Author: Dirk van Dalen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447145585

Category: Mathematics

Page: 263

View: 9684

Dirk van Dalen’s popular textbook Logic and Structure, now in its fifth edition, provides a comprehensive introduction to the basics of classical and intuitionistic logic, model theory and Gödel’s famous incompleteness theorem. Propositional and predicate logic are presented in an easy-to-read style using Gentzen’s natural deduction. The book proceeds with some basic concepts and facts of model theory: a discussion on compactness, Skolem-Löwenheim, non-standard models and quantifier elimination. The discussion of classical logic is concluded with a concise exposition of second-order logic. In view of the growing recognition of constructive methods and principles, intuitionistic logic and Kripke semantics is carefully explored. A number of specific constructive features, such as apartness and equality, the Gödel translation, the disjunction and existence property are also included. The last chapter on Gödel's first incompleteness theorem is self-contained and provides a systematic exposition of the necessary recursion theory. This new edition has been properly revised and contains a new section on ultra-products.
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Author: Mainzer Klaus,Schwichtenberg Helmut,Schuster Peter Michael

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9813270950

Category: Mathematics

Page: 300

View: 7544

This book is for graduate students and researchers, introducing modern foundational research in mathematics, computer science, and philosophy from an interdisciplinary point of view. Its scope includes Predicative Foundations, Constructive Mathematics and Type Theory, Computation in Higher Types, Extraction of Programs from Proofs, and Algorithmic Aspects in Financial Mathematics. By filling the gap between (under-)graduate level textbooks and advanced research papers, the book gives a scholarly account of recent developments and emerging branches of the aforementioned fields. Contents: Proof and Computation (K Mainzer) Constructive Convex Programming (J Berger and G Svindland) Exploring Predicativity (L Crosilla) Constructive Functional Analysis: An Introduction (H Ishihara) Program Extraction (K Miyamoto) The Data Structures of the Lambda Terms (M Sato) Provable (and Unprovable) Computability (S Wainer) Introduction to Minlog (F Wiesnet) Readership: Graduate students, researchers, and professionals in Mathematics and Computer Science. Keywords: Proof Theory;Computability Theory;Program Extraction;Constructive Analysis;PredicativityReview: Key Features: This book gathers recent contributions of distinguished experts It makes emerging fields accessible to a wider audience, appealing to a broad readership with diverse backgrounds It fills a gap between (under-)graduate level textbooks and state-of-the-art research papers
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Author: P. T. Johnstone

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521336925

Category: Mathematics

Page: 110

View: 9822

A succinct introduction to mathematical logic and set theory, which together form the foundations for the rigorous development of mathematics. Suitable for all introductory mathematics undergraduates, Notes on Logic and Set Theory covers the basic concepts of logic: first-order logic, consistency, and the completeness theorem, before introducing the reader to the fundamentals of axiomatic set theory. Successive chapters examine the recursive functions, the axiom of choice, ordinal and cardinal arithmetic, and the incompleteness theorems. Dr. Johnstone has included numerous exercises designed to illustrate the key elements of the theory and to provide applications of basic logical concepts to other areas of mathematics.
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Author: A. S. Troelstra,H. Schwichtenberg

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521779111

Category: Computers

Page: 417

View: 2830

Introduction to proof theory and its applications in mathematical logic, theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.
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Author: Richard Kaye

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 292

View: 846

Non-standard models of arithmetic are of interest to mathematicians through the presence of infinite integers and the various properties they inherit from the finite integers. Since their introduction in the 1930s, they have come to play an important role in model theory, and in combinatorics through independence results such as the Paris-Harrington theorem. This book is an introduction to these developments, and stresses the interplay between the first-order theory, recursion-theoretic aspects, and the structural properties of these models. Prerequisites for an understanding of the text have been kept to a minimum, these being a basic grounding in elementary model theory and a familiarity with the notions of recursive, primitive recursive, and r.e. sets. Consequently, the book is suitable for postgraduate students coming to the subject for the first time, and a number of exercises of varying degrees of difficulty will help to further the reader's understanding.
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A Guide to Formal Logical Reasoning

Author: Valentin Goranko

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118880056

Category: Mathematics

Page: 384

View: 378

Written in a clear, precise and user-friendly style, Logic as a Tool: A Guide to Formal Logical Reasoning is intended for undergraduates in both mathematics and computer science, and will guide them to learn, understand and master the use of classical logic as a tool for doing correct reasoning. It offers a systematic and precise exposition of classical logic with many examples and exercises, and only the necessary minimum of theory. The book explains the grammar, semantics and use of classical logical languages and teaches the reader how grasp the meaning and translate them to and from natural language. It illustrates with extensive examples the use of the most popular deductive systems -- axiomatic systems, semantic tableaux, natural deduction, and resolution -- for formalising and automating logical reasoning both on propositional and on first-order level, and provides the reader with technical skills needed for practical derivations in them. Systematic guidelines are offered on how to perform logically correct and well-structured reasoning using these deductive systems and the reasoning techniques that they employ. •Concise and systematic exposition, with semi-formal but rigorous treatment of the minimum necessary theory, amply illustrated with examples •Emphasis both on conceptual understanding and on developing practical skills •Solid and balanced coverage of syntactic, semantic, and deductive aspects of logic •Includes extensive sets of exercises, many of them provided with solutions or answers •Supplemented by a website including detailed slides, additional exercises and solutions For more information browse the book's website at: https://logicasatool.wordpress.com
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Author: Grigori Mints

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306469758

Category: Mathematics

Page: 131

View: 8501

Intuitionistic logic is presented here as part of familiar classical logic which allows mechanical extraction of programs from proofs. to make the material more accessible, basic techniques are presented first for propositional logic; Part II contains extensions to predicate logic. This material provides an introduction and a safe background for reading research literature in logic and computer science as well as advanced monographs. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic notions of first order logic. One device for making this book short was inventing new proofs of several theorems. The presentation is based on natural deduction. The topics include programming interpretation of intuitionistic logic by simply typed lambda-calculus (Curry-Howard isomorphism), negative translation of classical into intuitionistic logic, normalization of natural deductions, applications to category theory, Kripke models, algebraic and topological semantics, proof-search methods, interpolation theorem. The text developed from materal for several courses taught at Stanford University in 1992-1999.
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Author: Hans Petter Langtangen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662498871

Category: Computers

Page: 922

View: 2834

The book serves as a first introduction to computer programming of scientific applications, using the high-level Python language. The exposition is example and problem-oriented, where the applications are taken from mathematics, numerical calculus, statistics, physics, biology and finance. The book teaches "Matlab-style" and procedural programming as well as object-oriented programming. High school mathematics is a required background and it is advantageous to study classical and numerical one-variable calculus in parallel with reading this book. Besides learning how to program computers, the reader will also learn how to solve mathematical problems, arising in various branches of science and engineering, with the aid of numerical methods and programming. By blending programming, mathematics and scientific applications, the book lays a solid foundation for practicing computational science. From the reviews: Langtangen ... does an excellent job of introducing programming as a set of skills in problem solving. He guides the reader into thinking properly about producing program logic and data structures for modeling real-world problems using objects and functions and embracing the object-oriented paradigm. ... Summing Up: Highly recommended. F. H. Wild III, Choice, Vol. 47 (8), April 2010 Those of us who have learned scientific programming in Python ‘on the streets’ could be a little jealous of students who have the opportunity to take a course out of Langtangen’s Primer.” John D. Cook, The Mathematical Association of America, September 2011 This book goes through Python in particular, and programming in general, via tasks that scientists will likely perform. It contains valuable information for students new to scientific computing and would be the perfect bridge between an introduction to programming and an advanced course on numerical methods or computational science. Alex Small, IEEE, CiSE Vol. 14 (2), March /April 2012 “This fourth edition is a wonderful, inclusive textbook that covers pretty much everything one needs to know to go from zero to fairly sophisticated scientific programming in Python...” Joan Horvath, Computing Reviews, March 2015
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Author: Melvin Fitting

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781904987345

Category: Mathematics

Page: 142

View: 2045

Russell's paradox arises when we consider those sets that do not belong to themselves. The collection of such sets cannot constitute a set. Step back a bit. Logical formulas define sets (in a standard model). Formulas, being mathematical objects, can be thought of as sets themselves-mathematics reduces to set theory. Consider those formulas that do not belong to the set they define. The collection of such formulas is not definable by a formula, by the same argument that Russell used. This quickly gives Tarski's result on the undefinability of truth. Variations on the same idea yield the famous results of Godel, Church, Rosser, and Post. This book gives a full presentation of the basic incompleteness and undecidability theorems of mathematical logic in the framework of set theory. Corresponding results for arithmetic follow easily, and are also given. Godel numbering is generally avoided, except when an explicit connection is made between set theory and arithmetic. The book assumes little technical background from the reader. One needs mathematical ability, a general familiarity with formal logic, and an understanding of the completeness theorem, though not its proof. All else is developed and formally proved, from Tarski's Theorem to Godel's Second Incompleteness Theorem. Exercises are scattered throughout.
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Introduction to Theory and Computation

Author: Kerry Back

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540279008

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 356

View: 2350

"Deals with pricing and hedging financial derivatives.... Computational methods are introduced and the text contains the Excel VBA routines corresponding to the formulas and procedures described in the book. This is valuable since computer simulation can help readers understand the theory....The book...succeeds in presenting intuitively advanced derivative modelling... it provides a useful bridge between introductory books and the more advanced literature." --MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS
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Author: Anton Deitmar,Siegfried Echterhoff

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319057928

Category: Mathematics

Page: 332

View: 9441

This book offers a complete and streamlined treatment of the central principles of abelian harmonic analysis: Pontryagin duality, the Plancherel theorem and the Poisson summation formula, as well as their respective generalizations to non-abelian groups, including the Selberg trace formula. The principles are then applied to spectral analysis of Heisenberg manifolds and Riemann surfaces. This new edition contains a new chapter on p-adic and adelic groups, as well as a complementary section on direct and projective limits. Many of the supporting proofs have been revised and refined. The book is an excellent resource for graduate students who wish to learn and understand harmonic analysis and for researchers seeking to apply it.
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Author: Paul Taylor

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521631075

Category: Mathematics

Page: 572

View: 8291

Practical Foundations collects the methods of construction of the objects of twentieth-century mathematics. Although it is mainly concerned with a framework essentially equivalent to intuitionistic Zermelo-Fraenkel logic, the book looks forward to more subtle bases in categorical type theory and the machine representation of mathematics. Each idea is illustrated by wide-ranging examples, and followed critically along its natural path, transcending disciplinary boundaries between universal algebra, type theory, category theory, set theory, sheaf theory, topology and programming. Students and teachers of computing, mathematics and philosophy will find this book both readable and of lasting value as a reference work.
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Author: Steven Roman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387274744

Category: Mathematics

Page: 486

View: 9157

Covers a notably broad range of topics, including some topics not generally found in linear algebra books Contains a discussion of the basics of linear algebra
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Author: Marek Capinski,(Peter) Ekkehard Kopp

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447136314

Category: Mathematics

Page: 227

View: 6304

This very well written and accessible book emphasizes the reasons for studying measure theory, which is the foundation of much of probability. By focusing on measure, many illustrative examples and applications, including a thorough discussion of standard probability distributions and densities, are opened. The book also includes many problems and their fully worked solutions.
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Author: Charles Chapman Pugh

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319177710

Category: Mathematics

Page: 478

View: 4485

Based on an honors course taught by the author at UC Berkeley, this introduction to undergraduate real analysis gives a different emphasis by stressing the importance of pictures and hard problems. Topics include: a natural construction of the real numbers, four-dimensional visualization, basic point-set topology, function spaces, multivariable calculus via differential forms (leading to a simple proof of the Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem), and a pictorial treatment of Lebesgue theory. Over 150 detailed illustrations elucidate abstract concepts and salient points in proofs. The exposition is informal and relaxed, with many helpful asides, examples, some jokes, and occasional comments from mathematicians, such as Littlewood, Dieudonné, and Osserman. This book thus succeeds in being more comprehensive, more comprehensible, and more enjoyable, than standard introductions to analysis. New to the second edition of Real Mathematical Analysis is a presentation of Lebesgue integration done almost entirely using the undergraph approach of Burkill. Payoffs include: concise picture proofs of the Monotone and Dominated Convergence Theorems, a one-line/one-picture proof of Fubini's theorem from Cavalieri’s Principle, and, in many cases, the ability to see an integral result from measure theory. The presentation includes Vitali’s Covering Lemma, density points — which are rarely treated in books at this level — and the almost everywhere differentiability of monotone functions. Several new exercises now join a collection of over 500 exercises that pose interesting challenges and introduce special topics to the student keen on mastering this beautiful subject.
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Author: V. A. Zorich

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662487926

Category: Mathematics

Page: 616

View: 1230

This second edition of a very popular two-volume work presents a thorough first course in analysis, leading from real numbers to such advanced topics as differential forms on manifolds; asymptotic methods; Fourier, Laplace, and Legendre transforms; elliptic functions; and distributions. Especially notable in this course are the clearly expressed orientation toward the natural sciences and the informal exploration of the essence and the roots of the basic concepts and theorems of calculus. Clarity of exposition is matched by a wealth of instructive exercises, problems, and fresh applications to areas seldom touched on in textbooks on real analysis. The main difference between the second and first editions is the addition of a series of appendices to each volume. There are six of them in the first volume and five in the second. The subjects of these appendices are diverse. They are meant to be useful to both students (in mathematics and physics) and teachers, who may be motivated by different goals. Some of the appendices are surveys, both prospective and retrospective. The final survey establishes important conceptual connections between analysis and other parts of mathematics. The first volume constitutes a complete course in one-variable calculus along with the multivariable differential calculus elucidated in an up-to-date, clear manner, with a pleasant geometric and natural sciences flavor.
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An Introduction to Mathematical Thought Processes

Author: Daniel Solow

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118164020

Category: Mathematics

Page: 336

View: 1223

The inclusion in practically every chapter of new material on how to read and understand proofs as they are typically presented in class lectures, textbooks, and other mathematical literature. The goal is to provide sufficient examples (and exercises) to give students the ability to learn mathematics on their own.
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Author: Alan Tucker

Publisher: Wiley Global Education

ISBN: 1118210115

Category: Mathematics

Page: 496

View: 813

The new 6th edition of Applied Combinatorics builds on the previous editions with more in depth analysis of computer systems in order to help develop proficiency in basic discrete math problem solving. As one of the most widely used books in combinatorial problems, this edition explains how to reason and model combinatorically while stressing the systematic analysis of different possibilities, exploration of the logical structure of a problem, and ingenuity. Although important uses of combinatorics in computer science, operations research, and finite probability are mentioned, these applications are often used solely for motivation. Numerical examples involving the same concepts use more interesting settings such as poker probabilities or logical games.
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Author: Dorina Mitrea

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461482089

Category: Mathematics

Page: 460

View: 9587

​The theory of distributions constitutes an essential tool in the study of partial differential equations. This textbook would offer, in a concise, largely self-contained form, a rapid introduction to the theory of distributions and its applications to partial differential equations, including computing fundamental solutions for the most basic differential operators: the Laplace, heat, wave, Lam\'e and Schrodinger operators.​
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Developing Mathematical Practices and Deepening Understanding, Grades 4-10

Author: Cathy Humphreys,Ruth Parker

Publisher: Stenhouse Publishers

ISBN: 1571109986

Category: Education

Page: 200

View: 2737

Making Number Talks Matter is about the myriad decisions facing teachers as they make this fifteen-minute daily routine a vibrant and vital part of their mathematics instruction. Throughout the book, Cathy Humphreys and Ruth Parker offer practical ideas for using Number Talks to help students learn to reason numerically and build a solid foundation for the study of mathematics. This book will be an invaluable resource whether you are already using Number Talks or not; whether you are an elementary, middle school, high school, or college teacher; or even if you are a parent wanting to support your child with mathematics. Using insight gained from many years of doing Number Talks with students of all ages, Cathy and Ruth address questions to ask during Number Talks, teacher moves that turn the thinking over to students, the mathematics behind the various strategies, and ways to overcome bumps in the road. If you've been looking for ways to transform your mathematics classroom--to bring sense-making and divergent thinking to the foreground, to bring the Standards for Mathematical Practice to life, and to bring joy back into your instruction--this book is for you.
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