A Comparative Study

Author: Jeffrey Denys Goldsworthy

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199274134

Category: Law

Page: 353

View: 3694

This book describes the constitutions of six major federations and how they have been interpreted by their highest courts, compares the interpretive methods and underlying principles that have guided the courts, and explores the reasons for major differences between these methods and principles. Among the interpretive methods discussed are textualism, purposivism, structuralism and originalism. Each of the six federations is the subject of a separate chapter written by a leading authority in the field: Jeffrey Goldsworthy (Australia), Peter Hogg (Canada), Donald Kommers (Germany), S.P. Sathe (India), Heinz Klug (South Africa), and Mark Tushnet (United States). Each chapter describes not only the interpretive methodology currently used by the courts, but the evolution of that methodology since the constitution was first enacted. The book also includes a concluding chapter which compares these methodologies, and attempts to explain variations by reference to different social, historical, institutional and political circumstances.
Read More

Author: Michel Rosenfeld,András Sajó

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191640174

Category: Law

Page: 1416

View: 9740

The field of comparative constitutional law has grown immensely over the past couple of decades. Once a minor and obscure adjunct to the field of domestic constitutional law, comparative constitutional law has now moved front and centre. Driven by the global spread of democratic government and the expansion of international human rights law, the prominence and visibility of the field, among judges, politicians, and scholars has grown exponentially. Even in the United States, where domestic constitutional exclusivism has traditionally held a firm grip, use of comparative constitutional materials has become the subject of a lively and much publicized controversy among various justices of the U.S. Supreme Court. The trend towards harmonization and international borrowing has been controversial. Whereas it seems fair to assume that there ought to be great convergence among industrialized democracies over the uses and functions of commercial contracts, that seems far from the case in constitutional law. Can a parliamentary democracy be compared to a presidential one? A federal republic to a unitary one? Moreover, what about differences in ideology or national identity? Can constitutional rights deployed in a libertarian context be profitably compared to those at work in a social welfare context? Is it perilous to compare minority rights in a multi-ethnic state to those in its ethnically homogeneous counterparts? These controversies form the background to the field of comparative constitutional law, challenging not only legal scholars, but also those in other fields, such as philosophy and political theory. Providing the first single-volume, comprehensive reference resource, the Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law will be an essential road map to the field for all those working within it, or encountering it for the first time. Leading experts in the field examine the history and methodology of the discipline, the central concepts of constitutional law, constitutional processes, and institutions - from legislative reform to judicial interpretation, rights, and emerging trends.
Read More

Theory and Practice

Author: Jaclyn L Neo

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317428080

Category: Law

Page: 410

View: 9965

At the heart of constitutional interpretation is the struggle between, on the one hand, fidelity to founding meanings, and, on the other hand, creative interpretation to suit the context and needs of an evolving society. This book considers the recent growth of constitutional cases in Singapore in the last ten years. It examines the underpinnings of Singapore’s constitutional system, explores how Singapore courts have dealt with issues related to rights and power, and sets developments in Singapore in the wider context of new thinking and constitutional developments worldwide. It argues that Singapore is witnessing a shift in legal and political culture as both judges and citizens display an increasing willingness to engage with constitutional ideas and norms.
Read More

Essays, Cases, and Comparative Notes

Author: Donald P. Kommers,John E. Finn,Gary J. Jacobsohn

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

ISBN: 0742599833

Category: Law

Page: 350

View: 2027

American Constitutional Law: Essays, Cases, and Comparative Notes is a unique casebook that encourages citizens and students of the Constitution to think critically about the fundamental principles and policies of the American constitutional order. In addition to its distinguished authorship, the book has two prominent features that set it apart from other books in the field: an emphasis on the social, political, and moral theory that provides meaning to constitutional law and interpretation, and a comparative perspective that situates the American experience within a world context that serves as an invaluable prism through which to illuminate the special features of our own constitutional order. While the focus of the book is entirely on American constitutional law, the book asks students to consider what, if anything, is unique in American constitutional life and what we share with other constitutional democracies. Each chapter is preceded by an introductory essay that highlights these major themes and also situates the cases in their proper historical and political contexts. This new edition offers updated and expanded treatment of a number of important and timely topics, including gerrymandering and campaign finance, the death penalty, privacy, affirmative action, and school segregation. The new edition offers: _ Updated and expanded treatment of key cases on gerrymandering and campaign finance _ Expanded discussion of the Court's work federalism and the commerce clause _ Discussions of the Court's new cases on the death penalty, including a discussion of the controversy within the Court about the propriety of citing foreign case law _ An expanded discussion of the Court's recent work in the area of privacy, including the Court's decisions with regard to partial birth abortions and same sex marriages _ An expanded section on the Court's continuing efforts to develop a coherent takings clause jurisprudence _ Full coverage of new developments and cases concerning affirmative action and school desegregation
Read More

Author: Sujit Choudhry,Madhav Khosla,Pratap Bhanu Mehta

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191058629

Category: Law

Page: 1050

View: 2532

The Indian Constitution is one of the world's longest and most important political texts. Its birth, over six decades ago, signalled the arrival of the first major post-colonial constitution and the world's largest and arguably most daring democratic experiment. Apart from greater domestic focus on the Constitution and the institutional role of the Supreme Court within India's democratic framework, recent years have also witnessed enormous comparative interest in India's constitutional experiment. The Oxford Handbook of the Indian Constitution is a wide-ranging, analytical reflection on the major themes and debates that surround India's Constitution. The Handbook provides a comprehensive account of the developments and doctrinal features of India's Constitution, as well as articulating frameworks and methodological approaches through which studies of Indian constitutionalism, and constitutionalism more generally, might proceed. Its contributions range from rigorous, legal studies of provisions within the text to reflections upon historical trends and social practices. As such the Handbook is an essential reference point not merely for Indian and comparative constitutional scholars, but for students of Indian democracy more generally.
Read More

The Constitutional Value and the Constitutional Right

Author: Aharon Barak

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316240983

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 2607

Human dignity is now a central feature of many modern constitutions and international documents. As a constitutional value, human dignity involves a person's free will, autonomy, and ability to write a life story within the framework of society. As a constitutional right, it gives full expression to the value of human dignity, subject to the specific demands of constitutional architecture. This analytical study of human dignity as both a constitutional value and a constitutional right adopts a legal-interpretive perspective. It explores the sources of human dignity as a legal concept, its role in constitutional documents, its content, and its scope. The analysis is augmented by examples from comparative legal experience, including chapters devoted to the role of human dignity in American, Canadian, German, South African, and Israeli constitutional law.
Read More

The Practice of Constitutional Interpretation in Post-Apartheid South Africa

Author: James Fowkes

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107124093

Category: Law

Page: 416

View: 301

A revisionary account of the South African Constitutional Court, its working method and the neglected political underpinnings of its success.
Read More

A Comparative Analysis

Author: Maartje de Visser

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1782252452

Category: Law

Page: 528

View: 435

Constitutions serve to delineate state powers and enshrine basic rights. Such matters are hardly uncontroversial, but perhaps even more controversial are the questions of who (should) uphold(s) the Constitution and how constitutional review is organised. These two questions are the subject of this book by Maartje de Visser, which offers a comprehensive, comparative analysis of how 11 representative European countries answer these questions, as well as a critical appraisal of the EU legal order in light of these national experiences. Where possible, the book endeavours to identify Europe's common and diverse constitutional traditions of constitutional review. The raison d'Ãatre, jurisdiction and composition of constitutional courts are explored and so too are core features of the constitutional adjudicatory process. Yet, this book also deliberately draws attention to the role of non-judicial actors in upholding the Constitution, as well as the complex interplay amongst constitutional courts and other actors at the national and European level. The Member States featured are: Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Hungary, the Netherlands, Spain, Poland, and the United Kingdom. This book is intended for practitioners, academics and students with an interest in (European) constitutional law.
Read More

analysis and interpretation : an analytical and comparative review of the Constitution and a critical study of the problems of constitutional interpretation

Author: Kali Pada Chakravarti,India

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 516

View: 1121

Read More

Author: Zachary Elkins,Tom Ginsburg,James Melton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139479741

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 9244

Constitutions are supposed to provide an enduring structure for politics. Yet only half live more than nine years. Why is it that some constitutions endure while others do not? In The Endurance of National Constitutions Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton examine the causes of constitutional endurance from an institutional perspective. Supported by an original set of cross-national historical data, theirs is the first comprehensive study of constitutional mortality. They show that whereas constitutions are imperilled by social and political crises, certain aspects of a constitution's design can lower the risk of death substantially. Thus, to the extent that endurance is desirable - a question that the authors also subject to scrutiny - the decisions of founders take on added importance.
Read More

Author: András Jakab,Arthur Dyevre,Giulio Itzcovich

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108138616

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 8841

To what extent is the language of judicial opinions responsive to the political and social context in which constitutional courts operate? Courts are reason-giving institutions, with argumentation playing a central role in constitutional adjudication. However, a cursory look at just a handful of constitutional systems suggests important differences in the practices of constitutional judges, whether in matters of form, style, or language. Focusing on independently-verified leading cases globally, a combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis offers the most comprehensive and systematic account of constitutional reasoning to date. This analysis is supported by the examination of eighteen legal systems around the world including the European Court of Human Rights and the European Court of Justice. Universally common aspects of constitutional reasoning are identified in this book, and contributors also examine whether common law countries differ to civil law countries in this respect.
Read More

Political Science

Author: Vishnoo Bhagwan,Vidya Bhushan

Publisher: Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd

ISBN: 8120792580

Category: Self-Help

Page: N.A

View: 6487

This ninth revised edition of World Constitutions, a monumental work by seasoned authors, portrays the conceptual and legal framework of parliamentary democracies like the UK, Japan, Canada and Australia as well as of a presidential democracy like the USA. Tony Blair’s exit and making way for Gordon Brown as Prime Minister of UK, the spectacular triumph of Barack Obama as President of US and his sincere efforts to usher in an era of all-round peace and tranquility in hitherto strife-torn world, confronted with recession and morass of economic instability and insecurity have been covered while revising the book. The victory of Nicolas Sarcozy at the hustings in France has further given a flip to the concept of peace which has been on the last leg during the preceding regimes in some of the top democratic countries of the world. The Communist China which was vying with erstwhile Soviet Union sometime back has been given a prominent place in the book, portraying its considerably liberalised and substantially modernised socialistic infrastructure. The Swiss Constitution, the only direct democracy in the world, which is a judicious combination of presidential and parliamentary forms of democracy has been analytically presented. An incisive and comparative study of these constitutions will enable the reader to obtain an unbiased and dispassionate view of their working. Where necessary, eminent authorities on the subject have been quoted copiously. The book has been updated by incorporating the latest amendments to the constitutions. The Constitution of the Russian Federation has also been included while giving a synoptic reference to former Soviet Union, which was once a super power to reckon with.
Read More

A Comparative Study of the Influence of the European Convention of Human Rights on Dutch Family Law and the Influence of the United States Constitution on American Family Law

Author: Gerda A. Kleijkamp

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9789041111364

Category: Political Science

Page: 409

View: 2089

4. Dutch Filiation Law.
Read More

A Contextual Analysis

Author: Simon Butt,Tim Lindsey

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847319882

Category: Law

Page: 340

View: 3270

For decades, Indonesia's 1945 Constitution, the second shortest in the modern world, was used as an apologia by successive authoritarian regimes. A bare-bones text originally intended as a temporary measure, it did little beyond establish basic state organs, including a powerful presidency. It did not offer citizens real guarantees or protections. These weaknesses were ruthlessly exploited by the military-backed regime that President Soeharto headed from 1966 until his fall in 1998. The (first ever) amendments to the Constitution, which began the following year and were completed in 2002, changed all this. Enlarging and rethinking the Constitution, they ushered in a liberal democratic system based around human rights, an open society and separation of powers. These reforms also created a Constitutional Court that has provided Indonesia's first judicial forum for serious debate on the interpretation and application of the Constitution, as well as its first significant and easily-accessible body of detailed and reasoned judgments. Today, Indonesian constitutional law is rich, sophisticated and complex. This book surveys this remarkable constitutional transition, assessing the implementation of Indonesia's new constitutional model and identifying its weaknesses. After covering key institutions exercising executive, legislative and judicial powers, the book focuses on current constitutional debates, ranging from human rights to decentralisation, religious freedom and control of the economy.
Read More

A Contextual Analysis

Author: Arun K Thiruvengadam

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1849468702

Category: Law

Page: 288

View: 2078

This book provides an overview of the content and functioning of the Indian Constitution, with an emphasis on the broader socio-political context. It focuses on the overarching principles and the main institutions of constitutional governance that the world's longest written constitution inaugurated in 1950. The nine chapters of the book deal with specific aspects of the Indian constitutional tradition as it has evolved across seven decades of India's existence as an independent nation. Beginning with the pre-history of the Constitution and its making, the book moves onto an examination of the structural features and actual operation of the Constitution's principal governance institutions. These include the executive and the parliament, the institutions of federalism and local government, and the judiciary. An unusual feature of Indian constitutionalism that is highlighted here is the role played by technocratic institutions such as the Election Commission, the Comptroller and Auditor General, and a set of new regulatory institutions, most of which were created during the 1990s. A considerable portion of the book evaluates issues relating to constitutional rights, directive principles and the constitutional regulation of multiple forms of identity in India. The important issue of constitutional change in India is approached from an atypical perspective. The book employs a narrative form to describe the twists, turns and challenges confronted across nearly seven decades of the working of the constitutional order. It departs from conventional Indian constitutional scholarship in placing less emphasis on constitutional doctrine (as evolved in judicial decisions delivered by the High Courts and the Supreme Court). Instead, the book turns the spotlight on the political bargains and extra-legal developments that have influenced constitutional evolution. Written in accessible prose that avoids undue legal jargon, the book aims at a general audience that is interested in understanding the complex yet fascinating challenges posed by constitutionalism in India. Its unconventional approach to some classic issues will stimulate the more seasoned student of constitutional law and politics.
Read More

A Contextual Analysis

Author: Jeremy Webber

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1782252614

Category: Law

Page: 178

View: 944

The book introduces and describes the principal characteristics of the Canadian constitution, including Canada's institutional structure and the principal drivers of Canadian constitutional development. The constitution is set in its historical context, noting especially the complex interaction of national and regional societies that continues to shape the constitution of Canada. The book argues that aspects of the constitution are best understood in 'agonistic' terms, as the product of a continuing encounter or negotiation, with each of the contending interpretations rooted in significantly different visions of the relationship among peoples and societies in Canada. It suggests how these agonistic relationships have, in complex ways, found expression in distinctive doctrines of Canadian constitutional law and how these doctrines represent approaches to constitutional legality that may be more widely applicable. As such, the book charts the Canadian expression of trans-societal constitutional themes: democracy; parliamentarism; the rule of law; federalism; human rights; and Indigenous rights, and describes the country that has resulted from the interplay of these themes. 'The Constitution of Canada is a masterpiece – an outstanding and original study of the Canadian constitutional experience by one of Canada's leading legal scholars. Webber explains the history, characteristics and resourcefulness of the living constitution in non-technical and illuminating language. He also shows how the constitution is shaped by the engagement and interaction of the diverse people of Canada, who are simultaneously subjects and active citizens of it – a dynamic he calls "agonistic constitutionalism†?.' James Tully, Distinguished Professor, University of Victoria 'Jeremy Webber has given us a rich, contextual account of Canada's constitution. Webber moves beyond the confines of constitutional texts and judicial decisions and grounds his account in the circumstances of the country's history. Only such an account can capture the deep diversity that is the hallmark of Canada's constitutional culture.' Peter Russell, Professor Emeritus, University of Toronto
Read More

A Contextual Analysis

Author: Mark Tushnet

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1509901760

Category: Law

Page: 304

View: 5210

This is the second edition of Professor Tushnet's short critical introduction to the history and current meaning of the United States' Constitution. It is organised around wo themes: first, the US Constitution is old, short, and difficult to amend. Second, the Constitution creates a structure of political opportunities that allows political actors, icluding political parties, to pursue the preferred policy goals even to the point of altering the very structure of politics. Deploying these themes to examine the structure f the national government, federalism, judicial review, and individual rights, the book provides basic information about, and deeper insights into, the way he US constitutional system has developed and what it means today.
Read More

Author: Erin F. Delaney,Rosalind Dixon

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1788110609

Category: Law

Page: 464

View: 4553

Constitutional courts around the world play an increasingly central role in day-to-day democratic governance. Yet scholars have only recently begun to develop the interdisciplinary analysis needed to understand this shift in the relationship of constitutional law to politics. This edited volume brings together the leading scholars of constitutional law and politics to provide a comprehensive overview of judicial review, covering theories of its creation, mechanisms of its constraint, and its comparative applications, including theories of interpretation and doctrinal developments. This book serves as a single point of entry for legal scholars and practitioners interested in understanding the field of comparative judicial review in its broader political and social context.
Read More

A Contextual Analysis

Author: Manfred Stelzer

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847316492

Category: Law

Page: 294

View: 661

The Constitution of the Republic of Austria originated in 1920. From the beginning it represented a compromise between deeply opposed political parties with widely divergent moral and political principles. The Constitution deliberately lacked substantive content, was formal in character, and was concerned only with the framework for the everyday political process. Constitutional amendments were, and remain, frequent events. As a result case law interpreting the constitution tended to be conservative in outlook; controversial cases were considered a matter for constitutional amendment rather than constitutional interpretation. Only comparatively recently, in the 1980s, has the Constitutional Court adopted a more expansive constitutional jurisprudence, especially in the field of fundamental rights. While this was to some extent an inevitable result of the influence of the ECtHR, it meant for instance that the principle of proportionality became enshrined in Austrian fundamental rights theory. The Constitutional Court even saw fit to set limits to Parliament's power to amend the Constitution. Becoming a member of the EU in 1995 presented Austria with new challenges, leading inevitably to the creation of a Constitutional Convention and, eventually, major amendments to the Constitution in 2008. This book shows how the Austrian Constitution has been shaped and interpreted by the fundamental events in Austria's modern history. At the same time it emphasises the way in which the Constitution establishes a parliamentary system, with additional presidential features, limited, in turn, by Austria's federal structure and the parliaments of nine states.
Read More