Astrophysics and Cosmology

Author: Michele Maggiore

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198570899

Category: Science

Page: 848

View: 3374

The two-volume book Gravitational Waves provides a comprehensive and detailed account of the physics of gravitational waves. While Volume 1 is devoted to the theory and experiments, Volume 2 discusses what can be learned from gravitational waves in astrophysics and in cosmology, by systematizing a large body of theoretical developments that have taken place over the last decades. The second volume also includes a detailed discussion of the first direct detections of gravitational waves. In the author's typical style, the theoretical results are generally derived afresh, clarifying or streamlining the existing derivations whenever possible, and providing a coherent and consistent picture of the field. The first volume of Gravitational Waves , which appeared in 2007, has established itself as the standard reference in the field. The scientific community has eagerly awaited this second volume. The recent direct detection of gravitational waves makes the topics in this book particularly timely.
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Lectures from the First VESF School on Advanced Detectors for Gravitational Waves

Author: Massimo Bassan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319037927

Category: Science

Page: 387

View: 9000

The search for gravitational radiation with optical interferometers is gaining momentum worldwide. Beside the VIRGO and GEO gravitational wave observatories in Europe and the two LIGOs in the United States, which have operated successfully during the past decade, further observatories are being completed (KAGRA in Japan) or planned (ILIGO in India). The sensitivity of the current observatories, although spectacular, has not allowed direct discovery of gravitational waves. The advanced detectors (Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo) at present in the development phase will improve sensitivity by a factor of 10, probing the universe up to 200 Mpc for signal from inspiraling binary compact stars. This book covers all experimental aspects of the search for gravitational radiation with optical interferometers. Every facet of the technological development underlying the evolution of advanced interferometers is thoroughly described, from configuration to optics and coatings and from thermal compensation to suspensions and controls. All key ingredients of an advanced detector are covered, including the solutions implemented in first-generation detectors, their limitations, and how to overcome them. Each issue is addressed with special reference to the solution adopted for Advanced VIRGO but constant attention is also paid to other strategies, in particular those chosen for Advanced LIGO.
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Author: I. Ciufolini,V. Gorini,U. Moschella,P Fre

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420034251

Category: Science

Page: 412

View: 8759

Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected. With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.
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How Einstein’s spacetime ripples reveal the secrets of the universe

Author: Brian Clegg

Publisher: Icon Books

ISBN: 1785783211

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 4008

On 14 September 2015, after 50 years of searching, gravitational waves were detected for the first time and astronomy changed for ever. Until then, investigation of the universe had depended on electromagnetic radiation: visible light, radio, X-rays and the rest. But gravitational waves – ripples in the fabric of space and time – are unrelenting, passing through barriers that stop light dead. At the two 4-kilometre long LIGO observatories in the US, scientists developed incredibly sensitive detectors, capable of spotting a movement 100 times smaller than the nucleus of an atom. In 2015 they spotted the ripples produced by two black holes spiralling into each other, setting spacetime quivering. This was the first time black holes had ever been directly detected – and it promises far more for the future of astronomy. Brian Clegg presents a compelling story of human technical endeavour and a new, powerful path to understand the workings of the universe.
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Author: Joseph Weber

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486438872

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 9518

An internationally famous physicist and electrical engineer, the author of this text was a pioneer in the investigation of gravitational waves. Joseph Weber's General Relativity and Gravitational Waves offers a classic treatment of the subject. Appropriate for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text remains ever relevant. Brief but thorough in its introduction to the foundations of general relativity, it also examines the elements of Riemannian geometry and tensor calculus applicable to this field. Approximately a quarter of the contents explores theoretical and experimental aspects of gravitational radiation. The final chapter focuses on selected topics related to general relativity, including the equations of motion, unified field theories, Friedman's solution of the cosmological problem, and the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity. Exercises. Index.
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The Search for Gravitational Waves

Author: Harry Collins

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226113795

Category: Science

Page: 864

View: 8817

According to the theory of relativity, we are constantly bathed in gravitational radiation. When stars explode or collide, a portion of their mass becomes energy that disturbs the very fabric of the space-time continuum like ripples in a pond. But proving the existence of these waves has been difficult; the cosmic shudders are so weak that only the most sensitive instruments can be expected to observe them directly. Fifteen times during the last thirty years scientists have claimed to have detected gravitational waves, but so far none of those claims have survived the scrutiny of the scientific community. Gravity's Shadow chronicles the forty-year effort to detect gravitational waves, while exploring the meaning of scientific knowledge and the nature of expertise. Gravitational wave detection involves recording the collisions, explosions, and trembling of stars and black holes by evaluating the smallest changes ever measured. Because gravitational waves are so faint, their detection will come not in an exuberant moment of discovery but through a chain of inference; for forty years, scientists have debated whether there is anything to detect and whether it has yet been detected. Sociologist Harry Collins has been tracking the progress of this research since 1972, interviewing key scientists and delineating the social process of the science of gravitational waves. Engagingly written and authoritatively comprehensive, Gravity's Shadow explores the people, institutions, and government organizations involved in the detection of gravitational waves. This sociological history will prove essential not only to sociologists and historians of science but to scientists themselves.
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Author: David G. Blair

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521021029

Category: Science

Page: 508

View: 8407

In this 1991 text leading scientists in the field provide an art account of the physics and technology of gravitational wave detection.
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Einstein, Gravitational Waves, and the Future of Astronomy

Author: Govert Schilling

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674971663

Category: BIOGRAPHY & AUTOBIOGRAPHY

Page: 340

View: 4241

The detection of gravitational waves—ripples in spacetime—has already been called the scientific coup of this century. Govert Schilling recounts the struggles that threatened to derail the quest and describes the detector’s astounding precision, weaving far-reaching discoveries about the universe into a gripping story of ambition and perseverance.
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An Introduction to Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Cosmology

Author: Michael J W Hall

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1681748843

Category: Science

Page: 138

View: 8501

This book is based on a set of 18 class-tested lectures delivered to fourth-year physics undergraduates at Griffith University in Brisbane, and the book presents new discoveries by the Nobel-prize winning LIGO collaboration. The author begins with a review of special relativity and tensors and then develops the basic elements of general relativity (a beautiful theory that unifies special relativity and gravitation via geometry) with applications to the gravitational deflection of light, global positioning systems, black holes, gravitational waves, and cosmology. The book provides readers with a solid understanding of the underlying physical concepts; an ability to appreciate and in many cases derive important applications of the theory; and a solid grounding for those wishing to pursue their studies further. General Relativity: An Introduction to Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Cosmology also connects general relativity with broader topics. There is no doubt that general relativity is an active and exciting field of physics, and this book successfully transmits that excitement to readers.
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Einstein and the Quest for Gravitational Waves

Author: Daniel Kennefick

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400882745

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 1401

Since Einstein first described them nearly a century ago, gravitational waves have been the subject of more sustained controversy than perhaps any other phenomenon in physics. These as yet undetected fluctuations in the shape of space-time were first predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity, but only now, at the dawn of the twenty-first century, are we on the brink of finally observing them. Daniel Kennefick's landmark book takes readers through the theoretical controversies and thorny debates that raged around the subject of gravitational waves after the publication of Einstein's theory. The previously untold story of how we arrived at a settled theory of gravitational waves includes a stellar cast from the front ranks of twentieth-century physics, including Richard Feynman, Hermann Bondi, John Wheeler, Kip Thorne, and Einstein himself, who on two occasions avowed that gravitational waves do not exist, changing his mind both times. The book derives its title from a famously skeptical comment made by Arthur Stanley Eddington in 1922--namely, that "gravitational waves propagate at the speed of thought." Kennefick uses the title metaphorically to contrast the individual brilliance of each of the physicists grappling with gravitational-wave theory against the frustratingly slow progression of the field as a whole. Accessibly written and impeccably researched, this book sheds new light on the trials and conflicts that have led to the extraordinary position in which we find ourselves today--poised to bring the story of gravitational waves full circle by directly confirming their existence for the very first time.
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The Quest for Gravitational Waves

Author: Pierre Binétruy

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019251654X

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 3831

What force do the Big Bang, the expansion of the Universe, dark matter and dark energy, black holes, and gravitational waves all have in common? This book uncovers gravity as a key to understanding these fascinating phenomena that have so captivated public interest in recent years. Readers will discover the latest findings on how this familiar force in our everyday lives powers the most colossal changes in the Universe. Written by the widely recognized French public scientist and leading astrophysicist Pierre Binétruy, the book also explains the recent experimental confirmation of the existence of gravitational waves.
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The Detection of Gravitational Waves

Author: Harry Collins

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262036185

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 3891

A fascinating account, written in real time, of the unfolding of a scientific discovery: the first detection of gravitational waves.
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Author: Praveen P A

Publisher: eInk Solutions

ISBN: 9387395006

Category: Science

Page: 52

View: 7371

@page { margin: 2cm } p { margin-bottom: 0.25cm; line-height: 120% } a:link { so-language: zxx } Nobel prize in physics for the year 2017 has been awarded to the three American scientists for detecting gravitational waves. But, wait! First of all, what is this gravity and that wave refer to? If you are so solicitous to know about them, then this short compendium is for you. We have tried to explain everything about the gravitational waves in a concise way, as simple as possible, starting from its discovery to the recent detection and its scope in the future.
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Author: Laura Bianca Bethke

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319174495

Category: Science

Page: 139

View: 5012

This work investigates gravitational wave production in the early universe and identifies potentially observable features, thereby paving the way for future gravitational wave experiments. It focuses on gravitational wave production in two scenarios: inflation in a model inspired by loop quantum gravity, and preheating at the end of inflation. In the first part, it is demonstrated that gravitational waves’ spectrum differs from the result obtained using ordinary general relativity, with potentially observable consequences that could yield insights into quantum gravity. In the second part, it is shown that the cosmic gravitational wave background is anisotropic at a level that could be detected by future experiments. Gravitational waves promise to be an rich source of information on the early universe. To them, the universe has been transparent from its earliest moments, so they can give us an unobstructed view of the Big Bang and a means to probe the fundamental laws of nature at very high energies.
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Third Edoardo Amaldi Conference. Pasadena, California, 12-16 July, 1999

Author: Sydney Meshkov

Publisher: American Inst. of Physics

ISBN: 9781563969447

Category: Science

Page: 492

View: 1598

This volume contains the proceedings of the Third Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves. The Amaldi Conference had been held twice before, in Frascati, Italy (1994), and at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland (1997), but took on a new significance after it was designated the cornerstone meeting for the recently formed Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC). How to detect gravitational waves is the subject of the Amaldi Conference. Their detection would open a new way of doing astrophysics, different from observing electromagnetic radiation or detecting neutrinos. The proceedings describe the status of both the newest interferometers (land-based and space-based) and bar antennae that will be built to detect gravitational waves. The latest lasers, optics, and suspensions are discussed, as well as advances in signal processing and data analysis.
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Testing the Strong-field Dynamics of General Relativity and Inferring the Large-scale Structure of the Universe

Author: Tjonnie G. F. Li

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319192736

Category: Science

Page: 235

View: 6537

Tjonnie Li's thesis covers two applications of Gravitational Wave astronomy: tests of General Relativity in the strong-field regime and cosmological measurements. The first part of the thesis focuses on the so-called TIGER, i.e. Test Infrastructure for General Relativity, an innovative Bayesian framework for performing hypothesis tests of modified gravity using ground-based GW data. After developing the framework, Li simulates a variety of General Relativity deviations and demonstrates the ability of the aforementioned TIGER to measure them. The advantages of the method are nicely shown and compared to other, less generic methods. Given the extraordinary implications that would result from any measured deviation from General Relativity, it is extremely important that a rigorous statistical approach for supporting these results would be in place before the first Gravitational Wave detections begin. In developing TIGER, Tjonnie Li shows a large amount of creativity and originality, and his contribution is an important step in the direction of a possible discovery of a deviation (if any) from General Relativity. In another section, Li's thesis deals with cosmology, describing an exploratory study where the possibility of cosmological parameters measurement through gravitational wave compact binary coalescence signals associated with electromagnetic counterparts is evaluated. In particular, the study explores the capabilities of the future Einstein Telescope observatory. Although of very long term-only applicability, this is again a thorough investigation, nicely put in the context of the current and the future observational cosmology.
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Proceedings of the Conference

Author: Fritzsch Harald

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9813231815

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 803

In February 2016, physicists announced the breakthrough discovery of the gravitational waves, which were predicted by Albert Einstein in his century-old theory of General Relativity. These gravitational waves were emitted as a result of the collision of two massive black holes that happened about 1.3 billion years ago. They were discovered at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) in the United States and thus marked a new milestone for physics. However, it remains unclear to physicists how the gravitational interaction can be included in the Standard Theory of particle physics which describes the electroweak and the strong interactions in our universe. In this volume are the lectures, given by the speakers at the conference on cosmology and particle physics. The discussed topics range from gravitational waves to cosmology, dark matter, dark energy and particle physics beyond the Standard Theory.
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Author: Auger Gerard,Plagnol Eric

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9813141778

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 4307

This book describes detection techniques used to search for and analyze gravitational waves (GW). It covers the whole domain of GW science, starting from the theory and ending with the experimental techniques (both present and future) used to detect them. The theoretical sections of the book address the theory of general relativity and of GW, followed by the theory of GW detection. The various sources of GW are described as well as the methods used to analyse them and to extract their physical parameters. It includes an analysis of the consequences of GW observations in terms of astrophysics as well as a description of the different detectors that exist and that are planned for the future. With the recent announcement of GW detection and the first results from LISA Pathfinder, this book will allow non-specialists to understand the present status of the field and the future of gravitational wave science.
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