Author: Hans van Ditmarsch,Joseph Y. Halpern,Wiebe van der Hoek
Epistemic logic and, more generally, logics of knowledge and belief, originated with philosophers such as Jaakko Hintikka and David Lewis in the early 1960s. Since then, such logics have played a significant role not only in philosophy, but also in computer science, artificial intelligence, and economics. This handbook reports significant progress in a field that, while more mature, continues to be very active. This book should make it easier for new researchers to enter the field, and give experts a chance to appreciate work in related areas. The book starts with a gentle introduction to the logics of knowledge and belief; it gives an overview of the area and the material covered in the book. The following eleven chapters, each written by a leading researcher (or researchers), cover the topics of only knowing, awareness, knowledge and probability, knowledge and time, the dynamics of knowledge and of belief, model checking, game theory, agency, knowledge and ability, and security protocols. The chapters have been written so that they can be read independently and in any order. Each chapter ends with a section of notes that provides some historical background, including references, and a detailed bibliography.
Author: I. Niiniluoto,Matti Sintonen,Jan Wolenski,Jan Woleński
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The twenty-eight essays in this Handbook, all by leading experts in the field, provide the most extensive treatment of various epistemological problems, supplemented by a historical account of this field. The entries are self-contained and substantial contributions to topics such as the sources of knowledge and belief, knowledge acquisition, and truth and justification. There are extensive essays on knowledge in specific fields: the sciences, mathematics, the humanities and the social sciences, religion, and language. Special attention is paid to current discussions on evolutionary epistemology, relativism, the relation between epistemology and cognitive science, sociology of knowledge, epistemic logic, knowledge and art, and feminist epistemology. This collection is a must-have for anybody interested in human knowledge, and its fortunes and misfortunes.
Author: Dov M. Gabbay,Franz Guenthner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The fourteenth volume of the Second Edition covers central topics in philosophical logic that have been studied for thousands of years, since Aristotle: Inconsistency, Causality, Conditionals, and Quantifiers. These topics are central in many applications of logic in central disciplines and this book is indispensable to any advanced student or researcher using logic in these areas. The chapters are comprehensive and written by major figures in the field.
Author: Marco Aiello,Ian Pratt-Hartmann,Johan van Benthem
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The aim of this handbook is to create, for the first time, a systematic account of the field of spatial logic. The book comprises a general introduction, followed by fourteen chapters by invited authors. Each chapter provides a self-contained overview of its topic, describing the principal results obtained to date, explaining the methods used to obtain them, and listing the most important open problems. Jointly, these contributions constitute a comprehensive survey of this rapidly expanding subject.
Author: Paul K. Moser
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
This reference work discusses one of the core topics of philosophy - the theory of knowledge. Connecting to virtually every other subfield, epistemology is central to mainstream philosophy. This book explains the ideas and problems of the field while avoiding overly technical detail.
Author: Patrick Blackburn,Johan F.A.K. van Benthem,Frank Wolter
The Handbook of Modal Logic contains 20 articles, which collectively introduce contemporary modal logic, survey current research, and indicate the way in which the field is developing. The articles survey the field from a wide variety of perspectives: the underling theory is explored in depth, modern computational approaches are treated, and six major applications areas of modal logic (in Mathematics, Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence, Linguistics, Game Theory, and Philosophy) are surveyed. The book contains both well-written expository articles, suitable for beginners approaching the subject for the first time, and advanced articles, which will help those already familiar with the field to deepen their expertise. Please visit: http://people.uleth.ca/~woods/RedSeriesPromo_WP/PubSLPR.html - Compact modal logic reference - Computational approaches fully discussed - Contemporary applications of modal logic covered in depth
Author: Jeffrey A. Greene,William A. Sandoval,Ivar Bråten
The Handbook of Epistemic Cognition brings together leading work from across disciplines, to provide a comprehensive overview of an increasingly important topic: how people acquire, understand, justify, change, and use knowledge in formal and informal contexts. Research into inquiry, understanding, and discovery within academic disciplines has progressed from general models of conceptual change to a focus upon the learning trajectories that lead to expert-like conceptualizations, skills, and performance. Outside of academic domains, issues of who and what to believe, and how to integrate multiple sources of information into coherent and useful knowledge, have arisen as primary challenges of the 21st century. In six sections, scholars write within and across fields to focus and advance the role of epistemic cognition in education. With special attention to how researchers across disciplines can communicate and collaborate more effectively, this book will be an invaluable resource for anyone interested in the future of knowledge and knowing. Dr. Jeffrey A. Greene is an associate professor of Learning Sciences and Psychological Studies in the School of Education at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. William A. Sandoval is a professor in the division of Urban Schooling at the UCLA Graduate School of Education & Information Studies. Dr. Ivar Bråten is a professor of Educational Psychology at the Faculty of Educational Sciences at the University of Oslo, Norway.
Author: Stewart Shapiro
Publisher: OUP USA
Covers the state of the art in the philosophy of maths and logic, giving the reader an overview of the major problems, positions, and battle lines. The chapters in this book contain both exposition and criticism as well as substantial development of their own positions. It also includes a bibliography.
Author: Frank van Harmelen,Vladimir Lifschitz,Bruce Porter
Handbook of Knowledge Representation describes the essential foundations of Knowledge Representation, which lies at the core of Artificial Intelligence (AI). The book provides an up-to-date review of twenty-five key topics in knowledge representation, written by the leaders of each field. It includes a tutorial background and cutting-edge developments, as well as applications of Knowledge Representation in a variety of AI systems. This handbook is organized into three parts. Part I deals with general methods in Knowledge Representation and reasoning and covers such topics as classical logic in Knowledge Representation; satisfiability solvers; description logics; constraint programming; conceptual graphs; nonmonotonic reasoning; model-based problem solving; and Bayesian networks. Part II focuses on classes of knowledge and specialized representations, with chapters on temporal representation and reasoning; spatial and physical reasoning; reasoning about knowledge and belief; temporal action logics; and nonmonotonic causal logic. Part III discusses Knowledge Representation in applications such as question answering; the semantic web; automated planning; cognitive robotics; multi-agent systems; and knowledge engineering. This book is an essential resource for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in knowledge representation and AI. * Make your computer smarter * Handle qualitative and uncertain information * Improve computational tractability to solve your problems easily
The papers presented in this volume examine topics of central interest in contemporary philosophy of logic. They include reflections on the nature of logic and its relevance for philosophy today, and explore in depth developments in informal logic and the relation of informal to symbolic logic, mathematical metatheory and the limiting metatheorems, modal logic, many-valued logic, relevance and paraconsistent logic, free logics, extensional v. intensional logics, the logic of fiction, epistemic logic, formal logical and semantic paradoxes, the concept of truth, the formal theory of entailment, objectual and substitutional interpretation of the quantifiers, infinity and domain constraints, the Löwenheim-Skolem theorem and Skolem paradox, vagueness, modal realism v. actualism, counterfactuals and the logic of causation, applications of logic and mathematics to the physical sciences, logically possible worlds and counterpart semantics, and the legacy of Hilbert’s program and logicism. The handbook is meant to be both a compendium of new work in symbolic logic and an authoritative resource for students and researchers, a book to be consulted for specific information about recent developments in logic and to be read with pleasure for its technical acumen and philosophical insights. - Written by leading logicians and philosophers - Comprehensive authoritative coverage of all major areas of contemporary research in symbolic logic - Clear, in-depth expositions of technical detail - Progressive organization from general considerations to informal to symbolic logic to nonclassical logics - Presents current work in symbolic logic within a unified framework - Accessible to students, engaging for experts and professionals - Insightful philosophical discussions of all aspects of logic - Useful bibliographies in every chapter
Author: Horacio Arló-Costa,Vincent F. Hendricks,Johan van Benthem
This volume presents 38 classic texts in formal epistemology, and strengthens the ties between research into this area of philosophy and its neighbouring intellectual disciplines. The editors provide introductions to five subsections: Bayesian Epistemology, Belief Change, Decision Theory, Interactive Epistemology and Epistemic Logic. 'Formal epistemology' is a term coined in the late 1990s for a new constellation of interests in philosophy, the origins of which are found in earlier works of epistemologists, philosophers of science and logicians. It addresses a growing agenda of problems concerning knowledge, belief, certainty, rationality, deliberation, decision, strategy, action and agent interaction – and it does so using methods from logic, probability, computability, decision and game theory. The volume also includes a thorough index and suggestions for further reading, and thus offers a complete teaching and research package for students as well as research scholars of formal epistemology, philosophy, logic, computer science, theoretical economics and cognitive psychology.
The Turn Towards the Practical
Author: R.H. Johnson,H.J. Ohlbach,Dov M. Gabbay,John Woods
The Handbook of the Logic of Argument and Inference is an authoritative reference work in a single volume, designed for the attention of senior undergraduates, graduate students and researchers in all the leading research areas concerned with the logic of practical argument and inference. After an introductory chapter, the role of standard logics is surveyed in two chapters. These chapters can serve as a mini-course for interested readers, in deductive and inductive logic, or as a refresher. Then follow two chapters of criticism; one the internal critique and the other the empirical critique. The first deals with objections to standard logics (as theories of argument and inference) arising from the research programme in philosophical logic. The second canvasses criticisms arising from work in cognitive and experimental psychology. The next five chapters deal with developments in dialogue logic, interrogative logic, informal logic, probability logic and artificial intelligence. The last chapter surveys formal approaches to practical reasoning and anticipates possible future developments. Taken as a whole the Handbook is a single-volume indication of the present state of the logic of argument and inference at its conceptual and theoretical best. Future editions will periodically incorporate significant new developments.
Author: John Alan Robinson,Andreĭ Voronkov
This second volume of Handbook of Automated Reasoning covers topics such as higher-order logic and logical frameworks, higher-order unification and matching, logical frameworks, proof-assistants using dependent type systems, and nonclassical logics.
Author: George Edward Moore
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
Der vorliegende Band vereint Aufsätze Moores, die zwischen den Jahren 1903 und 1922 entstanden sind. Sie alle verdeutlichen Moores Bemühen, vom common sense ausgehend Antworten auf die sich ihm stellenden philosophischen Probleme zu finden. Dabei kann sein Stil auch heute noch als Musterbeispiel an Einfachheit, Klarheit und Präzision gelten. Sein in diesem Band vorgelegtes Themenspektrum ist immens, und umfasst neben seiner berühmten Kritik am Idealismus und diversen historischen Untersuchungen zur Philosophie David Humes und William James weitere Überlegungen zu verschiedenen Problemstellungen der Metaphysik und Epistemologie. Abgerundet wird die Sammlung durch zwei metaethische Aufsätze, die nach der Möglichkeit intrinsischer Werte fragen und das Wesen grundlegender moralischer Begriffe zum Thema haben. Der Band eignet sich sowohl für den Moore-Experten, der tiefere Einblicke in dessen philosophische Entwicklung erhalten möchte als auch den Studenten der Philosophie, der hier eine hervorragende Einführung in die Denk- und Argumentationsmuster analytischen Philosophierens erhält.
Author: Dov M. Gabbay,John Woods
This volume is number ten in the 11-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. While there are many examples were a science split from philosophy and became autonomous (such as physics with Newton and biology with Darwin), and while there are, perhaps, topics that are of exclusively philosophical interest, inductive logic — as this handbook attests — is a research field where philosophers and scientists fruitfully and constructively interact. This handbook covers the rich history of scientific turning points in Inductive Logic, including probability theory and decision theory. Written by leading researchers in the field, both this volume and the Handbook as a whole are definitive reference tools for senior undergraduates, graduate students and researchers in the history of logic, the history of philosophy, and any discipline, such as mathematics, computer science, cognitive psychology, and artificial intelligence, for whom the historical background of his or her work is a salient consideration. • Chapter on the Port Royal contributions to probability theory and decision theory • Serves as a singular contribution to the intellectual history of the 20th century • Contains the latest scholarly discoveries and interpretative insights
Author: David Hilbert,Paul Bernays
Der vorliegende Band schließt die Darstellung der Beweistheorie ab, die ich vor einigen Jahren zusammen mit P. BERNAYS begann. Auf meinen Wunsch hat P. BERNAYS wieder die Abfassung des Textes über nommen. Ich danke ihm für die Sorgfalt und Treue, mit der er meine Gedanken wiedergegeben hat, an deren Entwicklung er in jahrelanger Zusammenarbeit aufs stärkste beteiligt war. Ohne seine Mithilfe wäre die Vollendung dieses Buches unmöglich gewesen. Den Herren W. ACKERMANN, G. GENTZEN, A. SCHMIDT, H. SCHOLZ danke ich für ihre freundliche Mitwirkung bei den Korrekturen. Göttingen, im März 1939 HILBERT Zur Einführung Das vorliegende Buch soll einer eingehenden Orientierung über den gegenwärtigen Stoff der HILBERTschen Beweistheorie dienen. Wenn gleich das bisher hier Erreichte gemessen an den Zielen der Theorie sehr bescheiden ist, so liegt doch ein reichlicher Stoff an prägnanten Ergebnissen, an Gesichtspunkten und Beweisgedanken vor, die zur Kenntnis zu bringen als lohnend erscheint. Für die inhaltliche Gestaltung dieses zweiten Bandes waren durch den Zweck des Buches zwei Hauptthemata vorgezeichnet. - Es handelte sich einmal darum, die hauptsächlichen, an das e-Symbol sich knüpfenden beweistheoretischen Ansätze HILBERTS und ihre Durchführung zur ein gehenden Darstellung zu bringen.