Eine Übertragung auf Signaling in Produkt-Vorankündigungen

Author: Anje Schnoor

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3663086801

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 335

View: 2432

Anje Schnoor zeigt einen Weg auf, die Glaubwürdigkeit von Produkt-Vorankündigungen zu erhöhen, indem der Kunde durch die Gestaltung der Vorankündigung geeignete Signale erhält, aus denen er auf Glaubwürdigkeit schließt.
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The Contingent Valuation Method

Author: Robert Cameron Mitchell,Richard T. Carson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135887810

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 484

View: 8533

Economists and others have long believed that by balancing the costs of such public goods as air quality and wilderness areas against their benefits, informed policy choices can be made. But the problem of putting a dollar value on cleaner air or water and other goods not sold in the marketplace has been a major stumbling block. Mitchell and Carson, for reasons presented in this book, argue that at this time the contingent valuation (CV) method offers the most promising approach for determining public willingness to pay for many public goods---an approach likely to succeed, if used carefully, where other methods may fail. The result of ten years of research by the authors aimed at assessing how surveys might best be used to value public goods validly and reliably, this book makes a major contribution to what constitutes best practice in CV surveys. Mitchell and Carson begin by introducing the contingent valuation method, describing how it works and the nature of the benefits it can be used to measure, comparing it to other methods for measuring benefits, and examining the data-gathering technique on which it is based---survey research. Placing contingent valuation in the larger context of welfare theory, the authors examine how the CV method impels a deeper understanding of willingness-to-pay versus willingness-to-accept compensation measures, the possibility of existence values for public goods, the role of uncertainty in benefit valuation, and the question of whether a consumer goods market or a political goods market (referenda) should be emulated. In developing a CV methodology, the authors deal with issues of broader significance to survey research. Their model of respondent error is relevant to current efforts to frame a theory of response behavior and bias typology will interest those considering the cognitive aspects of answering survey questions. Mitchell and Carson conclude that the contingent valuation method can obtain valid valuation information on public goods, but only if the method is applied in a way that addresses the potential sources of error and bias. They end their book by providing guidelines for CV practitioners, a list of questions that should be asked by any decision maker who wishes to use the findings of a CV study, and suggestions for new applications of contingent valuation. Additional features include a comprehensive bibliography of the CV literature and an appendix summarizing more than 100 CV studies.
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Author: Leo P. Chall

Publisher: N.A


Category: Sociology

Page: N.A

View: 3889

CSA Sociological Abstracts abstracts and indexes the international literature in sociology and related disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences. The database provides abstracts of journal articles and citations to book reviews drawn from over 1,800+ serials publications, and also provides abstracts of books, book chapters, dissertations, and conference papers.
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Author: K. G. Binmore,Emeritus Professor of Economics Ken Binmore

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262024440

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 589

View: 4591

In this second volume the author unveils his own controversial theory, which abandons the metaphysics of Immanuel Kant for the naturalistic approach to mortality of David Hume. According to this viewpoint, a fairness norm is a convention that evolved to co-ordinate behaviour on an equalibrium of a society's Game of Life. This approach allows the author to mount an evolutionary defence of Rawls' original position that escapes the utilitarian conclusions that follow when orthodox reasoning is applied with the traditional assumptions. Using ideas borrowed from the theory of bargaining and repeat games, the author is led instead to a form of egalitarianism that vindicates the intuitions that led Rawls to write his "Theory of Justice". Written for an interdisciplinary audience, the book aims to offer a panoramic tour through a range of insights that game theory brings to anthropology, biology, economics, philosophy and psychology.
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Author: J.C. Harsanyi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401725276

Category: Philosophy

Page: 260

View: 688

This volume contains twelve of my game-theoretical papers, published in the period of 1956-80. It complements my Essays on Ethics, Social Behavior, and Scientific Explanation, Reidel, 1976, and my Rational Behavior and Bargaining Equilibrium in Games and Social Situations, Cambridge University Press, 1977. These twelve papers deal with a wide range of game-theoretical problems. But there is a common intellectual thread going though all of them: they are all parts of an attempt to generalize and combine various game-theoretical solution concepts into a unified solution theory yielding one-point solutions for both cooperative and noncooperative games, and covering even such 'non-classical' games as games with incomplete information. SECTION A The first three papers deal with bargaining models. The first one discusses Nash's two-person bargaining solution and shows its equivalence with Zeuthen's bargaining theory. The second considers the rationality postulates underlying the Nash-Zeuthen theory and defends it against Schelling's objections. The third extends the Shapley value to games without transferable utility and proposes a solution concept that is at the same time a generaliza tion of the Shapley value and of the Nash bargaining solution.
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A Study in Game-Theoretic Modeling and Analysis

Author: Alvin E. Roth,Marilda A. Oliveira Sotomayor

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107782430

Category: Business & Economics

Page: N.A

View: 3781

Two-sided matching provides a model of search processes such as those between firms and workers in labor markets or between buyers and sellers in auctions. This book gives a comprehensive account of recent results concerning the game-theoretic analysis of two-sided matching. The focus of the book is on the stability of outcomes, on the incentives that different rules of organization give to agents, and on the constraints that these incentives impose on the ways such markets can be organized. The results for this wide range of related models and matching situations help clarify which conclusions depend on particular modeling assumptions and market conditions, and which are robust over a wide range of conditions. 'This book chronicles one of the outstanding success stories of the theory of games, a story in which the authors have played a major role: the theory and practice of matching markets ... The authors are to be warmly congratulated for this fine piece of work, which is quite unique in the game-theoretic literature.' From the Foreword by Robert Aumann
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An Alternative Game-Theoretic Approach

Author: Joseph Greenberg

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521376891

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 187

View: 3956

This book, first published in 1991, offers an integrative approach to the study of formal models in the social and behavioural sciences. The theory presented here unifies both the representation of the social environment and the equilibrium concept. The theory requires that all alternatives that are available to the players be specified in an explicit and detailed manner, and this specification is defined as a social 'situation'. A situation, therefore, not only consists of the alternatives currently available to the players, but also includes the set of opportunities that might be induced by the players from their current environment. The theory requires that all recommended alternatives be both internally and externally stable; the recommendation cannot be self-defeating and, at the same time, should account for alternatives that were not recommended. In addition to unifying the representation and the solution concept, the theory also extends the social environments accommodated by current game theory.
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In the Social and Biological Sciences

Author: Andrew M. Colman

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1134987560

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 392

View: 5955

Andrew Coleman provides an accessible introduction to the fundamentals of mathematical gaming and other major applications in social psychology, decision theory, economics, politics, evolutionary biology, philosophy, operational research and sociology.
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Author: Rodica Branzei,Dinko Dimitrov,Stef Tijs

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540779544

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 204

View: 6843

Cooperative game theory is a booming research area with many new developments in the last few years. So, our main purpose when prep- ing the second edition was to incorporate as much of these new dev- opments as possible without changing the structure of the book. First, this o?ered us the opportunity to enhance and expand the treatment of traditional cooperative games, called here crisp games, and, especially, that of multi-choice games, in the idea to make the three parts of the monograph more balanced. Second, we have used the opportunity of a secondeditiontoupdateandenlargethelistofreferencesregardingthe threemodels of cooperative games. Finally, we have bene?ted fromthis opportunity by removing typos and a few less important results from the ?rst edition of the book, and by slightly polishing the English style and the punctuation, for the sake of consistency along the monograph. The main changes are: (1) Chapter 3 contains an additional section, Section 3. 3, on the - erage lexicographic value, which is a recent one-point solution concept de?ned on the class of balanced crisp games. (2) Chapter 4 is new. It o?ers a brief overview on solution c- cepts for crisp games from the point of view of egalitarian criteria, and presents in Section 4. 2 a recent set-valued solution concept based on egalitarian considerations, namely the equal split-o? set. (3)Chapter5isbasicallyanenlargedversionofChapter4ofthe?rst edition because Section 5. 4 dealing with the relation between convex games and clan games with crisp coalitions is new.
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Foundations of Social Sciences, Economics and Ethics in honor of John C. Harsanyi

Author: W. Leinfellner,Eckehart Köhler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401716544

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 461

View: 5998

When von Neumann's and Morgenstern's Theory of Games and Economic Behavior appeared in 1944, one thought that a complete theory of strategic social behavior had appeared out of nowhere. However, game theory has, to this very day, remained a fast-growing assemblage of models which have gradually been united in a new social theory - a theory that is far from being completed even after recent advances in game theory, as evidenced by the work of the three Nobel Prize winners, John F. Nash, John C. Harsanyi, and Reinhard Selten. Two of them, Harsanyi and Selten, have contributed important articles to the present volume. This book leaves no doubt that the game-theoretical models are on the right track to becoming a respectable new theory, just like the great theories of the twentieth century originated from formerly separate models which merged in the course of decades. For social scientists, the age of great discover ies is not over. The recent advances of today's game theory surpass by far the results of traditional game theory. For example, modem game theory has a new empirical and social foundation, namely, societal experiences; this has changed its methods, its "rationality. " Morgenstern (I worked together with him for four years) dreamed of an encompassing theory of social behavior. With the inclusion of the concept of evolution in mathematical form, this dream will become true. Perhaps the new foundation will even lead to a new name, "conflict theory" instead of "game theory.
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Concepts and Applications

Author: Frank C. Zagare

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803920507

Category: Social Science

Page: 96

View: 5345

This volume demonstrates the applicability of game-theoretic models and explores zero-sum games, the fundamental Minimax Theory, nonzero-sum games, and n-person games. Learn more about "The Little Green Book" - QASS Series! Click Here
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Author: Robert T. Craig

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118290739

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 2368

View: 8362

The International Encyclopedia of Communication Theory and Philosophy is the definitive single-source reference work on the subject, with state-of-the-art and in-depth scholarly reflection on key issues from leading international experts. It is available both online and in print. A state-of-the-art and in-depth scholarly reflection on the key issues raised by communication, covering the history, systematics, and practical potential of communication theory Articles by leading experts offer an unprecedented level of accuracy and balance Provides comprehensive, clear entries which are both cross-national and cross-disciplinary in nature The Encyclopedia presents a truly international perspective with authors and positions representing not just Europe and North America, but also Latin America and Asia Published both online and in print Part of The Wiley Blackwell-ICA International Encyclopedias of Communication series, published in conjunction with the International Communication Association
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Author: H. Brock

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400995326

Category: Mathematics

Page: 204

View: 8351

There are problems to whose solution I would attach an infinitely greater import ancf! than to those of mathematics, for example touching ethics, or our relation to God, or conceming our destiny and our future; but their solution lies wholly beyond us and completely outside the province 0 f science. J. F. C. Gauss For a1l his prescience in matters physical and mathematieal, the great Gauss apparently did not foresee one development peculiar to OUT own time. The development I have in mind is the use of mathematical reasoning - in partieu lar the axiomatic method - to explicate alternative concepts of rationality and morality. The present bipartite collection of essays (Vol. 11, Nos. 2 and 3 of this journal) is entitled 'Game Theory, Social Choiee, and Ethics'. The eight papers represent state-of-the-art research in formal moral theory. Their intended aim is to demonstrate how the methods of game theory, decision theory, and axiomatic social choice theory can help to illuminate ethical questions central not only to moral theory, but also to normative public policy analysis. Before discussion of the contents of the papers, it should prove helpful to recall a number of pioneering papers that appeared during the decade of the 1950s. These papers contained aseries of mathematical and conceptual break through which laid the basis for much of today's research in formal moral theory. The papers deal with two somewhat distinct topics: the concept of individual and collective rationality, and the concept of social justiee.
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Author: Paul R. Thie,Gerard E. Keough

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118165454

Category: Mathematics

Page: 480

View: 7851

Praise for the Second Edition: "This is quite a well-done book: very tightly organized,better-than-average exposition, and numerous examples,illustrations, and applications." —Mathematical Reviews of the American MathematicalSociety An Introduction to Linear Programming and Game Theory, ThirdEdition presents a rigorous, yet accessible, introduction tothe theoretical concepts and computational techniques of linearprogramming and game theory. Now with more extensive modelingexercises and detailed integer programming examples, this bookuniquely illustrates how mathematics can be used in real-worldapplications in the social, life, and managerial sciences,providing readers with the opportunity to develop and apply theiranalytical abilities when solving realistic problems. This Third Edition addresses various new topics and improvementsin the field of mathematical programming, and it also presents twosoftware programs, LP Assistant and the Solver add-in for MicrosoftOffice Excel, for solving linear programming problems. LPAssistant, developed by coauthor Gerard Keough, allows readers toperform the basic steps of the algorithms provided in the book andis freely available via the book's related Web site. The use of thesensitivity analysis report and integer programming algorithm fromthe Solver add-in for Microsoft Office Excel is introduced soreaders can solve the book's linear and integer programmingproblems. A detailed appendix contains instructions for the use ofboth applications. Additional features of the Third Edition include: A discussion of sensitivity analysis for the two-variableproblem, along with new examples demonstrating integer programming,non-linear programming, and make vs. buy models Revised proofs and a discussion on the relevance and solution ofthe dual problem A section on developing an example in Data EnvelopmentAnalysis An outline of the proof of John Nash's theorem on the existenceof equilibrium strategy pairs for non-cooperative, non-zero-sumgames Providing a complete mathematical development of all presentedconcepts and examples, Introduction to Linear Programming andGame Theory, Third Edition is an ideal text for linearprogramming and mathematical modeling courses at theupper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It also serves as avaluable reference for professionals who use game theory inbusiness, economics, and management science.
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Author: Robert P. Gilles

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642052828

Category: Mathematics

Page: 270

View: 1518

The book brings together an overview of standard concepts in cooperative game theory with applications to the analysis of social networks and hierarchical authority organizations. The standard concepts covered include the multi-linear extension, the Core, the Shapley value, and the cooperative potential. Also discussed are the Core for a restricted collection of formable coalitions, various Core covers, the Myerson value, value-based potentials, and share potentials. Within the context of social networks this book discusses the measurement of centrality and power as well as allocation rules such as the Myerson value and hierarchical allocation rules. For hierarchical organizations, two basic approaches to the exercise of authority are explored; for each approach the allocation of the generated output is developed. Each chapter is accompanied by a problem section, allowing this book to be used as a textbook for an advanced graduate course on game theory.
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