## Introduction to Number Theory

Author: Anthony Vazzana,Martin Erickson,David Garth

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1584889373

Category: Mathematics

Page: 536

View: 7683

One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics. This classroom-tested, student-friendly text covers a wide range of subjects, from the ancient Euclidean algorithm for finding the greatest common divisor of two integers to recent developments that include cryptography, the theory of elliptic curves, and the negative solution of Hilbert’s tenth problem. The authors illustrate the connections between number theory and other areas of mathematics, including algebra, analysis, and combinatorics. They also describe applications of number theory to real-world problems, such as congruences in the ISBN system, modular arithmetic and Euler’s theorem in RSA encryption, and quadratic residues in the construction of tournaments. The book interweaves the theoretical development of the material with Mathematica® and MapleTM calculations while giving brief tutorials on the software in the appendices. Highlighting both fundamental and advanced topics, this introduction provides all of the tools to achieve a solid foundation in number theory.

## Introduction to Number Theory

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 1786344734

Category: Mathematics

Page: 264

View: 4987

Introduction to Number Theory is dedicated to concrete questions about integers, to place an emphasis on problem solving by students. When undertaking a first course in number theory, students enjoy actively engaging with the properties and relationships of numbers. The book begins with introductory material, including uniqueness of factorization of integers and polynomials. Subsequent topics explore quadratic reciprocity, Hensel's Lemma, p-adic powers series such as exp(px) and log(1+px), the Euclidean property of some quadratic rings, representation of integers as norms from quadratic rings, and Pell's equation via continued fractions. Throughout the five chapters and more than 100 exercises and solutions, readers gain the advantage of a number theory book that focuses on doing calculations. This textbook is a valuable resource for undergraduates or those with a background in university level mathematics.

## Introduction to the Theory of Numbers

Author: Harold N. Shapiro

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486466698

Category: Mathematics

Page: 459

View: 9701

Starting with the fundamentals of number theory, this text advances to an intermediate level. Author Harold N. Shapiro, Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at New York University's Courant Institute, addresses this treatment toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Selected chapters, sections, and exercises are appropriate for undergraduate courses. The first five chapters focus on the basic material of number theory, employing special problems, some of which are of historical interest. Succeeding chapters explore evolutions from the notion of congruence, examine a variety of applications related to counting problems, and develop the roots of number theory. Two "do-it-yourself" chapters offer readers the chance to carry out small-scale mathematical investigations that involve material covered in previous chapters.

## The Queen of Mathematics

An Introduction to Number Theory

Author: W.S. Anglin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401102856

Category: Mathematics

Page: 390

View: 933

Like other introductions to number theory, this one includes the usual curtsy to divisibility theory, the bow to congruence, and the little chat with quadratic reciprocity. It also includes proofs of results such as Lagrange's Four Square Theorem, the theorem behind Lucas's test for perfect numbers, the theorem that a regular n-gon is constructible just in case phi(n) is a power of 2, the fact that the circle cannot be squared, Dirichlet's theorem on primes in arithmetic progressions, the Prime Number Theorem, and Rademacher's partition theorem. We have made the proofs of these theorems as elementary as possible. Unique to The Queen of Mathematics are its presentations of the topic of palindromic simple continued fractions, an elementary solution of Lucas's square pyramid problem, Baker's solution for simultaneous Fermat equations, an elementary proof of Fermat's polygonal number conjecture, and the Lambek-Moser-Wild theorem.

## Introduction to Modern Number Theory

Fundamental Problems, Ideas and Theories

Author: Yu. I. Manin,Alexei A. Panchishkin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540276920

Category: Mathematics

Page: 514

View: 5267

This edition has been called ‘startlingly up-to-date’, and in this corrected second printing you can be sure that it’s even more contemporaneous. It surveys from a unified point of view both the modern state and the trends of continuing development in various branches of number theory. Illuminated by elementary problems, the central ideas of modern theories are laid bare. Some topics covered include non-Abelian generalizations of class field theory, recursive computability and Diophantine equations, zeta- and L-functions. This substantially revised and expanded new edition contains several new sections, such as Wiles' proof of Fermat's Last Theorem, and relevant techniques coming from a synthesis of various theories.

## An Introduction to Number Theory with Cryptography, Second Edition

Author: James Kraft,Lawrence Washington

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351664107

Category: Computers

Page: 578

View: 8883

Building on the success of the first edition, An Introduction to Number Theory with Cryptography, Second Edition, increases coverage of the popular and important topic of cryptography, integrating it with traditional topics in number theory. The authors have written the text in an engaging style to reflect number theory's increasing popularity. The book is designed to be used by sophomore, junior, and senior undergraduates, but it is also accessible to advanced high school students and is appropriate for independent study. It includes a few more advanced topics for students who wish to explore beyond the traditional curriculum.

## Introduction to Analytic Number Theory

Author: Tom M. Apostol

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475755791

Category: Mathematics

Page: 340

View: 7336

"This book is the first volume of a two-volume textbook for undergraduates and is indeed the crystallization of a course offered by the author at the California Institute of Technology to undergraduates without any previous knowledge of number theory. For this reason, the book starts with the most elementary properties of the natural integers. Nevertheless, the text succeeds in presenting an enormous amount of material in little more than 300 pages."-—MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS

## A Classical Introduction to Modern Number Theory

Author: Kenneth Ireland,Michael Rosen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 147572103X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 394

View: 2417

This well-developed, accessible text details the historical development of the subject throughout. It also provides wide-ranging coverage of significant results with comparatively elementary proofs, some of them new. This second edition contains two new chapters that provide a complete proof of the Mordel-Weil theorem for elliptic curves over the rational numbers and an overview of recent progress on the arithmetic of elliptic curves.

## An Adventurer's Guide to Number Theory

Author: Richard Friedberg

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486152693

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 1843

This witty introduction to number theory deals with the properties of numbers and numbers as abstract concepts. Topics include primes, divisibility, quadratic forms, and related theorems.

## Elements of Number Theory

Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387217355

Category: Mathematics

Page: 256

View: 5995

Solutions of equations in integers is the central problem of number theory and is the focus of this book. The amount of material is suitable for a one-semester course. The author has tried to avoid the ad hoc proofs in favor of unifying ideas that work in many situations. There are exercises at the end of almost every section, so that each new idea or proof receives immediate reinforcement.

## Number Theory

An Introduction to Mathematics

Author: W.A. Coppel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387894853

Category: Mathematics

Page: 610

View: 9752

Number Theory is more than a comprehensive treatment of the subject. It is an introduction to topics in higher level mathematics, and unique in its scope; topics from analysis, modern algebra, and discrete mathematics are all included. The book is divided into two parts. Part A covers key concepts of number theory and could serve as a first course on the subject. Part B delves into more advanced topics and an exploration of related mathematics. The prerequisites for this self-contained text are elements from linear algebra. Valuable references for the reader are collected at the end of each chapter. It is suitable as an introduction to higher level mathematics for undergraduates, or for self-study.

## Number Theory

Author: George E. Andrews

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486135101

Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

View: 9865

Undergraduate text uses combinatorial approach to accommodate both math majors and liberal arts students. Covers the basics of number theory, offers an outstanding introduction to partitions, plus chapters on multiplicativity-divisibility, quadratic congruences, additivity, and more

## A Computational Introduction to Number Theory and Algebra

Author: Victor Shoup

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521516447

Category: Computers

Page: 580

View: 922

An introductory graduate-level text emphasizing algorithms and applications. This second edition includes over 200 new exercises and examples.

## An Introduction to Number Theory

Author: Harold M. Stark

Publisher: Mit Press

ISBN: 9780262690607

Category: Mathematics

Page: 347

View: 9614

The majority of students who take courses in number theory are mathematics majors who will not become number theorists. Many of them will, however, teach mathematics at the high school or junior college level, and this book is intended for those students learning to teach, in addition to a careful presentation of the standard material usually taught in a first course in elementary number theory, this book includes a chapter on quadratic fields which the author has designed to make students think about some of the "obvious" concepts they have taken for granted earlier. The book also includes a large number of exercises, many of which are nonstandard.

## Introduction to Axiomatic Set Theory

Author: G. Takeuti,W.M. Zaring

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468499157

Category: Mathematics

Page: 251

View: 6551

In 1963, the first author introduced a course in set theory at the Uni versity of Illinois whose main objectives were to cover G6del's work on the consistency of the axiom of choice (AC) and the generalized con tinuum hypothesis (GCH), and Cohen's work on the independence of AC and the GCH. Notes taken in 1963 by the second author were the taught by him in 1966, revised extensively, and are presented here as an introduction to axiomatic set theory. Texts in set theory frequently develop the subject rapidly moving from key result to key result and suppressing many details. Advocates of the fast development claim at least two advantages. First, key results are highlighted, and second, the student who wishes to master the sub ject is compelled to develop the details on his own. However, an in structor using a "fast development" text must devote much class time to assisting his students in their efforts to bridge gaps in the text. We have chosen instead a development that is quite detailed and complete. For our slow development we claim the following advantages. The text is one from which a student can learn with little supervision and instruction. This enables the instructor to use class time for the presentation of alternative developments and supplementary material.

## The Real Numbers

An Introduction to Set Theory and Analysis

Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 331901577X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 244

View: 1579

While most texts on real analysis are content to assume the real numbers, or to treat them only briefly, this text makes a serious study of the real number system and the issues it brings to light. Analysis needs the real numbers to model the line, and to support the concepts of continuity and measure. But these seemingly simple requirements lead to deep issues of set theory—uncountability, the axiom of choice, and large cardinals. In fact, virtually all the concepts of infinite set theory are needed for a proper understanding of the real numbers, and hence of analysis itself. By focusing on the set-theoretic aspects of analysis, this text makes the best of two worlds: it combines a down-to-earth introduction to set theory with an exposition of the essence of analysis—the study of infinite processes on the real numbers. It is intended for senior undergraduates, but it will also be attractive to graduate students and professional mathematicians who, until now, have been content to "assume" the real numbers. Its prerequisites are calculus and basic mathematics. Mathematical history is woven into the text, explaining how the concepts of real number and infinity developed to meet the needs of analysis from ancient times to the late twentieth century. This rich presentation of history, along with a background of proofs, examples, exercises, and explanatory remarks, will help motivate the reader. The material covered includes classic topics from both set theory and real analysis courses, such as countable and uncountable sets, countable ordinals, the continuum problem, the Cantor–Schröder–Bernstein theorem, continuous functions, uniform convergence, Zorn's lemma, Borel sets, Baire functions, Lebesgue measure, and Riemann integrable functions.

## An Introduction to Number Theory

Author: G. Everest,Thomas Ward

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1852339179

Category: Mathematics

Page: 297

View: 8016

Includes up-to-date material on recent developments and topics of significant interest, such as elliptic functions and the new primality test Selects material from both the algebraic and analytic disciplines, presenting several different proofs of a single result to illustrate the differing viewpoints and give good insight

## An Experimental Introduction to Number Theory

Author: Benjamin Hutz

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470430975

Category: Number theory

Page: 376

View: 7179

This book presents material suitable for an undergraduate course in elementary number theory from a computational perspective. It seeks to not only introduce students to the standard topics in elementary number theory, such as prime factorization and modular arithmetic, but also to develop their ability to formulate and test precise conjectures from experimental data. Each topic is motivated by a question to be answered, followed by some experimental data, and, finally, the statement and proof of a theorem. There are numerous opportunities throughout the chapters and exercises for the students to engage in (guided) open-ended exploration. At the end of a course using this book, the students will understand how mathematics is developed from asking questions to gathering data to formulating and proving theorems. The mathematical prerequisites for this book are few. Early chapters contain topics such as integer divisibility, modular arithmetic, and applications to cryptography, while later chapters contain more specialized topics, such as Diophantine approximation, number theory of dynamical systems, and number theory with polynomials. Students of all levels will be drawn in by the patterns and relationships of number theory uncovered through data driven exploration.

## A Conversational Introduction to Algebraic Number Theory: Arithmetic Beyond Z

Author: Paul Pollack

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470436531

Category: Algebraic number theory

Page: 312

View: 3646

Gauss famously referred to mathematics as the “queen of the sciences” and to number theory as the “queen of mathematics”. This book is an introduction to algebraic number theory, meaning the study of arithmetic in finite extensions of the rational number field Q . Originating in the work of Gauss, the foundations of modern algebraic number theory are due to Dirichlet, Dedekind, Kronecker, Kummer, and others. This book lays out basic results, including the three “fundamental theorems”: unique factorization of ideals, finiteness of the class number, and Dirichlet's unit theorem. While these theorems are by now quite classical, both the text and the exercises allude frequently to more recent developments. In addition to traversing the main highways, the book reveals some remarkable vistas by exploring scenic side roads. Several topics appear that are not present in the usual introductory texts. One example is the inclusion of an extensive discussion of the theory of elasticity, which provides a precise way of measuring the failure of unique factorization. The book is based on the author's notes from a course delivered at the University of Georgia; pains have been taken to preserve the conversational style of the original lectures.

## An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers

Author: Godfrey Harold Hardy,E. M. Wright,Roger Heath-Brown,Joseph Silverman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199219865

Category: Mathematics

Page: 621

View: 5537

An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers by G.H. Hardy and E. M. Wright is found on the reading list of virtually all elementary number theory courses and is widely regarded as the primary and classic text in elementary number theory. This Sixth Edition has been extensively revised and updated to guide today's students through the key milestones and developments in number theory. Updates include a chapter on one of the mostimportant developments in number theory -- modular elliptic curves and their role in the proof of Fermat's Last Theorem -- a foreword by A. Wiles and comprehensively updated end-of-chapter notes detailing the key developments in number theory. Suggestions for further reading are also included for the more avid reader and the clarityof exposition is retained throughout making this textbook highly accessible to undergraduates in mathematics from the first year upwards.