The Advent of Research Evaluation Systems

Author: Richard Whitley,Jochen Gläser

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402067464

Category: Science

Page: 166

View: 5252

The establishment of national systems of retrospective research evaluations is one of the most significant of recent changes in the governance of science. This volume discusses the birth and development of research evaluation systems as well as the reasons for their absence in the United States. The book combines the latest research and an overview of trends in the changing governance of research. The focus is on institutionalisation processes and impacts on knowledge production.
Read More

Author: Fuller

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 0335231586

Category: Social Science

Page: 167

View: 3531

This ground-breaking text offers a fresh perspective on the governance of science from the standpoint of social and political theory. Science has often been seen as the only institution that embodies the elusive democratic ideal of the 'open society'. Yet, science remains an elite activity that commands much more public trust than understanding, even though science has become increasingly entangled with larger political and economic issues.
Read More

A Global Perspective from Europe, India and China

Author: Miltos Ladikas,Sachin Chaturvedi,Yandong Zhao,Dirk Stemerding

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319146939

Category: Science

Page: 173

View: 7656

This book analyzes the possibilities for effective global governance of science in Europe, India and China. Authors from the three regions join forces to explore how ethical concerns over new technologies can be incorporated into global science and technology policies. The first chapter introduces the topic, offering a global perspective on embedding ethics in science and technology policy. Chapter Two compares the institutionalization of ethical debates in science, technology and innovation policy in three important regions: Europe, India and China. The third chapter explores public perceptions of science and technology in these same three regions. Chapter Four discusses public engagement in the governance of science and technology, and Chapter Five reviews science and technology governance and European values. The sixth chapter describes and analyzes values demonstrated in the constitution of the People’s Republic of China. Chapter Seven describes emerging evidence from India on the uses of science and technology for socio-economic development, and the quest for inclusive growth. In Chapter Eight, the authors propose a comparative framework for studying global ethics in science and technology. The following three chapters offer case studies and analysis of three emerging industries in India, China and Europe: new food technologies, nanotechnology and synthetic biology. Chapter 12 gathers all these threads for a comprehensive discussion on incorporating ethics into science and technology policy. The analysis is undertaken against the backdrop of different value systems and varying levels of public perception of risks and benefits. The book introduces a common analytical framework for the comparative discussion of ethics at the international level. The authors offer policy recommendations for effective collaboration among the three regions, to promote responsible governance in science and technology and a common analytical perspective in ethics.
Read More

Author: Mats Benner

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1784717177

Category: Education

Page: 232

View: 4360

Science has become a central political concern with massive increases in public investments and expectations, but resources are embedded in a complex web of societal expectations, which vary between countries and regions. This book outlines an insightful understanding of science policy as both concerning the governance of science itself (priority-setting, funding, organization and articulation with polity, society, and economy) and its extra-organizational connections, in terms of higher education, innovation and national policy concerns.
Read More

Author: Don Leggett,Charlotte Sleigh

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 1526100428

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 8298

Scientific governance in Britain, 1914-79 examines the connected histories of how science was governed, and used in governance, in twentieth-century Britain. During the middle portion of that century, British science grew dramatically in scale, reach and value. These changes were due in no small part to the two world wars and their associated effects, notably post-war reconstruction and the on-going Cold War. As the century went on, there were more scientists - requiring more money to fund their research - occupying ever more niches in industry, academia, military and civil institutions. Combining the latest research on twentieth-century British science with insightful discussion of what it meant to govern - and govern with - science, this volume provides both an invaluable introduction to science in twentieth-century Britain for students and a fresh thematic focus on science and government for researchers interested in the histories of science and governance. This volume features a foreword from Sir John Beddington, UK Government Chief Scientific Adviser 2008-13.
Read More

Stem Cell Governance in China

Author: J. Zhang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137000732

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

View: 786

Focussing on China's stem cell research, this book investigates how, over the last decade, Chinese scientists, ethicists and policy-makers have developed a cosmopolitan sensibility in comprehending and responding to ethical and regulatory concerns.
Read More

Author: Nico Stehr

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 1412837014

Category: Social Science

Page: 299

View: 5249

Social surveillance and regulation of knowledge will be one of the most important issues in the near future, one that will give rise to unending controversy. In The Governance of Knowledge, Nico Stehr predicts that such concerns will create a new political field, namely, knowledge policy, which will entail regulating dissemination of the anticipated results of rapidly increasing knowledge. The number and range of institutionalized standards for monitoring new knowledge has hitherto been relatively small. Only in cases of technological applications has social control, in the form of political regulation, so far intervened. All modern societies today have complex regulations and extensive concerns with the registration, licensing, testing, and monitoring of pharmaceutical products. The increasingly important and extensive area of intellectual property legislation and administration is an example of social control in which certain measures selectively determine the use of scientific finds and technical knowledge. The Governance of Knowledge assembles a range of essays that attempt to explore the new field of knowledge politics for the first time. It is divided into four parts: The Emergence of Knowledge Politics: Origins, Context, and Consequences; Major Social Institutions and Knowledge Politics; Case Studies on the Governance of Knowledge; and Issues in Knowledge Politics as a New Political Field. Individual chapters concern the emergence of knowledge policy, the embeddedness of such regulations in major social institutions, offer case studies and discuss controversial issues that are bound to accompany efforts to regulate new knowledge. Professionals and graduate students in the fields of sociology, political science, social science, and law, including policymakers and natural scientists,will find this book extremely informative. Nico Stehr is Paul-Lazarsfeld Professor at the Universitõt Wien, Austria. His research interests center on the transformation of modern societies into knowledge societies, the interrelation between climate and society, the history of the social sciences, and the uses of social and natural science knowledge. Among his recent books are Werner Sombart: Economic Life in the Modern Agewith Reiner Grundmann), published by Transaction, and Knowledge and Economics Conduct.
Read More

Dynamics and Policy of an Evolving European Research Space

Author: Linda Wedlin,Maria Nedeva

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1782545514

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 232

View: 6433

Since the European Research Area was launched at the beginning of the century, significant efforts have been made to realise the vision of a coherent space for science and research in Europe. But how does one define such a space and measure its development? This timely book analyses the dynamics of change in the policy and governance of science and research within Europe over the past decade. It widens the scope of traditional policy analysis by focusing attention on the interaction between policy rationales, new governance mechanisms, and the organisational dynamics of the scientific field. The contributors build a novel analytical framework to understand the European research space as one shifting from a fragmented space of “Science in Europe” to one that is labeled “European Science”. The chapters explore the dynamics of this shift through the lenses of political science, organisation theory, science policy and related analytical traditions. Towards European Science is an interdisciplinary book which will attract a wide set of scholars and professionals interested in science policy, governance and scientific practice. It will also be of use to university leaders and managers, as well as policy-makers and practitioners working on issues of internationalisation and the Europeanisation of science.
Read More

An Ethnography of Scientific Expertise and Environmental Governance

Author: Jessica O'Reilly

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 150170835X

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 5999

The Technocratic Antarctic is an ethnographic account of the scientists and policymakers who work on Antarctica. In a place with no indigenous people, Antarctic scientists and policymakers use expertise as their primary model of governance. Scientific research and policymaking are practices that inform each other, and the Antarctic environment—with its striking beauty, dramatic human and animal lives, and specter of global climate change—not only informs science and policy but also lends Antarctic environmentalism a particularly technocratic patina. Jessica O'Reilly conducted most of her research for this book in New Zealand, home of the "Antarctic Gateway" city of Christchurch, and on an expedition to Windless Bight, Antarctica, with the New Zealand Antarctic Program. O’Reilly also follows the journeys Antarctic scientists and policymakers take to temporarily “Antarctic” places such as science conferences, policy workshops, and the international Antarctic Treaty meetings in Scotland, Australia, and India. Competing claims of nationalism, scientific disciplines, field experiences, and personal relationships among Antarctic environmental managers disrupt the idea of a utopian epistemic community. O’Reilly focuses on what emerges in Antarctica among the complicated and hybrid forms of science, sociality, politics, and national membership found there. The Technocratic Antarctic unfolds the historical, political, and moral contexts that shape experiences of and decisions about the Antarctic environment.
Read More

Science, Ethics, and Governance

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,National Academy of Medicine,National Academy of Sciences,Committee on Human Gene Editing: Scientific, Medical, and Ethical Considerations

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309452880

Category: Medical

Page: 328

View: 7834

Genome editing is a powerful new tool for making precise alterations to an organism’s genetic material. Recent scientific advances have made genome editing more efficient, precise, and flexible than ever before. These advances have spurred an explosion of interest from around the globe in the possible ways in which genome editing can improve human health. The speed at which these technologies are being developed and applied has led many policymakers and stakeholders to express concern about whether appropriate systems are in place to govern these technologies and how and when the public should be engaged in these decisions. Human Genome Editing considers important questions about the human application of genome editing including: balancing potential benefits with unintended risks, governing the use of genome editing, incorporating societal values into clinical applications and policy decisions, and respecting the inevitable differences across nations and cultures that will shape how and whether to use these new technologies. This report proposes criteria for heritable germline editing, provides conclusions on the crucial need for public education and engagement, and presents 7 general principles for the governance of human genome editing.
Read More

Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy

Author: P. Andrews-Speed

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 113728403X

Category: Social Science

Page: 259

View: 864

The way in which energy is governed in China is driving its rising level of carbon dioxide emissions. This book analyses the nature of energy governance in China by combining ideas relating to transition management with institutionalist theories, which helps to identify factors which assist or constrain the country's path to a low-carbon economy.
Read More

Author: Matthias Ruffert,Sebastian Steinecke

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642213595

Category: Law

Page: 146

View: 3531

We live in a world of science. Yet this is impossible without a legally guaranteed freedom to practise it. Findings with regard to the elements of such freedom can be deduced from an analysis of international and domestic provisions and principles. There are a plethora of international institutions, legal rules and global norms for the purpose of the international governance of science. The institutions and rules are to be interpreted in light of this freedom to guarantee the continuous existence of the knowledge-based society by means of a global administrative law of science. These aspects were analysed in a research project funded by the German Research Foundation. The book’s purpose is to present the jurisprudential results. In addition, empirical results are collected in a freely available database. The study is composed of 5 parts: The Concept of Science/Global Administrative Law/Constitutional Basis: The Freedom of Science/Institutional Design/Governance Mechanisms.
Read More

Toward Better Practices

Author: OECD

Publisher: OECD Publishing

ISBN: 9264103767

Category:

Page: 164

View: 811

This report provides a comprehensive review of the challenges that call for changes in the governance of OECD countries’ science systems, highlighting emerging policy responses and drawing lessons to inspire the reform process.
Read More

Research, Health Policy, and American States

Author: Daniel M. Fox

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 052094612X

Category: Medical

Page: 184

View: 2440

Daniel M. Fox gives an incisive assessment of the critical collaboration between researchers and public officials that has recently emerged to evaluate the effectiveness and comparative effectiveness of health services. Drawing on research as well as his first-hand experience in policymaking, Fox's broad-ranging analysis describes how politics, public finance and management, and advances in research methods made this convergence of science and governance possible. The book then widens into a sweeping history of central issues in research on health services and health governance during the past century. Returning to the past decade, Fox looks closely at how policy informed by research has been made and implemented in public programs that cover pharmaceutical drugs in most American states. This case study illuminates how politics has informed the questions, methods, and reception of research on health services, and also sheds new light on how research has informed politics and public management. Looking toward the future, Fox describes the promise, as well as the fragility, of the convergence of science and governance, making his book essential reading for those struggling to revise health care in the United States over the next several years.
Read More

Author: Eric Brousseau,Tom Dedeurwaerdere

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262017245

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 366

View: 1138

Global public goods (GPGs)--the economic term for a broad range of goods and servicesthat benefit everyone, including stable climate, public health, and economic security--pose notablegovernance challenges. At the national level, public goods are often provided by government, but atthe global level there is no established state-like entity to take charge of their provision. Thecomplex nature of many GPGs poses additional problems of coordination, knowledge generation and theformation of citizen preferences. This book considers traditional public economy theory of publicgoods provision as oversimplified, because it is state centered and fiscally focused. It develops amultidisciplinary look at the challenges of understanding and designing appropriate governanceregimes for different types of goods in such areas as the environment, food security, anddevelopment assistance. The chapter authors, all leading scholars in the field, explore themisalignment between existing GPG policies and actors' incentives and understandings. They analyzethe complex impact of incentives, the involvement of stakeholders in collective decision making, andthe specific coordination needed for the generation of knowledge. The book shows that governance ofGPGs must be democratic, reflexive--emphasizing collective learning processes--and knowledge basedin order to be effective. The hardcover edition does not include a dustjacket.
Read More

"Science, Governance and Social Justice"

Author: Sarah Dry,Melissa Leach

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136532218

Category: Medical

Page: 320

View: 9549

Recent disease events such as SARS, H1N1 and avian influenza, and haemorrhagic fevers have focussed policy and public concern as never before on epidemics and so-called 'emerging infectious diseases'. Understanding and responding to these often unpredictable events have become major challenges for local, national and international bodies. All too often, responses can become restricted by implicit assumptions about who or what is to blame that may not capture the dynamics and uncertainties at play in the multi-scale interactions of people, animals and microbes. As a result, policies intended to forestall epidemics may fail, and may even further threaten health, livelihoods and human rights. The book takes a unique approach by focusing on how different policy-makers, scientists, and local populations construct alternative narratives-accounts of the causes and appropriate responses to outbreaks- about epidemics at the global, national and local level. The contrast between emergency-oriented, top-down responses to what are perceived as potentially global outbreaks and longer-term approaches to diseases, such as AIDS, which may now be considered endemic, is highlighted. Case studies-on avian influenza, SARS, obesity, H1N1 influenza, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and haemorrhagic fevers-cover a broad historical, geographical and biological range. As this book explores, it is often the most vulnerable members of a population-the poor, the social excluded and the already ill-who are likely to suffer most from epidemic diseases. At the same time, they may be less likely to benefit from responses that may be designed from a global perspective that neglects social, ecological and political conditions on the ground. This book aims to bring the focus back to these marginal populations to reveal the often unintended consequences of current policy responses to epidemics. Important implications emerge - for how epidemics are thought about and represented; for how surveillance and response is designed; and for whose knowledge and perspectives should be included. Published in association with the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)
Read More

Author: J. Gillott

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137374993

Category: Social Science

Page: 203

View: 7527

Through case studies, theoretical research and interviews with leading players in science and governance, this book introduces a new understanding of change in governance of bioscience research. In particular it examines change as it is shaped by approaches developed by Science and Technology Studies and Sociology of Scientific Knowledge theorists.
Read More

Towards Better Models

Author: Stefan Kuhlmann,Gonzalo Ordóñez-Matamoros

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1783471913

Category:

Page: 560

View: 3432

Although in recent years some emerging economies have improved their performance in terms of R&D investment, outputs and innovative capacity, these countries are still blighted by extreme poverty, inequality and social exclusion. Hence, emerging countries are exposed to conditions which differ quite substantially from the dominant OECD model of innovation policy for development and welfare. This Research Handbook contributes to the debate by looking at how innovation theory, policy and practice interact, and explains different types of configurations in countries that are characterized by two contrasting but mutually reinforcing features: systemic failure and resourcefulness. Focusing on innovation governance and public policies, it aims to understand related governance failures and to explore options for alternative, more efficient approaches.
Read More