Author: Stephen Cook,Phuong Nguyen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139486306

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 4562

This book treats bounded arithmetic and propositional proof complexity from the point of view of computational complexity. The first seven chapters include the necessary logical background for the material and are suitable for a graduate course. Associated with each of many complexity classes are both a two-sorted predicate calculus theory, with induction restricted to concepts in the class, and a propositional proof system. The complexity classes range from AC0 for the weakest theory up to the polynomial hierarchy. Each bounded theorem in a theory translates into a family of (quantified) propositional tautologies with polynomial size proofs in the corresponding proof system. The theory proves the soundness of the associated proof system. The result is a uniform treatment of many systems in the literature, including Buss's theories for the polynomial hierarchy and many disparate systems for complexity classes such as AC0, AC0(m), TC0, NC1, L, NL, NC, and P.
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A Gentle Introduction

Author: Pavel Pudlák

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319001191

Category: Mathematics

Page: 695

View: 8754

The two main themes of this book, logic and complexity, are both essential for understanding the main problems about the foundations of mathematics. Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity covers a broad spectrum of results in logic and set theory that are relevant to the foundations, as well as the results in computational complexity and the interdisciplinary area of proof complexity. The author presents his ideas on how these areas are connected, what are the most fundamental problems and how they should be approached. In particular, he argues that complexity is as important for foundations as are the more traditional concepts of computability and provability. Emphasis is on explaining the essence of concepts and the ideas of proofs, rather than presenting precise formal statements and full proofs. Each section starts with concepts and results easily explained, and gradually proceeds to more difficult ones. The notes after each section present some formal definitions, theorems and proofs. Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity is aimed at graduate students of all fields of mathematics who are interested in logic, complexity and foundations. It will also be of interest for both physicists and philosophers who are curious to learn the basics of logic and complexity theory.
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A Gentle Introduction

Author: Pavel Pudlák

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319001191

Category: Mathematics

Page: 695

View: 4867

The two main themes of this book, logic and complexity, are both essential for understanding the main problems about the foundations of mathematics. Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity covers a broad spectrum of results in logic and set theory that are relevant to the foundations, as well as the results in computational complexity and the interdisciplinary area of proof complexity. The author presents his ideas on how these areas are connected, what are the most fundamental problems and how they should be approached. In particular, he argues that complexity is as important for foundations as are the more traditional concepts of computability and provability. Emphasis is on explaining the essence of concepts and the ideas of proofs, rather than presenting precise formal statements and full proofs. Each section starts with concepts and results easily explained, and gradually proceeds to more difficult ones. The notes after each section present some formal definitions, theorems and proofs. Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity is aimed at graduate students of all fields of mathematics who are interested in logic, complexity and foundations. It will also be of interest for both physicists and philosophers who are curious to learn the basics of logic and complexity theory.
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Author: André Platzer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319635883

Category: Mathematics

Page: 639

View: 5601

Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) combine cyber capabilities, such as computation or communication, with physical capabilities, such as motion or other physical processes. Cars, aircraft, and robots are prime examples, because they move physically in space in a way that is determined by discrete computerized control algorithms. Designing these algorithms is challenging due to their tight coupling with physical behavior, while it is vital that these algorithms be correct because we rely on them for safety-critical tasks. This textbook teaches undergraduate students the core principles behind CPSs. It shows them how to develop models and controls; identify safety specifications and critical properties; reason rigorously about CPS models; leverage multi-dynamical systems compositionality to tame CPS complexity; identify required control constraints; verify CPS models of appropriate scale in logic; and develop an intuition for operational effects. The book is supported with homework exercises, lecture videos, and slides.
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Journeys Beyond the Turing Barrier

Author: S. Barry Cooper,Mariya I. Soskova

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319436694

Category: Computers

Page: 292

View: 5325

This book questions the relevance of computation to the physical universe. Our theories deliver computational descriptions, but the gaps and discontinuities in our grasp suggest a need for continued discourse between researchers from different disciplines, and this book is unique in its focus on the mathematical theory of incomputability and its relevance for the real world. The core of the book consists of thirteen chapters in five parts on extended models of computation; the search for natural examples of incomputable objects; mind, matter, and computation; the nature of information, complexity, and randomness; and the mathematics of emergence and morphogenesis. This book will be of interest to researchers in the areas of theoretical computer science, mathematical logic, and philosophy.
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Author: Alfred North Whitehead,Bertrand Russell

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Logic, Symbolic and mathematical

Page: N.A

View: 9274

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Author: Johan F.A.K. van Benthem,Alice ter Meulen

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444537270

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1168

View: 487

The logical study of language is becoming more interdisciplinary, playing a role in fields such as computer science, artificial intelligence, cognitive science and game theory. This new edition, written by the leading experts in the field, presents an overview of the latest developments at the interface of logic and linguistics as well as a historical perspective. It is divided into three parts covering Frameworks, General Topics and Descriptive Themes. Completely revised and updated - includes over 25% new material Discusses the interface between logic and language Many of the authors are creators or active developers of the theories
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Foundations of Automatic Theorem Proving, Second Edition

Author: Jean H. Gallier

Publisher: Courier Dover Publications

ISBN: 0486780821

Category: Computers

Page: 528

View: 3793

This advanced text for undergraduate and graduate students introduces mathematical logic with an emphasis on proof theory and procedures for algorithmic construction of formal proofs. The self-contained treatment is also useful for computer scientists and mathematically inclined readers interested in the formalization of proofs and basics of automatic theorem proving. Topics include propositional logic and its resolution, first-order logic, Gentzen's cut elimination theorem and applications, and Gentzen's sharpened Hauptsatz and Herbrand's theorem. Additional subjects include resolution in first-order logic; SLD-resolution, logic programming, and the foundations of PROLOG; and many-sorted first-order logic. Numerous problems appear throughout the book, and two Appendixes provide practical background information.
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A Historical Perspective

Author: Radim Belohlávek,Joseph W. Dauben,George J. Klir

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190200014

Category: Mathematics

Page: 544

View: 3569

The term "fuzzy logic," as it is understood in this book, stands for all aspects of representing and manipulating knowledge based on the rejection of the most fundamental principle of classical logic---the principle of bivalence. According to this principle, each declarative sentence is required to be either true or false. In fuzzy logic, these classical truth values are not abandoned. However, additional, intermediate truth values between true and false are allowed, which are interpreted as degrees of truth. This opens a new way of thinking---thinking in terms of degrees rather than absolutes. For example, it leads to the definition of a new kind of sets, referred to as fuzzy sets, in which membership is a matter of degree. The book examines the genesis and development of fuzzy logic. It surveys the prehistory of fuzzy logic and inspects circumstances that eventually lead to the emergence of fuzzy logic. The book explores in detail the development of propositional, predicate, and other calculi that admit degrees of truth, which are known as fuzzy logic in the narrow sense. Fuzzy logic in the broad sense, whose primary aim is to utilize degrees of truth for emulating common-sense human reasoning in natural language, is scrutinized as well. The book also examines principles for developing mathematics based on fuzzy logic and provides overviews of areas in which this has been done most effectively. It also presents a detailed survey of established and prospective applications of fuzzy logic in various areas of human affairs, and provides an assessment of the significance of fuzzy logic as a new paradigm.
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Author: John Harrison

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521899575

Category: Computers

Page: 681

View: 2449

One-stop reference, self-contained, with theoretical topics presented in conjunction with implementations for which code is supplied.
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Author: Richard Lassaigne,Michel de Rougemont

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0857293923

Category: Computers

Page: 361

View: 8961

Logic and Complexity looks at basic logic as it is used in Computer Science, and provides students with a logical approach to Complexity theory. With plenty of exercises, this book presents classical notions of mathematical logic, such as decidability, completeness and incompleteness, as well as new ideas brought by complexity theory such as NP-completeness, randomness and approximations, providing a better understanding for efficient algorithmic solutions to problems. Divided into three parts, it covers: - Model Theory and Recursive Functions - introducing the basic model theory of propositional, 1st order, inductive definitions and 2nd order logic. Recursive functions, Turing computability and decidability are also examined. - Descriptive Complexity - looking at the relationship between definitions of problems, queries, properties of programs and their computational complexity. - Approximation - explaining how some optimization problems and counting problems can be approximated according to their logical form. Logic is important in Computer Science, particularly for verification problems and database query languages such as SQL. Students and researchers in this field will find this book of great interest.
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Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080466637

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1218

View: 3279

The papers presented in this volume examine topics of central interest in contemporary philosophy of logic. They include reflections on the nature of logic and its relevance for philosophy today, and explore in depth developments in informal logic and the relation of informal to symbolic logic, mathematical metatheory and the limiting metatheorems, modal logic, many-valued logic, relevance and paraconsistent logic, free logics, extensional v. intensional logics, the logic of fiction, epistemic logic, formal logical and semantic paradoxes, the concept of truth, the formal theory of entailment, objectual and substitutional interpretation of the quantifiers, infinity and domain constraints, the Löwenheim-Skolem theorem and Skolem paradox, vagueness, modal realism v. actualism, counterfactuals and the logic of causation, applications of logic and mathematics to the physical sciences, logically possible worlds and counterpart semantics, and the legacy of Hilbert’s program and logicism. The handbook is meant to be both a compendium of new work in symbolic logic and an authoritative resource for students and researchers, a book to be consulted for specific information about recent developments in logic and to be read with pleasure for its technical acumen and philosophical insights. - Written by leading logicians and philosophers - Comprehensive authoritative coverage of all major areas of contemporary research in symbolic logic - Clear, in-depth expositions of technical detail - Progressive organization from general considerations to informal to symbolic logic to nonclassical logics - Presents current work in symbolic logic within a unified framework - Accessible to students, engaging for experts and professionals - Insightful philosophical discussions of all aspects of logic - Useful bibliographies in every chapter
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International Symposium, LFCS 2016, Deerfield Beach, FL, USA, January 4-7, 2016. Proceedings

Author: Sergei Artemov,Anil Nerode

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319276832

Category: Mathematics

Page: 407

View: 5074

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International Symposium on Logical Foundations of Computer Science, LFCS 2016, held in Deerfield Beach, FL, USA in January 2016. The 27 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 46 submissions. The scope of the Symposium is broad and includes constructive mathematics and type theory; homotopy type theory; logic, automata, and automatic structures; computability and randomness; logical foundations of programming; logical aspects of computational complexity; parameterized complexity; logic programming and constraints; automated deduction and interactive theorem proving; logical methods in protocol and program verification; logical methods in program specification and extraction; domain theory logics; logical foundations of database theory; equational logic and term rewriting; lambda and combinatory calculi; categorical logic and topological semantics; linear logic; epistemic and temporal logics; intelligent and multiple-agent system logics; logics of proof and justification; non-monotonic reasoning; logic in game theory and social software; logic of hybrid systems; distributed system logics; mathematical fuzzy logic; system design logics; and other logics in computer science.
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Author: Qing Wang

Publisher: Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH

ISBN: 3832525637

Category: Computers

Page: 252

View: 2434

Database transformations consist of queries and updates which are two fundamental types of computations in any databases - the first provides the capability to retrieve data and the second is used to maintain databases in light of ever-changing application domains. This dissertation aims to lay down the foundations for establishing a theoretical framework of database transformations in the context of complex-value databases. The previous findings reveal that it is very difficult to characterise common features of database queries and updates in a way which is meaningful for further investigations. Nevertheless, the advent of the sequential Abstract State Machine (ASM) thesis capturing sequential algorithms sheds light on the study of database transformations. Observing that the class of computations described by database transformations may be formalised as algorithms respecting database principles, we propose the database ASM thesis for a complete characterisation of database transformations. It turns out that every database transformation characterised by five postulates can be behaviourally simulated by a database Abstract State Machine (DB-ASM) with the same signature and background, and vice versa. Furthermore, a logic for DB-ASMs is defined. In spite of bounded non-determinism permitted by DB-ASMs, the logic is proven to be sound and complete.
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Author: Serge Abiteboul,Richard Hull,Victor Vianu

Publisher: Addison Wesley

ISBN: N.A

Category: Computers

Page: 685

View: 4804

This work presents comprehensive coverage of the foundations and theory of database systems. It is a reference to both classical material and advanced topics, bringing together many subjects including up-to-date coverage of object-oriented and logic databases. Numerous exercises are provided at three levels of difficulty. The book is intended for use by database professionals at all levels of experience, and graduate and senior level students in Advanced Theory of Databases.
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Proving Theorems for Complex Dynamics

Author: André Platzer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642145094

Category: Mathematics

Page: 426

View: 3074

Hybrid systems are models for complex physical systems and have become a widely used concept for understanding their behavior. Many applications are safety-critical, including car, railway, and air traffic control, robotics, physical–chemical process control, and biomedical devices. Hybrid systems analysis studies how we can build computerized controllers for physical systems which are guaranteed to meet their design goals. The author gives a unique, logic-based perspective on hybrid systems analysis. It is the first book that leverages the power of logic for hybrid systems. The author develops a coherent logical approach for systematic hybrid systems analysis, covering its theory, practice, and applications. It is further shown how the developed verification techniques can be used to study air traffic and railway control systems. This book is intended for researchers, postgraduates, and professionals who are interested in hybrid systems analysis, cyberphysical or embedded systems design, logic and theorem proving, or transportation and automation.
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Author: Petr Cintula,Christian G Fermueller,Carles Noguera

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781848901933

Category: Mathematics

Page: 384

View: 3154

Originating as an attempt to provide solid logical foundations for fuzzy set theory, and motivated also by philosophical and computational problems of vagueness and imprecision, Mathematical Fuzzy Logic (MFL) has become a significant subfield of mathematical logic. Research in this area focuses on many-valued logics with linearly ordered truth values and has yielded elegant and deep mathematical theories and challenging problems, thus continuing to attract an ever increasing number of researchers. This handbook provides, through its several volumes, an up-to-date systematic presentation of the best-developed areas of MFL. Its intended audience is researchers working on MFL or related fields, that may use the text as a reference book, and anyone looking for a comprehensive introduction to MFL. This handbook will be useful not only for readers interested in pure mathematical logic, but also for those interested in logical foundations of fuzzy set theory or in a mathematical apparatus suitable for dealing with some philosophical and linguistic issues related to vagueness. This third volume starts with three chapters on semantics of fuzzy logics, namely, on the structure of linearly ordered algebras, on semantic games, and on Ulam-Renyi games; it continues with an introduction to fuzzy logics with evaluated syntax, a survey of fuzzy description logics, and a study of probability on MV-algebras; and it ends with a philosophical chapter on the role of fuzzy logics in theories of vagueness."
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Author: Willard Van Orman Quine

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674571761

Category: Philosophy

Page: 333

View: 6815

Provides comprehensive coverage of logical structure as well as the techniques of formal reasoning
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Author: Michael R. Genesereth,Nils J. Nilsson

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 0128015543

Category: Computers

Page: 406

View: 4189

Intended both as a text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, and as a key reference work for AI researchers and developers, Logical Foundations of Artificial Intelligence is a lucid, rigorous, and comprehensive account of the fundamentals of artificial intelligence from the standpoint of logic. The first section of the book introduces the logicist approach to AI--discussing the representation of declarative knowledge and featuring an introduction to the process of conceptualization, the syntax and semantics of predicate calculus, and the basics of other declarative representations such as frames and semantic nets. This section also provides a simple but powerful inference procedure, resolution, and shows how it can be used in a reasoning system. The next several chapters discuss nonmonotonic reasoning, induction, and reasoning under uncertainty, broadening the logical approach to deal with the inadequacies of strict logical deduction. The third section introduces modal operators that facilitate representing and reasoning about knowledge. This section also develops the process of writing predicate calculus sentences to the metalevel--to permit sentences about sentences and about reasoning processes. The final three chapters discuss the representation of knowledge about states and actions, planning, and intelligent system architecture. End-of-chapter bibliographic and historical comments provide background and point to other works of interest and research. Each chapter also contains numerous student exercises (with solutions provided in an appendix) to reinforce concepts and challenge the learner. A bibliography and index complete this comprehensive work.
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Tackling Complexity in the Heart of Software

Author: Eric Evans

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 0321125215

Category: Computers

Page: 529

View: 2223

Describes ways to incorporate domain modeling into software development.
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