Author: Beth M. Huebner

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118868781

Category: Social Science

Page: 600

View: 4633

This volume of the series was designed to provide a comprehensive primer on the existing best practices and emerging developments in the study and design research on crime and criminology. The work as a whole includes chapters on the measurement of criminal typologies, the offenders, offending and victimization, criminal justice organizations, and specialized measurement techniques. Each chapter is written by experts in the field and they provide an excellent survey of the literature in the relevant area. More importantly, each chapter provides a description of the various methodological and substantive challenges presented in conducting research on these issues and denotes possible solutions to these dilemmas. An emphasis was placed on research that has been conducted outside of the United States and was designed to give the reader a broader more global understanding of the social context of research. The goal of this volume is to provide a definitive reference for professionals in the field, researchers, and students. This volume in the Handbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice series identifies the principal topical areas of research in this field and summarizes the various methodological and substantive challenges presented in conducting research on these issues. In each chapter, authors provide a summary of the prominent data collection efforts in the topical area, provide an overview of the current methodological work, discuss the challenges in the measurement of central concepts in the subject area, and identify new horizons emerging in data collection and measurement. We encouraged authors to discuss work conducted in an international context and to incorporate discussion of qualitative methodologies when appropriate.
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Author: Kimberly L. Kempf

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461390095

Category: Social Science

Page: 275

View: 6518

Measurement Issues in Criminology examines the techniques and procedures crucial to successful research. Topics appropriate for specific research designs, data sources, and analytic techniques are identified, as well as topics for which such measurement methods are inappropriate. Subjects explored include ethical obligations and social research, the offender's perspective, longitudinal research design, advantages of time series studies over other procedures when investigating important ques- tions of process and change, and the strength and weakness of studies utilizing secondary data sources.
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Workshop Summary

Author: Committee on Law and Justice,Committee on National Statistics,National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309086353

Category: Law

Page: 112

View: 937

Most major crime in this country emanates from two major data sources. The FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports has collected information on crimes known to the police and arrests from local and state jurisdictions throughout the country. The National Crime Victimization Survey, a general population survey designed to cover the extent, nature, and consequences of criminal victimization, has been conducted annually since the early1970s. This workshop was designed to consider similarities and differences in the methodological problems encountered by the survey and criminal justice research communities and what might be the best focus for the research community. In addition to comparing and contrasting the methodological issues associated with self-report surveys and official records, the workshop explored methods for obtaining accurate self-reports on sensitive questions about crime events, estimating crime and victimization in rural counties and townships and developing unbiased prevalence and incidence rates for rate events among population subgroups.
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Author: Gordon P. Waldo

Publisher: Sage Publications, Inc

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 136

View: 3672

Waldo and his colleagues address a problem typical of criminological research: attaining reliability and validity in measuring data obtained under imperfectly controlled conditions. They discuss appropriate operational definitions to use in measuring concepts, the selection of samples, items, and the data collection process -- together with the differing forms of analysis. The book is a copious source of insights into measurement challenges in the social sciences.
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Author: Alex R. Piquero,David Weisburd

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387776507

Category: Social Science

Page: 787

View: 3959

Quantitative criminology has certainly come a long way since I was ?rst introduced to a largely qualitative criminology some 40 years ago, when I was recruited to lead a task force on science and technology for the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. At that time, criminology was a very limited activity, depending almost exclusively on the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) initiated by the FBI in 1929 for measurement of crime based on victim reports to the police and on police arrests. A ty- cal mode of analysis was simple bivariate correlation. Marvin Wolfgang and colleagues were makingan importantadvancebytrackinglongitudinaldata onarrestsin Philadelphia,an in- vation that was widely appreciated. And the ?eld was very small: I remember attending my ?rst meeting of the American Society of Criminology in about 1968 in an anteroom at New York University; there were about 25–30 people in attendance, mostly sociologists with a few lawyers thrown in. That Society today has over 3,000 members, mostly now drawn from criminology which has established its own clear identity, but augmented by a wide variety of disciplines that include statisticians, economists, demographers, and even a few engineers. This Handbook provides a remarkable testimony to the growth of that ?eld. Following the maxim that “if you can’t measure it, you can’t understand it,” we have seen the early dissatisfaction with the UCR replaced by a wide variety of new approaches to measuring crime victimization and offending.
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Author: Ronet Bachman,Russell K. Schutt

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1452258198

Category: Social Science

Page: 528

View: 933

Like its predecessors, this Fifth Edition of The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice (by Ronet Bachman and Russell K. Schutt) provides complete coverage of the use and results of the contemporary methods employed in criminology and criminal justice research today. Specifically designed for undergraduate and beginning graduate criminal justice courses and programs, this text teaches research design and techniques within the context of substantive criminology and criminal justice issues of interest to students who will become professionals in the field. Students learn about the wide realm of research methods available to them, delve deeper into topics relevant to their field of study, and benefit from the wide variety of exercises included in the text and on the student study website that help them practice as they learn.
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Author: Drew H. Gitomer

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9781412961448

Category: Education

Page: 259

View: 9034

This edited volume is a publication of the proceedings from the 2007 Educational Testing Service (ETS) Invitational Conference on Measurement Challenges and the Assessment of Teacher Quality. In this thematically-organized text, leading researchers and practitioners from the fields of education, economics, and policy present their perspectives on some of the most critical issues in teacher assessment. Key features include the following: Three thematic sections: Measuring Teacher Quality for Professional Entry, Measuring Teacher Quality in Practice, and Measuring Teacher Quality in Context. Expert perspectives from a variety of fields (education, economics, and policy) Section summaries that highlight key issues and common themes
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New Applications and Approaches

Author: Joshua D. Freilich,Gary LaFree

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317512014

Category: Social Science

Page: 214

View: 3796

Although there has been an increase in research on terrorism across the social and behavioural sciences in the past few decades, until recently most of this work has originated from political science, psychology or economics. Therefore, our focus in this book on criminological conceptual frameworks and empirical studies that engage terrorism and responses to it is unique. We include a distinguished group of researchers that offer their distinctive insights into criminological perspectives on terrorism. The contributors focus on criminological perspectives that have rarely, if ever, been previously applied to the study of terrorism. This includes a range of perspectives from rational choice to social disorganization; from strain to routine activities theory. This volume will advance understanding of terrorism by taking advantage of criminological contributions, and at the same time will serve as a useful update to the criminologists and their students already working in this area. It would also be a helpful introduction to those criminologists and their students who would like to be more engaged in this important area of research. This book was originally published as a special issue of Terrorism and Political Violence.
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Issues for Spatially-Referenced Crime Data

Author: Martin A. Andresen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135006261

Category: Social Science

Page: 200

View: 8272

Crime statistics are ubiquitous in modern society – but how accurate are they? This book investigates the science of crime measurement focussing on four main questions: how do we count crime? How do we calculate crime rates? Are there other measurements of crime? What are the issues surrounding crime statistics? All too often we take the measurement of crime at face value when there is, in fact, a science behind it. This book specifically deals with issues related to spatially-referenced crime data that are used to analyse crime patterns across the urban environment. The first section of the book considers alternative crime rate calculations. The second section of the book contains a thorough discussion of a measure of crime specialisation. Finally, the third section of the book addresses a number of aggregation issues that are present with such data: crime type aggregations, temporal aggregations of crime data, the stability of crime patterns over time, and the importance of spatial scale. This book builds on a growing body of literature on the science of crime measurement and offers a comprehensive account of this growing subfield of criminology. The book speaks to wider debates in the fields of crime analysis, environmental criminology and crime prevention and will be perfect reading for advanced level undergraduate and graduate students looking to find out more about the measurement of crime.
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Author: Dean J. Champion

Publisher: Prentice Hall

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 628

View: 8302

Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology 3e is about how to do research and investigate various types of research questions that arise in criminology and criminal justice. A complete discussion of research ethics–including ethical issues relating to the Nuremberg Code, research sponsorship, rights of human subjects and deception — helps readers understand their ethical responsibilities as researchers. This book explores the entire criminal justices and criminology research process from beginning to end including: sampling procedures; data collection techniques; measurement, validity and reliability issues; the role of ethics in the research process; and writing and documenting research papers. Presents a practical guide for conducting research in criminal justice and criminology careers.
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Case Studies and Exercises, Second Edition

Author: Kenneth S. Shultz,David J. Whitney,Michael J. Zickar

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317970888

Category: Psychology

Page: 424

View: 3549

This book helps readers apply testing and measurement theories. Featuring 22 self-standing modules, instructors can pick and choose the ones that are most appropriate for their course. Each module features an overview of a measurement issue and a step-by-step application of that theory. Best practices provide recommendations for ensuring the appropriate application of the theory. Practical questions help students assess their understanding of the topic while the examples allow them to apply the material using real data. Two cases in each module depict typical dilemmas faced when applying measurement theory followed by Questions to Ponder to encourage critical examination of the issues noted in the cases. Each module contains exercises some of which require no computer access while others involve the use of SPSS to solve the problem. The book’s website houses the accompanying data sets and more. The book also features suggested readings, a glossary of the key terms, and a continuing exercise that incorporates many of the steps in the development of a measure of typical performance. Updated throughout to reflect recent changes in the field, the new edition also features: --A new co-author, Michael Zickar, who updated the advanced topics and added the new module on generalizability theory (Module 22). -Expanded coverage of reliability (Modules 5 & 6) and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (Modules 18 & 19) to help readers interpret results presented in journal articles. -Expanded Web Resources, Instructors will now find: suggested answers to the book’s questions and exercises; detailed worked solutions to the exercises; and PowerPoint slides. Students and instructors can access the SPSS data sets; additional exercises; the glossary; and website references that are helpful in understanding psychometric concepts. Part 1 provides an introduction to measurement theory and specs for scaling and testing and a review of statistics. Part 2 then progresses through practical issues related to text reliability, validation, meta-analysis and bias. Part 3 reviews practical issues related to text construction such as the development of measures of maximal performance, CTT item analysis, test scoring, developing measures of typical performance, and issues related to response styles and guessing. The book concludes with advanced topics such as multiple regression, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, item response theory (IRT), IRT applications including computer adaptive testing and differential item functioning, and generalizability theory. Ideal as a text for any psychometrics, testing and measurement, or multivariate statistics course taught in psychology, education, marketing and management, professional researchers in need of a quick refresher on applying measurement theory will also find this an invaluable reference.
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Author: David Weisburd

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351552546

Category: Law

Page: 638

View: 2188

This informative reference volume features the key papers in the growing field of quantitative criminology. The papers provide examples of the importation of statistical methods from other fields to criminology, the adaptation of such methods to special criminological problems through introspection, and the development of new innovative statistical approaches. The volume illustrates the growing sophistication and maturation of quantitative methods in this field. Divided into five parts: research design, sampling, issues in measurement, descriptive analysis and causal analysis, it will be of interest to anyone concerned with criminology and criminal justice, as well as those with specialized interests in quantitative methods.
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Author: Henry Braun

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113504015X

Category: Education

Page: 436

View: 4225

Under pressure and support from the federal government, states have increasingly turned to indicators based on student test scores to evaluate teachers and schools, as well as students themselves. The focus thus far has been on test scores in those subject areas where there is a sequence of consecutive tests, such as in mathematics or English/language arts with a focus on grades 4-8. Teachers in these subject areas, however, constitute less than thirty percent of the teacher workforce in a district. Comparatively little has been written about the measurement of achievement in the other grades and subjects. This volume seeks to remedy this imbalance by focusing on the assessment of student achievement in a broad range of grade levels and subject areas, with particular attention to their use in the evaluation of teachers and schools in all. It addresses traditional end-of-course tests, as well as alternative measures such as portfolios, exhibitions, and student learning objectives. In each case, issues related to design and development, psychometric considerations, and validity challenges are covered from both a generic and a content-specific perspective. The NCME Applications of Educational Measurement and Assessment series includes edited volumes designed to inform research-based applications of educational measurement and assessment. Edited by leading experts, these books are comprehensive and practical resources on the latest developments in the field. The NCME series editorial board is comprised of Michael J. Kolen, Chair; Robert L. Brennan; Wayne Camara; Edward H. Haertel; Suzanne Lane; and Rebecca Zwick.
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Author: Steven Briggs

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118052668

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 1079

Your thorough guide to comprehending and combating crime Are you fascinated by criminology, forensics, and detective work? This you-are-there guide takes you deep into the world of crime, giving you a better understanding of the dark recesses of the criminal mind and how law enforcement officials investigate crime. You'll gain real-world knowledge of the reasons for and consequences of crime, the way society responds to it, and, most important, how crime can be prevented. Enter the world of crime — understand what crime is, how it is measured, and the various ways crime affects victims and society Identify different types of crime — from white-collar crime to organized crime to terrorism, examine the nature of crime and why certain criminals are attracted to specific crimes Know who commits crimes, and why — explore different theories that attempt to explain why people commit crimes Take it to the streets — follow law enforcement officials and federal agencies as they chase and apprehend the bad guys Seek justice — meet the key players in the criminal justice system and see why and how the guilty are punished Deal with juveniles — know the differences between adult and juvenile systems, realize why youths are treated differently, and review modern methods for treatment Open the book and find: Common criminal traits The causes of violent crimes Recent efforts to secure victims' rights The processes used to solve crimes A step-by-step walkthrough of the criminal justice process Ways to recognize and fight back against crime Jobs in the criminal justice field Ten notorious, unsolved crimes
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Author: Mary L. Ohmer,Claudia Coulton,Darcy A. Freedman,Joanne L. Sobeck,Jamie Booth

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483358356

Category: Social Science

Page: 488

View: 1005

Measures for Community and Neighborhood Research, by Mary L. Ohmer, Claudia Coulton, Darcy A. Freedman, Joanne L. Sobeck, and Jamie Booth, is the first book of its kind to compile measures focused on communities and neighborhoods in one accessible resource. Organized into two main sections, the first provides the rationale, structure and purpose, and analysis of methodological issues, along with a conceptual and theoretical framework; the second section contains 10 chapters that synthesize, analyze, and describe measures for community and neighborhood research, with tables that summarize highlighted measures. The book will get readers thinking about which aspects of the neighborhood may be most important to measure in different research designs and also help researchers, practitioners, funders, and others more closely examine the impact of their work in communities and neighborhoods.
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New Advances in Theory and Research

Author: Michael Rocque

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137572345

Category: Social Science

Page: 263

View: 3678

This book represents a brief treatise on the theory and research behind the concept of desistance from crime. This ever-growing field has become increasingly relevant as questions of serious issues regarding sentencing, probation and the penal system continue to go unanswered. Rocque covers the history of research on desistance from crime and provides a discussion of research and theories on the topic before looking towards the future of the application of desistance to policy. The focus of the volume is to provide an overview of the practical and theoretical developments to better understand desistance. In addition, a multidisciplinary, integrative theoretical perspective is presented, ensuring that it will be of particular interest for students and scholars of criminology and the criminal justice system.
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India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh

Author: Shahid Shahidullah

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137507500

Category: Social Science

Page: 417

View: 8809

Written by some of the most notable criminologists of South Asia, this book examines advances in law, criminal justice, and criminology in South Asia with particular reference to India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The edited collection explores, on the basis of surveys, interviews, court records, and legislative documents, a wide range of timely issues such as: the impacts of modernization and globalization on laws combating violence against women and children, evolution of rape laws and the issues of gender justice, laws for combating online child sexual abuse, transformation in juvenile justice, integration of women into policing, the dynamics of violence and civility, and the birth of colonial criminology in South Asia. Students of criminology and criminal justice, practitioners, policy-makers, and human rights advocates will find this distinctive volume highly valuable.
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International Perspectives and Promising Strategies

Author: Holly Johnson,Bonnie S. Fisher,Veronique Jaquier

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135006032

Category: Social Science

Page: 268

View: 2195

Violence against women is a global problem and despite a wealth of knowledge and inspiring action around the globe, it continues unabated. Bringing together the very best in international scholarship with a rich variety of pedagogical features, this innovative new textbook on violence against women is specifically designed to provoke debate, interrogate assumptions and encourage critical thinking about this global issue. This book presents a range of critical reflections on the strengths and limitations of responses to violent crimes against women and how they have evolved to date. Each section is introduced with an overview of a particular topic by an expert in the field, followed by thoughtful reflections by researchers, practitioners, or advocates that incorporate new research findings, a new initiative, or innovative ideas for reform. Themes covered include: advances in measurement of violence against women, justice system responses to intimate partner violence and sexual assault, victim crisis and advocacy, behaviour change programs for abusers, and prevention of violence against women. Each section is supplemented with learning objectives, critical thinking questions and lists of further reading and resources to encourage discussion and to help students to appreciate the contested nature of policy. The innovative structure will bring debate alive in the classroom or seminar and makes the book perfect reading for courses on violence against women, gender and crime, victimology, and crime prevention.
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Author: Clayton J. Mosher,Terance D. Miethe,Timothy C. Hart

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1452239169

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 5074

Filled with real world examples derived from media reports on crime trends and other sources, this fully updated Second Edition analyzes the specific errors that can occur in the three most common methods used to report crime—official crime data, self report, and victimization studies. For each method, the authors examine strengths and weaknesses, the fundamental issues surrounding accuracy, and the method's application to theoretical and policy research. Throughout the book, the authors demonstrate the factors that underlie crime data and illustrate the fundamental links between theory, policy, and data measurement.
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Author: Liqun Cao,Ivan Y. Sun,Bill Hebenton

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135021457

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 6053

As the world’s second largest economy, China has made great progress in developing criminology. The Routledge Handbook of Chinese Criminology aims to be a key reference point to summarize the large body of literature in both Chinese and English about various aspects of crime and its control in China for international scholars with an interest in the development of criminological research on and in the Greater China region, and for everyone with a broad interest in international criminology. The editors of the handbook have selected authoritative contributors recognized for their research and scholarship on China, Hong Kong Macao, and Taiwan. This handbook consists of five sections: An account of the development of criminology as an academic discipline in modern China, as well as some of the unique theories, strategies, or philosophies of crime control that have emerged, An analysis of the criminal justice system in China, including the police, the courts, corrections, juvenile justice and the death penalty, An exploration of the issues and problems in conducting research in China, Reflections on the nature of crime and criminality in China, including drugs, prostitution, human trafficking, corruption, floating population, domestic violence, and white-collar crime, An account of crime and criminal justice in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macao. The book presents a coherent and comprehensive collection of essays on current research and theory in criminology, crime and justice in China and Greater China, and the Editors’ Introduction and Conclusion provide further contextualisation of the Handbook’s key themes.
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