Towards Horizon 2020

Author: Massimiliano Granieri,Andrea Renda

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 8847019176

Category: Law

Page: 199

View: 8998

The book provides a critical overview of innovation policy in Europe and a synopsis of the current institutional framework of Europe shaped after the Europe2020 strategy and in view of the upcoming Horizon2020 agenda. What emerges is a rather gloomy outlook for the future of Europe's innovation, unless EU institutions and Member States will decide to streamline existing policies and build a "layered" model of innovation, in which governments act as investors in key enabling infrastructure such as ICT and education; as enablers of large technology markets where researchers and entrepreneurs can meet; and as purchasers of innovation when key societal challenges are at stake. The book contains proposals for the future innovation strategy of the EU and a specific analysis of areas such as the unitary patent, the transfer of technology (particularly as far as climate-related technologies and IP markets are concerned), standardization, and the digital agenda.
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Author: Lino Cinquini,Alberto Di Minin,Riccardo Varaldo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 8847028388

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 214

View: 2469

The contemporary economic landscape features the prevalence of the service sector in economic systems, the pervasive servitisation of manufacturing, innovations in traditional business models and new value creation models, thanks to the new possibilities offered by the web, ICT and other enabling technologies. In this evolving context, this book provides qualified contributions on the topic of service science from a managerial perspective. A multidisciplinary perspective is adopted, dealing with both the structural–technological and dynamic–relational aspects of managing complexity. In addressing the contribution that service science can make to business value creation, this book covers relevant issues such as product servitisation, business modelling, value cocreation with customers, performance measures and the role of ICT. It also presents some innovative experiences of management models in service organisations operating in the environmental, energy and health-care sectors. This book aims to enhance the value of the results of research intertwined with the development of a new training curriculum started four years ago at the Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna of Pisa (Italy) with the evolution of the "Master in Management of Innovation" into the new "Master in Management, Innovation and Service Engineering" (MAINS).
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Author: Fulvio Coltorti,Riccardo Resciniti,Annalisa Tunisini,Riccardo Varaldo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 8847025893

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 191

View: 9669

The structure of Italian industry is characterized by a predominance of small sized companies and the presence of very few large companies. For a long time a conviction was shared among scholars and practitioners that the strength and safety of Italian industry were based on its industrial districts, that is, the system of interdependent and co-localized small companies which derive their competitive force from an effective and efficient division of labour. This book stresses the idea that a new, vital and promising phenomenon for the competitiveness of Italian industry is focused on mid-sized companies, and the systems of interconnected firms that form a constituent part of their business model. These companies, which originate largely from districts and other local production systems, are a strong entrepreneurial force complementing the districts that have characterized Italy and made Italian industry famous worldwide. A quantitative and qualitative analysis of these firms is provided in this book. Business models and strategies implemented by a number of successful Italian mid-sized manufacturing companies are also explored. Consequences in terms of management and industrial policies are provided. A final look at the German Mittelstand gives a useful comparison.
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L'evoluzione dei fenomeni sociali attraverso la Rete

Author: Andrea Ceron,Luigi Curini,Stefano M. Iacus

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 8847055326

Category: Social Science

Page: 130

View: 4800

Due miliardi e mezzo di utenti internet, oltre un miliardo di account Facebook, 550 milioni di profili Twitter. Che parlano, discutono, si confrontano sui temi più svariati. Un flusso in continuo divenire di informazioni che dà sostanza ogni giorno al mondo dei Big Data. Ma come si analizza concretamente il “sentiment” della Rete? Quali sono i pregi e i limiti dei diversi metodi esistenti? E a quali domande possiamo dare una risposta? Dopo aver presentato le varie tecniche di analisi testuale applicate ai social media, questo libro discute di come l’informazione presente in Rete sia in grado di aiutarci a meglio comprendere il presente e a fare previsioni sul futuro riguardo a una molteplicità di fenomeni sociali, che spaziano dall’andamento dei mercati finanziari, alla diffusione di malattie, alle rivolte e ai sommovimenti popolari fino ai risultati dei talent show, prima di concentrarsi su due casi specifici: l’andamento della felicità degli italiani giorno per giorno, e i risultati delle campagne elettorali in Francia, Stati Uniti e Italia tra il 2012 e il 2013.
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Managing Efficient Cities in Euro-Mediterranean Countries

Author: Eleonora Riva Sanseverino,Raffaella Riva Sanseverino,Valentina Vaccaro,Gaetano Zizzo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319064223

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 132

View: 3600

This book explores the new rules and codes that are required in order to foster the implementation of smart city technologies with a view to meeting the environmental and energy challenges posed by dynamic contemporary cities with increasing populations. In particular, it proposes a methodological approach suitable for use when devising a smart urban/building code for local administrations, taking into account the current European regulatory framework (directives and technical norms) and evaluating the economic feasibility of the suggested measures. A case study is made of a large Mediterranean city in Italy that can be regarded as a paradigm of urban evolution, where a traditional individualism poses a cultural obstacle to the emerging need to share resources. Further features include a smart cities atlas, explanation of how to create local rules for sustainable building restoration/construction, and guidance on economic evaluation of the impact of building automation and passive measures for energy efficiency. The book, which has a multidisciplinary perspective, will be of value to all who are interested in the transition to smart cities that can meet sustainable development targets.
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Author: Isabella Lami

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319047868

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 269

View: 1964

Eurocorridors are characterized by intensive transport flows and dynamic patterns of establishment and household locations. They are also considered the backbones of powerful spatial and economic forces in the areas that connect urban regions. One of the main difficulties in the spatial planning of eurocorridors has been the need to engage in different types of collective action. Such an approach can be extremely challenging in practice, useful to researchers in the field and to professionals as well. In the light of this, the book’s main objectives are: - To define the problem by analyzing the key features, which include freight and passenger transport policies and issues; the territorial context, with its geographical, social, economic and cultural aspects; the plurality of subjects with different aims and resources and the lack of homogeneous information. - To illustrate assessment models and evaluation frameworks (MCDA; Discrete Choice Analysis; Collaborative Assessments; Geovisualization Technologies) in theoretical terms and by the use of case studies.
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Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides in the Immune System

Author: Mia Levite

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3709108888

Category: Medical

Page: 360

View: 8114

“Nerve-Driven Immunity: Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides in the Immune System” summarizes, analyzes and sheds new light on an unrecognized, yet very important role of key neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in the immune system. Each chapter of the book deals with a different neurotransmitter/neuropeptide from the following list: Dopamine, Adrenaline, Noradrenaline, Acetylcholine, Glutamate, GABA, Somatostatin, Neuropeptide Y (NPY), Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), Opioids and Cannabinoids. For each of these neurotransmitters/neuropeptides, the following four topics are discussed: The specific receptors for the neurotransmitter/neuropeptide expressed in various types of immune cells The direct effects induced by the neurotransmitter/neuropeptide in various types of immune cells (either resting or activated), and the specific immune functions and features it activates/elevates or rather inhibits in specific concentrations The production of the neurotransmitter/neuropeptide in, and its release by, various types of immune cells The involvement of the neurotransmitter/neuropeptide in various diseases of the immune system (among them autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiency diseases and hematological cancers) The book includes many original figures, overview tables, and proposed models of events which are instrumental, enriching and stimulating for the reader. In light of the above-mentioned aspects, “Nerve-Driven Immunity: Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides in the Immune System” is ideally suited as a textbook for new courses in Immunology, Neurology, Neuro-immunology or Pharmacology. The book chapters were written by highly skilled authors from 10 countries: the USA, the United Kingdom, Italy, Israel, Sweden, France, Germany, Spain, Serbia and Romania. “Nerve-Driven Immunity” is a term first coined by Dr. Mia Levite (the editor of the book).
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Author: Rossella Bottoni,Rinaldo Cristofori,Silvio Ferrari

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319283359

Category: Law

Page: 420

View: 7011

This book is devoted to the study of the interplay between religious rules and State law. It explores how State recognition of religious rules can affect the degree of legal diversity that is available to citizens and why such recognition sometime results in more individual and collective freedom and sometime in a threat to equality of citizens before the law. The first part of the book contains a few contributions that place this discussion within the wider debate on legal pluralism. While State law and religious rules are two normative systems among many others, the specific characteristics of the latter are at the heart of tensions that emerge with increasing frequency in many countries. The second part is devoted to the analysis of about twenty national cases that provide an overview of the different tools and strategies that are employed to manage the relationship between State law and religious rules all over the world.
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A Comparative Approach

Author: Katrin Blasek

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662446227

Category: Law

Page: 80

View: 1494

This book analyzes in detail differing interpretations of the rule of law in Western legal systems and in the People’s Republic of China. As the rule of law is seen by many as a prerequisite for China’s future development, politicians, activists and entrepreneurs from China and from the West alike have long been calling for adherence to this principle, which is constitutive of Western democracies. All these groups use the same words, but do they truly share the same idea? In order to address this question, the book compares the “Rule of Law with Chinese characteristics,” as propagated by Chinese leaders and in official Chinese publications, to different applications of the rule of law as it is understood in Western civilization. In particular, the author takes a closer look at the implementations of recognized core elements of the rule of law in representative Western countries, which include the separation of power, the supremacy of law, the protection of fundamental rights, and the independence of the justice system.
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A Theory of the Determination of Applicable Rules

Author: Carlos Iván Fuentes

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319439294

Category: Law

Page: 240

View: 7440

This book provides a theoretical framework for explaining the choices made by international decision-makers in terms of what constitutes law. It comprehensively analyzes the practice of human rights courts in applying legal instruments outside their competence and proposes that this practice recognizes that different normative instruments coexist in an un-ordered space, and that meaning can be produced by the free interaction of those instruments around a problem. Based on this, the book advances its normative plurality hypothesis, which states that decision-makers must survey the acquis of international law in order to identify all the instruments containing relevant normative information for a particular situation. The set of rules of law applicable to the situation must then be complemented with other instruments containing specific normative information relevant to the situation, resulting in a complete system of norms advancing a common purpose.
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Western and Eastern Intelligent Communities

Author: Eleonora Riva Sanseverino,Raffaella Riva Sanseverino,Valentina Vaccaro

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319473611

Category: Social Science

Page: 263

View: 1405

The book discusses the concept of the smart city, and is based on a multi-service and multi-sectoral approach to urban planning, including various urban functions and the human capital of cities. The work is divided into three parts. The first is an introductory section which covers definitions, policies and tools used at European level for the development and classification of a smart city. The second presents a selection of examples of Western and Eastern communities, which experienced technologies and strategies that have made them smart. The third describes in detail the main three possible approaches (economical, technological and social) to the smart city concept which are the focus ambits of the holistic concept of smart city. The work provides a good overview of the concept of smart city, and also offers a critical analysis of the various approaches to smart cities, in order to provide tools to develop solutions that address the smart development of cities with an approach as multi-sectoral as possible. Its accessible language and several examples make the book easy to read and appealing to public administrators, students, planners and researchers.
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Author: Giuseppe Bellantuono,Fabiano Teodoro Lara

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331913311X

Category: Law

Page: 215

View: 9944

This book deals with one strand of the intense debate concerning the links between law and development, namely the coordination of innovation processes and legal change. It analyzes how innovation, and ultimately development, can be fostered or hindered by existing or new legal infrastructures. The book includes eleven original contributions from senior and junior scholars and is divided into two parts, the first focusing on theoretical frameworks and the second presenting several case studies on various institutional aspects. A particular strength of this part is its broad geographical coverage, which encompasses the legal frameworks in Europe, the Americas, Africa, and Asia. The contributions collected in this book will be of value to a broad readership. Academic scholars will find useful information on lessons learned from reforms implemented in different areas and come to better understand the methodological hurdles involved in reform assessment. Policymakers in national and international organizations can draw on these studies when designing new programs. Lastly, practitioners in developed and developing countries can use these contributions to promote the success of current or new initiatives.
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Unilateralism, Multilateralism, Legitimacy, and Consequences

Author: Ali Z. Marossi,Marisa R. Bassett

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9462650519

Category: Law

Page: 249

View: 7065

Since the Second World War, States have increasingly relied upon economic sanctions programs, in lieu of military action, to exert pressure and generally to fill the awkward gap between verbal denunciation and action. Whether or not sanctions are effective remains a point of contention among policymakers. Frequently asked questions include whether any legal order constrains the use of sanctions, and, if so, what the limits on the use of sanctions are. This volume gathers contributions from leading experts in various relevant fields providing a seminal study on the limits of economic sanctions under international law, including accountability mechanisms when sanctioning States go too far. Where there are gaps in the law, the authors provide novel and important contributions as to how existing legal structures can be used to ensure that economic sanctions remain within an accepted legal order. This book is a most valuable contribution to the literature in the fields of international economic law, public international law and international dispute resolution. Ali Z. Marossi is an advisory board member of The Hague Center for Law and Arbitration. Marisa R. Bassett is Associate Legal Officer in the Office of the Prosecutor for the ICTY and former Associate at White & Case LLP.
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An Interdisciplinary Approach to the American and European Experiences

Author: Luís Pereira Coutinho,Massimo La Torre,Steven D. Smith

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319185497

Category: Law

Page: 206

View: 3586

This volume offers different perspectives on judicial practice in the European and American contexts, both arguably characterized in the last decades by the emergence of novel normative and even policy arguments by judges. The central question deserving the attention of the contributors concerns the degree in which judicial exercises in practical reasoning may amount to forms of judicial usurpation of the legislative function by courts. Since different views as to the nature and scope of legal reasoning lead to different degrees of tolerance regarding what should be admissible to courts, that same nature and scope is thoroughly debated. The main disciplinary approach is that of general jurisprudence, but the contributions take stock of other disciplines in which judicial activism has been addressed, namely positive theories of judicial behavior. Accordingly, the book also explores the development of interdisciplinary dialogue about the theme.
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Author: Giovanni Acampora,Vincenzo Loia,Chang-Shing Lee,Mei-Hui Wang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642354882

Category: Computers

Page: 188

View: 2322

One of the most successful methodology that arose from the worldwide diffusion of Fuzzy Logic is Fuzzy Control. After the first attempts dated in the seventies, this methodology has been widely exploited for controlling many industrial components and systems. At the same time, and very independently from Fuzzy Logic or Fuzzy Control, the birth of the Web has impacted upon almost all aspects of computing discipline. Evolution of Web, Web2.0 and Web 3.0 has been making scenarios of ubiquitous computing much more feasible; consequently information technology has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. What happens when Fuzzy Logic meets Web technology? Interesting results might come out, as you will discover in this book. Fuzzy Mark-up Language is a son of this synergistic view, where some technological issues of Web are re-interpreted taking into account the transparent notion of Fuzzy Control, as discussed here. The concept of a Fuzzy Control that is conceived and modeled in terms of a native web wisdom represents another step towards the last picture of Pervasive Web Intelligence.
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Author: Laura Pineschi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319191802

Category: Law

Page: 325

View: 1786

This book examines the role played by domestic and international judges in the “flexibilization” of legal systems through general principles. It features revised papers that were presented at the Annual Conference of the European-American Consortium for Legal Education, held at the University of Parma, Italy, May 2014. This volume is organized in four sections, where the topic is mainly explored from a comparative perspective, and includes case studies. The first section covers theoretical issues. It offers an analysis of principles in shaping Dworkin’s theories about international law, a reflection on the role of procedural principles in defining the role of the judiciary, a view on the role of general principles in transnational judicial communication, a study on the recognition of international law from formal criteria to substantive principles, and an inquiry from the viewpoint of neo-constitutionalism. The second section contains studies on the role of general principles in selected legal systems, including International Law, European Union Law as well as Common Law systems. The third section features an analysis of select legal principles in a comparative perspective, with a particular focus on the comparison between European and American experiences. The fourth and last section explores selected principles in given areas of law, including the misuse of the lex specialis principle in the relationship between international human rights law and international humanitarian law, the role of the judiciary in Poland as regards discrimination for sexual orientation, and the impact of the ECtHR case law on Italian criminal law with regard to the principle of legality. Overall, the book offers readers a thoughtful reflection on how the interpretation, application, and development of general principles of law by the judiciary contribute to the evolution of legal systems at both the domestic and international levels as well as further their reciprocal interactions.
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South Asian States’ Practice

Author: Sai Ramani Garimella,Stellina Jolly

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811034583

Category: Law

Page: 442

View: 8641

This book shows how, with the increasing interaction between jurisdictions spearheaded by globalization, it is gradually becoming impossible to confine transactions to a single jurisdiction. Presented in the form of a compendium of essays by eminent academics and practitioners in the field, it provides a detailed overview of private, international law practice in South Asian nations, addressing contemporary discourse within this knowledge domain. Conflict of laws/private international law arises from the universal acknowledgment that it is difficult to govern human transactions solely by the local law. The research presented addresses the three major threads of private international law – jurisdiction, choice of law and enforcement – within each of the South Asian countries in the areas of family law and commercial law. The research in family law domain includes traditional areas such as marriage, divorce and maintenance, as well as some of the contemporary concerns in this region – inter-country child retrieval, surrogacy, and the country statement on accession to the Hague Conventions related to this domain. In commercial law the research explores the concerns raised with regard to choice of law issues in transnational contracts, and also enforcement of foreign judgment/arbitral awards in the nations of this region.
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Author: Stephen Abbott

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493927124

Category: Mathematics

Page: 312

View: 7960

This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-style sections have been added. Investigations of Euler’s computation of ζ(2), the Weierstrass Approximation Theorem, and the gamma function are now among the book’s cohort of seminal results serving as motivation and payoff for the beginning student to master the methods of analysis.
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Author: R. A. H. King

Publisher: Duckbacks

ISBN: N.A

Category: Philosophy

Page: 214

View: 970

Aristotle thinks of living things as food burners: they nourish themselves, and so, in some cases, possess the capacity for higher living functions such as perceiving. Their burning must be balanced, if it is to continue - and one way they do this is through breathing. Nonetheless, all such burning naturally develops and declines, thus describing the life span of the being concerned. Dr Kings' treatment provides a detailed reading of the end of the "Parva Naturalia" ("On the Length and Shortness of Life", "On Youth, Old Age, Life and Death", including "On Breathing"). He shows how the investigation into life begun in the "De Anima" is completed in the "Parva Naturalia", culminating in definitions of the stages of the life cycle, from generation of a new living thing up to death, using the activity of nutrition.
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