory subjects, including many exciting new features. What's New in the Second Edition New chapter on forensic entomology New chapter on forensic nursing Simplified DNA chapter More coverage of the chemistry of explosives and ignitable liquids Additional information on crime reconstruction Revised to include more investigation in computer forensics Complete revisions of engineering chapters New appendices showing basic principles of physics, math, and chemistry in forensic science More questions and answers in the Instructor's Guide Updated references and cases throughout An extensive glossary of terms
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Author: Colin Aitken,Franco Taroni

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 047001122X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 540

View: 1945

The first edition of Statistics and the Evaluation of Evidence for Forensic Scientists established itself as a highly regarded authority on this area. Fully revised and updated, the second edition provides significant new material on areas of current interest including: Glass Interpretation Fibres Interpretation Bayes’ Nets The title presents comprehensive coverage of the statistical evaluation of forensic evidence. It is written with the assumption of a modest mathematical background and is illustrated throughout with up-to-date examples from a forensic science background. The clarity of exposition makes this book ideal for all forensic scientists, lawyers and other professionals in related fields interested in the quantitative assessment and evaluation of evidence. 'There can be no doubt that the appreciation of some evidence in a court of law has been greatly enhanced by the sound use of statistical ideas and one can be confident that the next decade will see further developments, during which time this book will admirably serve those who have cause to use statistics in forensic science.' D.V. Lindley
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A Color Atlas and Text, 2nd Edition

Author: Robert B.J. Dorion

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439818633

Category: Law

Page: 680

View: 9628

The first stand-alone textbook on the subject, this illuminating reference compiles the expertise and recommendations of a team of 21 eminent specialists from the disciplines of forensic odontology, DNA analysis, pathology, and jurisprudence. It is generously illustrated with more than 543 black and white photographs and 32 full-color pages that serve to illustrate the many facets of bitemark recognition, diagnosis, handling, excision, lifting, transillumination, storage, preservation, transportation, analysis, and comparison. Thirty comprehensive chapters illustrate animal and human bitemarks on the living, the deceased, and on objects-incorporating sections on the history of bitemark evidence, salivary DNA, genotypic comparison of oral bacteria, legal and courtroom implications, and expert witness liability.
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An Interdisciplinary Perspective

Author: Dragan Primorac,Moses Schanfield

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466580224

Category: Law

Page: 647

View: 7361

Forensic DNA Applications: An Interdisciplinary Perspective was developed as an outgrowth of a conference held by the International Society of Applied Biological Sciences. The topic was human genome–based applications in forensic science, anthropology, and individualized medicine. Assembling the contributions of contributors from numerous regions around the world, this volume is designed as both a textbook for forensic molecular biology students and a reference for practitioners and those in the legal system. The book begins with the history and development of DNA typing and profiling for criminal and civil purposes. It discusses the statistical interpretation of results with case examples, mitochondrial DNA testing, Y single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and short tandem repeats (STRs), and X SNP and STR testing. It also explores low copy number DNA typing, mixtures, and quality assurance and control. The second section examines the collection and preservation of biological evidence under a variety of different circumstances and the identification of human remains—including in mass disaster settings. It discusses applications to bioterrorism investigations, animal DNA testing in criminal cases, pedigree questions and wildlife forensic problems, applications in forensic entomology, and forensic botany. The third section explores recent developments and new technologies, including the rigorous identification of tissue of origin, mtDNA profiling using immobilized probe strips, chips and next-generation sequencing, the use of SNPs to ascertain phenotypic characteristics, and the "molecular autopsy" that looks at aspects of toxicogenetics and pharmacogenetics. The book concludes with a discussion on law, ethics, and policy. It examines the use of DNA evidence in the criminal justice system in both the United States and Europe, ethical issues in forensic laboratory practices, familial searches, DNA databases, ancestry searches, physical phenotyping, and report writing. The contributors also examine DNA applications in immigration and human trafficking cases and international perspectives on DNA databases.
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Festschrift for Erik Essen-Möller / Festschrift für Erik Essen-Möller

Author: K. Hummel,J. Gerchow

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 364268341X

Category: Medical

Page: 223

View: 603

Eine Vaterschaftssache ist mit der gutachterlichen Stellungnahme nicht erschopft. Am Ende steht vielmehr die Entscheidung des Richters, der im Gegensatz zum Gut achter aIle Fakten zu beriicksichtigen hat, die flir oder gegen die Vaterschaft eines Beklagten sprechen. Es ist daher von Interesse, die bei der Vaterschaftsdiagnostik verwendeten Verfahren vor dem Hintergrund der Entscheidungstheorie der mathe matischen Statistik zu betrachten, ein Vorgehen, wie es bereits bei Walter (1971) zu finden ist. Zur Auswahl stehen die sog. Bayes- und Minimaxstrategien, die beide zu verschiedenen Anforderungen an den Gutachter flihren. Einer Theorie kann man die Analyse des Verhaltens eines Richters zugrunde legen und dieses durch Defini tionen, Axiome und Regeln nachzubilden suchen - notwendigerweise vereinfacht, aber dadurch klarer und durchsichtiger -, oder man stellt Prinzipien auf, die zu ei nem verniinftigen Entscheidungsverhalten flihren, das man zum MaBstab flir die kiinftige Arbeit machen kann. Die hier vorgestellte Entscheidungstheorie beschrei tet den zweiten Weg. Sie dient nicht dem Zweck, die richterliche Funktion durch ein mathematisches Verfahren zu ersetzen, zeigt aber, welche GroBen bei einem op timalen Entscheidungsverfahren zu beriicksichtigen sind. Ein ganz wesentlicher Bei trag kommt hierbei yom Gutachter: das Likelihoodverhaltnis A = Y IX, in dem Zah ler und Nenner die Terzettenwahrscheinlichkeiten bei Nichtvaterschaft (Y) und Vaterschaft (X) bedeuten. IgY IX + 10 ist in Anlehnung an Essen-MOller als EM Wert bekannt. Wahrend die Bayessche Theorie mit A weiterarbeitet und A-priori Wahrscheinlichkeiten einbezieht, wird bei der MinimaxlOsung auf diese Wahr scheinlichkeiten verzichtet und A durch das Verhaltnis der zugehorigen Ober- bzw.
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