Dutch Newspapers During the Bosnian War
Author: Nel Ruigrok
Publisher: Aksant Academic Pub
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
The pictures of emaciated men behind barbed wire in "Omarska," widely disseminated throughout international media in August 1992, touched everyone's conscience and acted as a catalyst for international involvement in the Bosnian war. Journalists embarked on a moral crusade for military intervention in the conflict. This "new" journalistic practice, labeled as "journalism of attachment," has become the title of this volume. It perceives reporters as participants in the conflicts they report and, as a consequence, argues that they should take part in the public debate about the conflict. Being partial, attached journalists provide the public with a Manichean picture about the "good guys" and "bad guys" in the conflict. Moreover, they cover the events in such a way as to motivate public action to do something about the situation. With respect to Bosnia, Dutch journalists, in the name of a higher moral duty, embarked on a crusade and adopted the role of heroic fighter for the oppressed, rather than impartial mediator between events and audience. Drawing on an extensive content analysis of news coverage about the Bosnian war, this study describes the extent to which, and the forms in which, the phenomenon of journalism of attachment was reflected in Dutch newspapers while covering the Bosnian war. It also discusses the consequences of this phenomenon for the objectivity and credibility of the news. Nel Ruigrok is a lecturer at the Amsterdam School of Communications Research at the University of Amsterdam and a researcher at the Dutch News Monitor, a project of the Press Institute Foundation.
Author: Claudia Glunz,Thomas F. Schneider
Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
Augenzeugenberichte zum 11. September 2001 und zu den Kriegen des 17. Jahrhunderts spannen den Bogen der Beiträge des vorliegenden Bandes. Eine Untersuchung der massenmedialen Darstellung der »Taten« des Kreuzers Emden im Ersten Weltkrieg – eine der zeitgenössischen Mythen – steht neben Analysen von Max Frischs »Die Chinesische Mauer« und den Schriften Pat Barkers. Der Band zeichnet sich durch eine Vielfalt von Ansätzen aus und repräsentiert dennoch nur ein kleines Spektrum der Bandbreite möglicher Themen. Ergänzt werden die Beiträge durch Rezensionen zu einschlägigen Neuerscheinungen sowie durch eine Bibliographie wissenschaftlicher Publikationen aus dem Jahr 2005.
Author: Piers Robinson,Philip Seib,Romy Frohlich
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Category: Social Science
This Handbook links the growing body of media and conflict research with the field of security studies. The academic sub-field of media and conflict has developed and expanded greatly over the past two decades. Operating across a diverse range of academic disciplines, academics are studying the impact the media has on governments pursuing war, responses to humanitarian crises and violent political struggles, and the role of the media as a facilitator of, and a threat to, both peace building and conflict prevention. This handbook seeks to consolidate existing knowledge by linking the body of conflict and media studies with work in security studies. The handbook is arranged into five parts: Theory and Principles. Media, the State and War Media and Human Security Media and Policymaking within the Security State New Issues in Security and Conflict and Future Directions For scholars of security studies, this handbook will provide a key point of reference for state of the art scholarship concerning the media-security nexus; for scholars of communication and media studies, the handbook will provide a comprehensive mapping of the media-conflict field.
Author: Samuel Totten
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
Academics, NGOs, the United Nations, and individual nations are focused on the prevention and intervention of genocide. Traditionally, missions to prevent or intervene in genocide have been sporadic and under-resourced. The contributors to this volume consider some of the major stumbling blocks to the avoidance of genocide. Bartrop and Totten argue that realpolitik is the major impediment to the elimination of genocide. Campbell examines the lack of political will to confront genocide, and Theriault describes how denial becomes an obstacle to intervention against genocide. Loyle and Davenport discuss how intervention is impeded by a lack of reliable data on genocide violence, and Macgregor presents an overview of the influence of the media. Totten examines how the UN Convention on Genocide actually impedes anti-genocide efforts; and how the institutional configuration of the UN is itself often a stumbling block. Addressing an issue that is often overlooked, Travis examines the impact of global arms trade on genocide. Finally, Hiebert examines how international criminal prosecution of atrocities can impede preventive efforts, and Hirsch provides an analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, and effectiveness of major international and national prescriptions developed over the last decade. The result is a distinguished addition to Transaction’s prestigious Genocide Studies series.
Author: Cees Wiebes
Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
On July 11, 1995 the Bosnian Serbs captured the enclave Srebrenica. Thousands were executed. Claims were made that Western intelligence agencies had spectacular foreknowledge about the attack. But was this true? Or was it an intelligence failure? This book examines these questions presenting in as much detail as possible the intelligence collected by the Western services in Bosnia. The author was granted full access to the top-secret archives of the Dutch services and the still classified UN archives. Foreign intelligence services gave him confidential briefings. The author spoke with more than 100 intelligence officials from various countries.
History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia
Author: Tim Judah
Publisher: Yale University Press
Who are the Serbs? Branded by some as Europe's new Nazis, they are seen by others—and by themselves—as the innocent victims of nationalist aggression and of an implacably hostile world media. In this challenging new book, Timothy Judah, who covered the war years in former Yugoslavia for the London Times and the Economist, argues that neither is true. Exploring the Serbian nation from the great epics of its past to the battlefields of Bosnia and the backstreets of Kosovo, he sets the fate of the Serbs within the story of their past. This wide-ranging, scholarly, and highly readable account opens with the windswept fortresses of medieval kings and a battle lost more than six centuries ago that still profoundly influences the Serbs. Judah describes the idea of "Serbdom" that sustained them during centuries of Ottoman rule, the days of glory during the First World War, and the genocide against them during the Second. He examines the tenuous ethnic balance fashioned by Tito and its unraveling after his death. And he reveals how Slobodan Milosevic, later to become president, used a version of history to drive his people to nationalist euphoria. Judah details the way Milosevic prepared for war and provides gripping eyewitness accounts of wartime horrors: the burning villages and "ethnic cleansing," the ignominy of the siege of Sarajevo, and the columns of bedraggled Serb refugees, cynically manipulated and then abandoned once the dream of a Greater Serbia was lost. This first in-depth account of life behind Serbian lines is not an apologia but a scrupulous explanation of how the people of a modernizing European state could become among the most reviled of the century. Rejecting the stereotypical image of a bloodthirsty nation, Judah makes the Serbs comprehensible by placing them within the context of their history and their hopes.
At War in Somalia, Sudan and Rwanda
Author: Scott Peterson
Category: Political Science
As a foreign correspondent, Scott Peterson witnessed firsthand Somalia's descent into war and its battle against US troops, the spiritual degeneration of Sudan's Holy War, and one of the most horrific events of the last half century: the genocide in Rwanda. In Me Against My Brother, he brings these events together for the first time to record a collapse that has had an impact far beyond African borders.In Somalia, Peterson tells of harrowing experiences of clan conflict, guns and starvation. He met with warlords, observed death intimately and nearly lost his own life to a Somali mob. From ground level, he documents how the US-UN relief mission devolved into all out war - one that for America has proven to be the most formative post-Cold War debacle. In Sudan, he journeys where few correspondents have ever been, on both sides of that religious front line, to find that outside "relief" has only prolonged war. In Rwanda, his first-person experience of the genocide and well-documented analysis provide rare insight into this human tragedy.Filled with the dust, sweat and powerful detail of real-life, Me Against My Brother graphically illustrates how preventive action and a better understanding of Africa - especially by the US - could have averted much suffering. Also includes a 16-page color insert.
Everyday Muslim Counterdiscourse in Bosnia Herzegovina
Author: Torsten Kolind
Publisher: ISD LLC
Stolac, the town of departure for this book and the site where the author conducted fieldwork, is located in the south-western corner of Bosnia Herzegovina. The war in Bosnia Herzegovina (1992-95) was initially an act of aggression and territorial conquest instigated by Serbian political leaders. However, as the war progressed, it increasingly came to consist of several minor wars, one of them fought in Western Bosnia Herzegovina between Croatian and Muslim forces. This was the one that affected the inhabitants of Stolac the most. Before the war, ethnic identity in Bosnia Herzegovina was only one identity among others, and ethnic differences were embedded in everyday practices. Today, ethnic difference is all there is. The Muslims of Stolac are fully aware that as Muslims, they constitute a totally separate group - and that ethnic identity is by far the most important form of identity in present-day Bosnia Herzegovina. In that regard the nationalist project has succeeded. Such a crystallisation and explication of identity fits in well with the structurally inspired anthropology of war and violence, which theorises that the function of violence is to create unambiguous identities. However, Post-War Identities shows that for the Muslims of Stolac, the creation of unambiguous ethnic identities is only half the story.
Author: Stanley Cohen
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Category: Social Science
'Richly documented and convincingly presented' -- New Society Mods and Rockers, skinheads, video nasties, designer drugs, bogus asylum seeks and hoodies. Every era has its own moral panics. It was Stanley Cohen’s classic account, first published in the early 1970s and regularly revised, that brought the term ‘moral panic’ into widespread discussion. It is an outstanding investigation of the way in which the media and often those in a position of political power define a condition, or group, as a threat to societal values and interests. Fanned by screaming media headlines, Cohen brilliantly demonstrates how this leads to such groups being marginalised and vilified in the popular imagination, inhibiting rational debate about solutions to the social problems such groups represent. Furthermore, he argues that moral panics go even further by identifying the very fault lines of power in society. Full of sharp insight and analysis, Folk Devils and Moral Panics is essential reading for anyone wanting to understand this powerful and enduring phenomenon. Professor Stanley Cohen is Emeritus Professor of Sociology at the London School of Economics. He received the Sellin-Glueck Award of the American Society of Criminology (1985) and is on the Board of the International Council on Human Rights. He is a member of the British Academy.
The Media and the Kosovo Crisis
Author: Philip Hammond,Edward S. Herman
Publisher: Pluto Press
'Required reading for anyone wishing to understand the war and the media's role in it.' --The New Internationalist
Author: Paul Berman
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
Category: Biography & Autobiography
The author of the best-selling Terror and Liberalism on the rise to power of the generation of 1968. The student uprisings of 1968 erupted not only in America but also across Europe, expressing a distinct generational attitude about politics, the corrupt nature of democratic capitalism, and the evil of military interventions. Yet, thirty-five years later, many in that radical generation had come into conventional positions of power: among them Bill Clinton (who reportedly stayed up all night reading this book) and Joschka Fischer, foreign minister of Germany. During a 1970s street protest, Fischer was photographed beating a cop to the ground; during the 1990s, he was supporting Clinton in a NATO-led military intervention in the Balkans. Here Paul Berman, "one of America's best exponents of recent intellectual history" (The Economist), masterfully traces the intellectual and moral evolution of an impassioned generation—and gives an acute analysis of what it means to go to war in the name of democracy and human rights.
The Strategic Use of Emotion in Conflict
Author: Roger D. Petersen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Political Science
Conflicts involve powerful experiences. The residue of these experiences is captured by the concept and language of emotion. Indiscriminate killing creates fear; targeted violence produces anger and a desire for vengeance; political status reversals spawn resentment; cultural prejudices sustain ethnic contempt. These emotions can become resources for political entrepreneurs. A broad range of Western interventions are based on a view of human nature as narrowly rational. Correspondingly, intervention policy generally aims to alter material incentives ('sticks and carrots') to influence behavior. In response, poorer and weaker actors who wish to block or change this Western implemented 'game' use emotions as resources. This book examines the strategic use of emotion in the conflicts and interventions occurring in the Western Balkans over a twenty-year period. The book concentrates on the conflicts among Albanian and Slavic populations (Kosovo, Montenegro, Macedonia, South Serbia), along with some comparisons to Bosnia.
Information War and Journalistic Practices
Author: Howard Tumber,Frank Webster
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
'...it will appeal not only to students of journalism and media but also to anyone interested in the world around them' - Marie Kinsey, Times Higher Education Supplement 'Professor Tumber weaves together traditional and topical themes to produce a comprehensive overview of the media's role at times of conflict' - Stewart Purvis, City University London 'Presents a vivid picture of what it’s like to be working as a journalist on the front line during a ‘modern’ war. Through the eyes of leading correspondents in the field the authors examine their experience and its impact on the audience, their profession and their own lives' - The Information Centre about Asylum and Refugees in the UK (ICAR) Journalists Under Fire is the first book to combine a conceptually audacious analysis of the changing nature of war with an empirically rich critical analysis of journalists who cover conflict. In Journalists Under Fire, authors Howard Tumber and Frank Webster explore questions about the information war and journalistic practices. Frontline correspondents play a key role in information war, but their position is considerably more ambiguous and ambivalent than in the epoch of industrial war. They play a central role in the presentation of what is often spectacle to audiences around the world whose actual experience of war is far removed from combat. In the era of multi-national journalism, of the internet and satellite videophone, the book highlights central features of media reporting in contemporary conflict. Drawing on over fifty lengthy interviews with frontline correspondents, the authors shed light on the motivations, fears and practices of those who work under conditions of journalism under fire. Journalists Under Fire is designed for undergraduate and postgraduate students and for scholars, academics and researchers in the fields of journalism, media and communication, Media Studies, sociology, international relations and war studies.
The Global Trade in Human Beings
Author: Alexis A. Aronowitz
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
Category: Social Science
This volume takes a global perspective and uses first-hand accounts and stories to examine the problem of human trafficking in its various manifestations around the world.
Problem-solving and European identity-formation
Author: Cathleen Kantner
Category: Political Science
The post-Cold War era saw an unexpected increase in intra-state violence against ethnic and religious groups, brutal civil wars and asymmetric conflicts. Those crises posed fundamental questions for the European Union and its member states, to which Europe has so far proven unable to develop satisfactory answers. This book contends that public debates over wars and humanitarian military interventions after the Cold War represent an evolving process of comprehension and collective interpretation of new realities. Employing innovative computer-linguistic methods, it examines the dynamics of this debate across Europe and compares it to that of the United States. In doing so, it argues that transnational political communication has shaped European identity-formation in significant ways and that, in trying to come to terms with important crises and institutional events, shared understandings of Europe have emerged. Looking at evidence from a wide range of countries, including Austria, France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, and spanning a continuous period of 16 years, this book empirically analyses these shared understandings of the EU as a problem-solving and ethical community. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of international relations, EU politics, security studies, comparative politics, political communication and European integration.