Fundamentals of Materials and Design

Author: Elvin Karana,Owain Pedgley,Valentina Rognoli

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: 0080993761

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 4527

There currently exists an abundance of materials selection advice for designers suited to solving technical product requirements. In contrast, a stark gap can be found in current literature that articulates the very real personal, social, cultural and economic connections between materials and the design of the material world. In Materials Experience: fundamentals of materials and design, thirty-four of the leading academicians and experts, alongside 8 professional designers, have come together for the first time to offer their expertise and insights on a number of topics common to materials and product design. The result is a very readable and varied panorama on the world of materials and product design as it currently stands. Contributions by many of the most prominent materials experts and designers in the field today, with a foreword by Mike Ashby The book is organized into 4 main themes: sustainability, user interaction, technology and selection Between chapters, you will find the results of interviews conducted with internationally known designers. These ‘designer perspectives’ will provide a ‘time out’ from the academic articles, with emphasis placed on fascinating insights, product examples and visuals
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Chapter 1. Designing Material Experience

Author: Paul Hekkert,Elvin Karana

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128055804

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 7027

If you aim to design a particular user experience, the material properties of the object may play a decisive role in being successful. Would the lightweight car door give you the proper impression of a luxury car? And does a perfectly polished doorknob feel natural? Maybe not. Materials can feel artificial, sound reliable, and (can make a product) look ‘cool’, they can be just pleasant to touch or look at, and cause us to experience disgust, admiration or surprise. In this chapter, we will look into these various ways in which materials can be experienced, ranging from the meanings we attribute to them, the aesthetic pleasure we obtain from perceiving them, and the emotions they may evoke in the context of a designed object. The goal of designing an intended (material) experience must be grounded in an understanding of the processes that underlie people’s material experiences more generally.
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Chapter 2. Sensing Materials: Exploring the Building Blocks for Experiential Design

Author: Hendrik N.J. Schifferstein,Lisa Wastiels

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128055812

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 4009

Materials play an important role in the sensory experience of products. The visual impression (color, gloss, pattern), tactual feeling (warmth, texture, weight), the sound (acoustical properties), smell and – when relevant - taste all depend on the material. Each material has a set of inherent material properties that affect a user's experience. Even though the senses are usually employed simultaneously, visual experience is prominent in material experience, partly because it is often the first modality to observe material characteristics. Nevertheless, the sensitivity for the other senses should not be neglected. Whereas vision provides users with the first impressions, the specific characteristics perceived through other modalities help in shaping the overall experience. The multisensory experience of warmth is used as an example to illustrate the individual impacts related to the use of different sensory modalities and to discuss how the senses work together in creating experiences that are coherent or involve incongruities.
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Chapter 11. Toward a New Materials Aesthetic Based on Imperfection and Graceful Aging

Author: Valentina Rognoli,Elvin Karana

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128055901

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 5372

Novel materials tend to prevent all forms of change in time and acquisition of signs of aging, which may affect their ‘perfect’ aesthetic qualities. It would not be wrong to claim that technological developments, the predominance of automation processes and quality controls have led - and been driven by - a trend favoring the dominance of an aesthetic model tied to perfection in every sphere of human life: the body, the style of life, products, and their materials. Such an aesthetic model tied to perfection can only be obtained with brand-new products and it inevitably encourages the possession of a ‘new’ one even if the ‘old’ one is still fully functional. As stated earlier by the pioneers in the design for sustainability domains, following such an aesthetic model stimulating the possession of the ‘new’ is a great threat to sustainable development. Founded in these discussions, in this chapter we address the implementation of a new approach to material aesthetics, based on imperfection and graceful aging. We discuss how both of these concepts can be used as a medium to express naturalness and uniqueness, and how they can create added values that can evoke longer-term attachment to products.
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Chapter 24. Materials Selection for Product Experience: New Thinking, New Tools

Author: Owain Pedgley

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128056037

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 9138

To meet the needs and desires of end users, design teams must select materials in a manner that thoughtfully balances functional and expressive product concerns. For functional concerns, materials information and selection tools of a technical nature, intended for use by engineers, are somewhat reluctantly adopted. For expressive concerns, designers usually rely on personal or company experiences, since no commercially available material selection tools exist. This chapter elaborates on the need to provide design teams – and industrial designers specifically – with improved materials selection tools, within the general remit of designing for product experience. Central to the argumentation is the proposition of what may be termed ‘user-centered materials selection’, for which four prototypical materials selection tools are presented. The chapter concludes that industrial designers should be encouraged to activate a personal material inspiration journey for their projects, prior to adopting any procedural material selection process typical of engineering.
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Chapter 8. The “Material” Side of Design for Sustainability

Author: Carlo Vezzoli

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128055871

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 5169

The designer plays an important part in choosing and using materials, and in the perspective of environmental sustainability design choices should be aimed at materials causing the lowest environmental impact. This assumption, that seems almost a triviality, needs to be seen in a systemic approach: it is mandatory to refer to the life cycle of the product and to its functional unit, in other terms choosing and using materials within a product Life Cycle Design approach. Furthermore such an approach could fit well in Product-Service System business models, capable of decoupling the economic and competitive interest for an increase in resources consumption and more in general an increase in environmental impact. Within this framework an introduction to the product Life Cycle Design is given at first, followed by the description of a material selection in such an approach, finally the conclusions, will frame material selection in system approach to design for sustainability..
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Chapter 14. The Next Generation of Materials and Design

Author: Rob Thompson,Elaine Ng Yan Ling

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128055936

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 9560

Products are the result of the delicate touch of a craftsperson or demonstrate how a designer has mastered highly mechanized production. There is an opportunity for new material experiences to be explored and defined. Designers can lead this process, combining the technical and emotional aspects of material development, to create richer, more meaningful and future relevant product experiences. This chapter will explore some of the most exciting collisions between design, engineering and material science, whereby the practical and creative aspects of material development are in sync. Nature has been a role model throughout generations of materials development. With advancing technology, it is possible to interact with environments and contexts in new and unexpected ways, redefining our notion of what is manmade.
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Chapter 19. Materials Driven Design

Author: Aart van Bezooyen

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128055987

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 9625

Materials are like words. The more materials you get in touch with, the more solutions you can see and express. In traditional design methodologies for product development materials are often considered at a later stage, resulting in only a few “good” materials being considered defined by the limitations of costs and manufacturing requirements. Bringing materials at the early stage of the design process makes it possible to review a bigger variety of materials and explore its qualities. Exploring materials at the fuzzy front end has the character of an ongoing research in understanding the available materials and processes that surround us. Besides the potential to inspire designers with unexpected materials-driven solutions, exploring materials can be an effective tool for business to make more strategic use of materials for future products. This article focuses on the use of materials to inspire ideas (instead of realizing ideas) to make design more creative, more sustainable and more competitive.
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Chapter 15. Nanomaterials in Design

Author: Daniel L. Schodek

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128055944

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 8866

Newly developed materials have long been a source of both inspiration and opportunity for designers. It is hard to imagine, for example, a design world without plastics—themselves once a new material. More recently, developments in carbon fiber and other technologies have made products stronger, lighter, and easier to use. User-oriented devices based on material-related developments in the electronics world—ranging from chips and storage media to interactive touch screens—have literally revolutionized social and business fabrics.
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Chapter 23. The Concept–Context Approach to Learning Material Properties in Design(-Related) Education

Author: Marc J. de Vries

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128056029

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 9415

In this chapter a literature survey is presented on the current educational theories about learning material-related concepts. Current educational theories suggest that learning is a matter of reconstructing knowledge by the learner rather than a mere transfer of knowledge from an expert to a novice. The most appropriate strategy for teaching and learning therefore is to make explicit the learner's pre-concepts, create cognitive conflicts with the scientific concepts where necessary and thus prepare the learner for adapting his/her conceptual thinking. For materials, it is known that young children even have difficulties in understanding basic concepts related to materials and material properties. Other conceptual barriers arise at late ages. One particular conceptual issue in learning materials in a design context is the relation between the physical nature of the artifact-in-design and the functional-artifact-in-design. This implies that learning about materials comprises at least three types of knowledge: knowledge of the material properties, knowledge of desired functions and knowledge of relations between these two (“this material is proper for that function, or: this function can be realized with that material). Recently, it has been suggested that abstract notions such as material properties and artifact functions should be learnt by going through a series of contextual experiences, from which generic characteristics can be derived that enable the learner to develop the more abstract notion. This is what is called the concept-context approach.
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Chapter 13. Sustainable Multipurpose Materials for Design

Author: Sascha Peters

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128055928

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 8453

Car bodies made by spider silk proteins, furniture made from fish scales, lightweight panels made of bamboo rings or light reflecting concrete: these are just some of the most striking examples of a development that will take on a revolutionary character in the near future. Natural biomass, lightweight materials and smart material concepts that incorporate an additional inner quality are becoming more and more prevalent. The world seems to be undergoing radical change. Materials are becoming more natural, healthier and more sustainable. The design sector has been the most active in discovering the possibilities inherent in these innovative materials through the development of a new product culture whose most important aspect is sustainability. Designers prepare the ground for promising innovative materials to enter the marketplace and, through dialogue with manufacturers, foster the development of new material or come up with problem solving materials on their own. In this chapter, we provide an overview of developments in the bio-based and sustainable material sector as well as in the fields of lightweight construction solutions and intelligent materials.
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Chapter 17. Biomimetic Materials

Author: Julian F.V. Vincent

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128055960

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 7730

Biological materials cover the same range of physical properties as technical materials, and they are commonly more durable. They have the advantage that they are made of fewer components and are easily recycled. Their effectiveness relies on self-assembly of liquid crystalline structures whose molecules are stiffened by inter- or intra-molecular bonding rather than by high-energy internal bonding. Biomimetic materials cannot properly mimic such synthetic processes and use machines to assemble structures, but there are ways in which such molecular assemblies could be introduced, for instance by using a 'spinneret' based on that found in a spider or caterpillar in a rapid manufacturing machine. Design rules include hierarchy, composite structure, recyclability, controlled relaxation of parameters, and multifunctionality. We are still in the early stages of realizing such methods of manufacturing, much of it in the 'MakerBot' community. This essentially distributed approach to manufacturing seems quintessentially biological with many organisms (us) working at it with total (internet) communication with each other.
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Chapter 4. The Sound and Taste of Materials

Author: Zoe Laughlin,Philip Howes

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128055839

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 4562

Here we discuss multidisciplinary work on a sensoaesthetic theory of materials, studying and unraveling the interconnected nature of how we perceive the sensorial aspects of materials in relation to core physical properties. We consider the definition of material from scientific and artistic perspectives, and describe how experiments undertaken by a multidisciplinary team within the Institute of Making worked to draw these sides together in a coherent and productive fashion. The relationship between the objects created for studying the sound and taste of materials, and how their physical properties affect aesthetic perception of the objects, will be introduced as an innovative methodology for investigating material–user interactions.
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Chapter 22. From Stiffness of Iron–Carbon Diagrams to Weakness of Sensoriality: The Manifold Designerly Ways of Developing Engineering Competencies in Materials

Author: Luigi De Nardo,Marinella Levi

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128056010

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 8141

Teaching engineering to industrial designers is an exciting challenge. The lengthy, manifold ways to develop competencies in materials within the wide-ranging, eclectic population of designers began at the Politecnico di Milano in 1993, when the first Industrial Design School was founded in Italy. Since the days that iron-carbon diagrams spread panic among freshmen, a great deal of work has been done; today we can proudly observe the birth of many different educational models for teaching materials. This chapter analyzes and classifies four of those models by following their growing complexity: (i) teaching fundamentals of materials engineering and selection criteria to bachelor level classes; (ii) experiencing materials within studios; (iii) the degree in materials and engineering: from know-what to know-why; and (iv) from sense and perception to materials and technology: an inverted perspective for selecting materials. We illustrate basic concepts, teaching tools, and educational goals for each of these different but complementary approaches. Finally, we portray some case histories of the mutual effects between education and research.
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Chapter 18. Lightweight Materials, Lightweight Design?

Author: Erik Tempelman

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128055979

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 1883

Lightweight design is often associated with the application of lightweight materials, but that is only part of the story. In fact, if one would reduce the one to the other, the most probable outcome will be just a very modest weight saving, gained at a very high price. This chapter aims to tell the full story of how lightweight materials fit within lightweight design, presented in the form of seven design rules. In doing so, it reveals several surprising materials that designers can use to make things – parts, products, structures – lighter, and shows why lightweight design matters, more now than ever before.
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Chapter 7. Materials and Social Sustainability

Author: Prabhu Kandachar

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128055863

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 3218

The term “Sustainability” has evolved during the last four decades to encompass 3 major aspects: Social-, Economic-, and Environmental sustainability. During the same period, the world has focused, however, mainly on economic sustainability. Rapid economic growth has resulted in enormous material prosperity, but also in a substantial increase in environmental impacts and a rapid depletion of material resources. To provide a high quality of life for a predicted world population of nine billion in 2050, the neglected aspect: social sustainability deserves urgent attention. Renewable resources offer good opportunities in this context. This chapter focuses on materials and social sustainability. Adding value to agricultural materials, such as natural fibers, by design and innovation can result in a positive impact on the quality of life of millions of peasants and farmers in the developing world.
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Chapter 3. Tactile Aesthetics of Materials and Design

Author: Hengfeng Zuo,Tony Hope,Mark Jones

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128055820

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 8160

During the user-product interaction process, tactile feeling of materials plays a vital role. This chapter starts from understanding the essence of texture beyond the visual domain, explores the perception dimensions of material textures via the sense of touch, i.e., geometrical dimension, physical-chemical dimension, emotional dimension and associative dimension. The concept and method of optimum texture design will be discussed, where the correlations between the perception dimensions and the relationships between subjective feelings and underlying physical properties or parameters of materials are brought to attention. To bring the findings of the research into practical application within design projects, a material-aesthetics database has been developed.
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Chapter 10. Meaningful Stuff: Toward Longer Lasting Products

Author: Jonathan Chapman

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128055898

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 8405

This chapter will focus not so much on “what” we do as consumers, but “why” we do it, leading to a broader evolutionary and behavioral discourse on the meaning and role of objects in our lives, drawing into focus the essential relationship between our enduring need for material experiences, and the impacts this has on the natural world. This chapter examines the meaningful proxies, triggers, and metaphors embedded within material experiences, exposing alternative understandings of the immaterial culture underpinning our stuff, and the manifold dialogues we are continually engaged in with the designed objects that touch our lives.
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Chapter 9. Designing with Waste

Author: David Bramston,Neil Maycroft

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 012805588X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 1372

Concern about the over-use of irreplaceable resources increases as the global population increases. A global divide between and within societies results in many communities living in extreme poverty. These communities are consequently forced to create many wares from waste materials, broken, and abandoned objects. Where survival needs predominate, basic objects are being produced from the waste of others. The need to create items from waste is setting an unexpected and ingenious example to more prosperous societies and one can see the emergence of a global community of designers and other enthusiastic advocates who point to the significance of such vernacular innovation. The development and increasing visibility of a generation of designers that is embracing the need to upcycle is addressed here. The aim is to demonstrate how ingenuity, circumstance, and the guiding hand of design can work together to change perceptions of the value of both materials and making practices.
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