Author: Pankaj S. Joshi
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Physical phenomena in astrophysics and cosmology involve gravitational collapse in a fundamental way. The final fate of a massive star when it collapses under its own gravity at the end of its life cycle is one of the most important questions in gravitation theory and relativistic astrophysics, and is the foundation of black hole physics. General relativity predicts that continual gravitational collapse gives rise to a space-time singularity. Quantum gravity may take over in such regimes to resolve the classical space-time singularity. This book, first published in 2007, investigates these issues, and shows how the visible ultra-dense regions arise naturally and generically as an outcome of dynamical gravitational collapse. It will be of interest to graduate students and academic researchers in gravitation physics, fundamental physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. It includes a detailed review of research into gravitational collapse, and several examples of collapse models are investigated in detail.
Black Holes, Naked Singularities, and the Cosmic Play of Quantum Gravity
Author: Pankaj S. Joshi
Publisher: OUP Oxford
This book journeys into one of the most fascinating intellectual adventures of recent decades - understanding and exploring the final fate of massive collapsing stars in the universe. The issue is of great interest in fundamental physics and cosmology today, from both the perspective of gravitation theory and of modern astrophysical observations. This is a revolution in the making and may be intimately connected to our search for a unified understanding of the basic forces of nature, namely gravity that governs the cosmological universe, and the microscopic forces that include quantum phenomena. According to the general theory of relativity, a massive star that collapses catastrophically under its own gravity when it runs out of its internal nuclear fuel must give rise to a space-time singularity. Such singularities are regions in the universe where all physical quantities take their extreme values and become arbitrarily large. The singularities may be covered within a black hole, or visible to faraway observers in the universe. Thus, the final fate of a collapsing massive star is either a black hole or a visible naked singularity. We discuss here recent results and developments on the gravitational collapse of massive stars and possible observational implications when naked singularities happen in the universe. Large collapsing massive stars and the resulting space-time singularities may even provide a laboratory in the cosmos where one could test the unification possibilities of basic forces of nature.
Superstrings, verborgene Dimensionen und die Suche nach der Weltformel
Author: Brian Greene
Publisher: Siedler Verlag
Eine hervorragende Darstellung unseres physikalischen Wissens und der Suche nach der „Weltformel“. Was ist die Superstringtheorie? Brian Greene, einer der führenden Physiker auf dem Gebiet der Superstrings, nimmt uns mit auf eine faszinierende und aufregende Reise zu den Grenzen unseres Verständnisses von Zeit, Raum und Materie.„Das elegante Universum“ ist ein populär geschriebenes und allgemein verständliches Kompendium unseres physikalischen Wissens.
An International Research Workshop, Haifa, June 29-July 3, 1997
Author: Lior M. Burko,Amos Ori
Publisher: Inst of Physics Pub Incorporated
The physics of black holes and spacetime singularities is now a well established area of research in gravitation theory. Over recent years researchers have begun to study the internal structure of black holes and spacetime singularities. This book is primarily the proceedings of a workshop devoted to the subject. The chapters are mainly written versions of the talks given at the workshop. However, the authors have written extended introductions to their contributions, so that a reader, well versed in gravitation theory, but unaware of the current research in this subfield, should be able to follow the text Several topics are considered by more than one author, bringing into the text different viewpoints on these topics. As a result, this book is suitable for graduate students who wish to familiarize themselves with the various aspects of the structure of black holes, and for researchers who wish to learn about advances in subfields other than their own. Topics covered include: the nature of thesingularities (both null and spacelike) and the spacetime inside black holes coupled to various matter fields in classical and semiclassical gravity, as well as in alternative gravity theories; the cosmic censorship hypothesis and its connection to black hole interiors; cosmological singularities and their relation with black hole singularities; and black hole entropy and evaporation.
Author: Kip Thorne
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
Winner of the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics Ever since Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity burst upon the world in 1915 some of the most brilliant minds of our century have sought to decipher the mysteries bequeathed by that theory, a legacy so unthinkable in some respects that even Einstein himself rejected them. Which of these bizarre phenomena, if any, can really exist in our universe? Black holes, down which anything can fall but from which nothing can return; wormholes, short spacewarps connecting regions of the cosmos; singularities, where space and time are so violently warped that time ceases to exist and space becomes a kind of foam; gravitational waves, which carry symphonic accounts of collisions of black holes billions of years ago; and time machines, for traveling backward and forward in time. Kip Thorne, along with fellow theorists Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose, a cadre of Russians, and earlier scientists such as Oppenheimer, Wheeler and Chandrasekhar, has been in the thick of the quest to secure answers. In this masterfully written and brilliantly informed work of scientific history and explanation, Dr. Thorne, a Nobel Prize-winning physicist and the Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics Emeritus at Caltech, leads his readers through an elegant, always human, tapestry of interlocking themes, coming finally to a uniquely informed answer to the great question: what principles control our universe and why do physicists think they know the things they think they know? Stephen Hawking's A Brief History of Time has been one of the greatest best-sellers in publishing history. Anyone who struggled with that book will find here a more slowly paced but equally mind-stretching experience, with the added fascination of a rich historical and human component. Winner of the Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science.
Author: Abhay Ashtekar,Vesselin Petkov
The Springer Handbook of Spacetime is dedicated to the ground-breaking paradigm shifts embodied in the two relativity theories, and describes in detail the profound reshaping of physical sciences they ushered in. It includes in a single volume chapters on foundations, on the underlying mathematics, on physical and astrophysical implications, experimental evidence and cosmological predictions, as well as chapters on efforts to unify general relativity and quantum physics. The Handbook can be used as a desk reference by researchers in a wide variety of fields, not only by specialists in relativity but also by researchers in related areas that either grew out of, or are deeply influenced by, the two relativity theories: cosmology, astronomy and astrophysics, high energy physics, quantum field theory, mathematics, and philosophy of science. It should also serve as a valuable resource for graduate students and young researchers entering these areas, and for instructors who teach courses on these subjects. The Handbook is divided into six parts. Part A: Introduction to Spacetime Structure. Part B: Foundational Issues. Part C: Spacetime Structure and Mathematics. Part D: Confronting Relativity theories with observations. Part E: General relativity and the universe. Part F: Spacetime beyond Einstein.
Author: Stephen Hawking
Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH
Ist das Universum unendlich oder begrenzt? Hat die Raumzeit einen Anfang, den Urknall? Dehnt sie sich aus? Wird sie wieder in sich zusammenstürzen? Liefe die Zeit dann rückwärts? Welchen Platz im Universum nehmen wir ein? Und ist in den atemberaubenden Modellen der Kosmologen noch Platz für einen Gott? – Es sind existenzielle Fragen, mit denen sich Stephen Hawking befasst, Fragen, die Forschung und Lehre in den Zentren der modernen Physik ebenso bestimmen wie die Diskussion von Geisteswissenschaftlern. Dieses Meisterwerk eines Jahrhundert-Genies hat unsere Weltsicht verändert. Zugleich hat Stephen Hawking damit neue Maßstäbe für die Erklärung komplexer physikalischer Zusammenhänge gesetzt. In diesem Buch, weltweit inzwischen über zehn Millionen Mal verkauft, ist das Credo des großen Physikers enthalten und lebendig. «Der Physiker Stephen Hawking ist im Begriff, die Formel zu finden, die das Universum erklärt.» ZEIT-Magazin
A Geometric Approach
Author: Malcolm Ludvigsen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Solutions and hints to selected exercises
Raum, Zeit und die moderne Kosmologie
Author: Stuart Clark
Eine Tour d'horizon bis an die Grenzen des Kosmos In zehn Kapiteln präsentiert Stuart Clark eine aktuelle Einführung in die Wissenschaft der Kosmologie: wie sie sich entwickelt hat, welche Konzepte und Personen sie maßgeblich geprägt haben, wo wir heute stehen – und wie es weitergehen könnte. Am 21. März 2013 veröffentlichte die Europäische Weltraumorganisation ESA eine neue Karte vom Echo des Urknalls. Diese – im Zuge der Planck-Mission erstellte – erste vollständige Karte der kosmischen Hintergrundstrahlung war ein wissenschaftlicher Paukenschlag. Über eine Zeit von 13,8 Milliarden Jahren hinweg und über einen Raum von 440 Trillionen Kilometern kann es physikalisch keine bessere Darstellung geben – das heißt, wir werden das frühe Universum kaum je detaillierter sehen. Einerseits erscheint eine solche Ansicht wie die Krönung der modernen Kosmologie, andererseits rüttelt sie an viele ihrer Grundfesten. Denn die Karte enthält Anomalien, die unser bisheriges Verständnis des Universums herausfordern. Sie zwingt uns, das, was bekannt ist, und das, was noch unbekannt ist, in neuem Licht zu betrachten. Wir werden ein verändertes Modell unseres Universums entwickeln müssen. Dies ist das erste Buch, das diesen epochalen wissenschaftlichen Paradigmenwechsel beleuchtet - und in einen breiteren Kontext stellt. Stuart Clark beschäftigt sich darin unter anderem mit der Frage, ob Newtons berühmte Gravitationsgesetze umgeschrieben werden müssen - oder ob die dunkle Materie und die dunkle Energie, die heute Schlagzeilen machen, etwa nur kosmische Phantome sind. Können wir jemals wissen, was vor dem Urknall passiert ist? Was befindet sich am Ende eines Schwarzen Loches? Gibt es Universen jenseits unseres eigenen? Existiert die Zeit? Wandeln sich die einst unveränderlich erscheinenden Gesetze der Physik?
Author: Robert M. Wald
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
A comprehensive summary of progress made during the past decade on the theory of black holes and relativistic stars, this collection includes discussion of structure and oscillations of relativistic stars, the use of gravitational radiation detectors, observational evidence for black holes, cosmic censorship, numerical work related to black hole collisions, the internal structure of black holes, black hole thermodynamics, information loss and other issues related to the quantum properties of black holes, and recent developments in the theory of black holes in the context of string theory. Volume contributors: Valeria Ferrari, John L. Friedman, James B. Hartle, Stephen W. Hawking, Gary T. Horowitz, Werner Israel, Roger Penrose, Martin J. Rees, Rafael D. Sorkin, Saul A. Teukolsky, Kip S. Thorne, and Robert M. Wald.
The Mathematical Theory of Black Holes and of Colliding Plane Waves
Author: S. Chandrasekhar
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
This is the first of six volumes collecting significant papers of the distinguished astrophysicist and Nobel laureate S. Chandrasekhar. His work is notable for its breadth as well as for its brilliance; his practice has been to change his focus from time to time to pursue new areas of research. The result has been a prolific career full of discoveries and insights, some of which are only now being fully appreciated. Chandrasekhar has selected papers that trace the development of his ideas and that present aspects of his work not fully covered in the books he has periodically published to summarize his research in each area.
Author: Albert Einstein
Publisher: Vieweg+Teubner Verlag
Dieser Buchtitel ist Teil des Digitalisierungsprojekts Springer Book Archives mit Publikationen, die seit den Anfängen des Verlags von 1842 erschienen sind. Der Verlag stellt mit diesem Archiv Quellen für die historische wie auch die disziplingeschichtliche Forschung zur Verfügung, die jeweils im historischen Kontext betrachtet werden müssen. Dieser Titel erschien in der Zeit vor 1945 und wird daher in seiner zeittypischen politisch-ideologischen Ausrichtung vom Verlag nicht beworben.
Author: Stephen Hawking
NATIONAL BESTSELLER Stephen Hawking has dazzled readers worldwide with a string of bestsellers exploring the mysteries of the universe. Now, for the first time, perhaps the most brilliant cosmologist of our age turns his gaze inward for a revealing look at his own life and intellectual evolution. My Brief History recounts Stephen Hawking’s improbable journey, from his postwar London boyhood to his years of international acclaim and celebrity. Lavishly illustrated with rarely seen photographs, this concise, witty, and candid account introduces readers to a Hawking rarely glimpsed in previous books: the inquisitive schoolboy whose classmates nicknamed him Einstein; the jokester who once placed a bet with a colleague over the existence of a particular black hole; and the young husband and father struggling to gain a foothold in the world of physics and cosmology. Writing with characteristic humility and humor, Hawking opens up about the challenges that confronted him following his diagnosis of ALS at age twenty-one. Tracing his development as a thinker, he explains how the prospect of an early death urged him onward through numerous intellectual breakthroughs, and talks about the genesis of his masterpiece A Brief History of Time—one of the iconic books of the twentieth century. Clear-eyed, intimate, and wise, My Brief History opens a window for the rest of us into Hawking’s personal cosmos.
Author: Piran Tsvi,Ruffini Remo
Publisher: World Scientific
Since 1975, the Marcel Grossmann Meetings have been organized to provide opportunities for discussing recent advances in gravitation, general relativity and relativistic field theories, emphasizing mathematical foundations, physical predictions and experimental tests. The objective of these meetings is to facilitate exchange among scientists that may deepen our understanding of space-time structures and to review the status of ongoing experiments aimed at testing Einstein's theory of gravitation from either the ground or space.The Eighth Marcel Grossmann Meeting took place on 22-27 June, 1997, at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. The scientific program included 25 plenary talks and 40 parallel sessions during which 400 papers were presented. The papers that appear in this book cover all aspects of gravitation, from mathematical issues to recent observations and experiments.
Author: Stephen W. Hawking
Publisher: World Scientific
Stephen Hawking, the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University, has made important theoretical contributions to gravitational theory and has played a major role in the development of cosmology and black hole physics. Hawking's early work, partly in collaboration with Roger Penrose, showed the significance of spacetime singularities for the big bang and black holes. His later work has been concerned with a deeper understanding of these two issues. The work required extensive use of the two great intellectual achievements of the first half of the Twentieth Century: general relativity and quantum mechanics; and these are reflected in the reprinted articles. Hawking's key contributions on black hole radiation and the no-boundary condition on the origin of the universe are included. The present compilation of Stephen Hawking's most important work also includes an introduction by him, which guides the reader though the major highlights of the volume. This volume is thus an essentialitem in any library and will be an important reference source for those interested in theoretical physics and applied mathematics. It is an excellent thing to have so many of Professor Hawking's most important contributions to the theory of black holes and space-time singularities all collected together in one handy volume. I am very glad to have them". Roger Penrose (Oxford) "This was an excellent idea to put the best papers by Stephen Hawking together. Even his papers written many years ago remain extremely useful for those who study classical and quantum gravity. By watching the evolution of his ideas one can get a very clear picture of the development of quantum cosmology during thelast quarter of this century". Andrei Linde (Stanford) "This review could have been quite short: 'The book contains a selection of 21 of Stephen Hawking's most significant papers with an overview written by the author'. This w
Author: Pankaj S. Joshi
Publisher: Clarendon Press
Global aspects in gravitation theory and cosmology are reviewed here to emphasize the basic theme that the very nature of gravitational force is such that global considerations of space-time are vital to understand this force in detail. Amongst the topics included are the structure and topology of space-time, exact solutions and singularities, quantum effects in strong gravity fields, and global upper limits in cosmology. Major open problems of significance are pointed out and the treatment here on the final fate of gravitational collapse shows that very strong-curvature naked singularities could result from the continual collapse of matter. This places important constraints on the formulation of the cosmic censorship hypothesis which is a crucial open question in relativistic astrophysics and the black hole physics. - ;This book reviews in a unified manner global aspects in gravitation theory and cosmology, emphasizing the basic heme that the very nature of the gravitational field is such that global features of space-time inevitably come into play whenever we try to understand and interpret this force in detail. The topics considered here include results on the structure and topology of space-time; exact solutions to Einstein equations and singularities ; gravitational collapse in general relativity, a brief review of the status of quantum gravity; and consideration of quantum effects near space-time singularities in strong curvature fields. Also covered are the global upper limits in cosmology on elementary particle masses which might constitute the dark matter of the universe. After discussing in detail the fundamental role played by global considerations in gravity and general relativity, it is pointed out that significant problems remain: the nature and structure of space-time singularities; the cosmic censorship problem in black hole physics; and the issue of quantum effects in strong gravity fields, an understanding of which appears essential to formulate any quantum theory of gravity. The treatment here of the final fate of gravitational collapse of massive stars shows by means of explicit consideration of several exact scenarios, that powerfully-strong curvature naked singularities could result from the continual gravitational collapse of matter with several reasonable equations of state, including inflowing radiation, dust, or a perfect fluid. This places important constraints on possible formulations of the cosmic censorship hypothesis and the final fate of gravitational collapse, which is a crucial open question in the general theory of relativity and relativistic astrophysics and which is basic to the entire theory and applications of black hole physics. -
Author: Jim Al-Khalili
Publisher: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag
3-8274-1567-5, Al Khalili, Schwarze Löcher (HL) Jim Al-Khalili Schwarze Löcher, Wurmlöcher und Zeitmaschinen (copy) "Die Entstehung des Weltalls, die Konzepte von Raum und Zeit, beziehungsweise der so genannten Raumzeit sind zweifelsohne keine leicht verständlichen Themen. Umso beeindruckender ist das Buch des Wissenschaftspublizisten Jim Al-Khalili, dem es gelingt, über diese Dinge mit einer verblüffenden Leichtigkeit zu schreiben und den Boden des soliden Sachbuchs zu verlassen. Auch Laien werden von diesem Buch profitieren." Die Welt (Biblio) 2004. 336 S., 25 Abb., kt., € 15,-. ISBN 3-8274-1567-5 (Störer) neu