Does Public Charity Produce an Idle And Dependent Class of Society?
Author: Alexis de Tocqueville
Publisher: Cosimo, Inc.
[L]egal charity has not only taken freedom of movement from the English poor but also from those who are threatened by poverty.-from "Memoir on Pauperism"Inspired by a trip to England at a time when that nation was in the throes of political, social, and economic strife and poverty was rampant, political philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville developed his theories on civil society as it relates to its poorest members and set them down in this 1835 essay. With keen insight, he explains: .why the richest nations have the most paupers.why private charity is more likely to alleviate poverty than government aid.how good intentions backfire to produce a chronically dependent underclass.The political and economic situations Tocqueville examines are immediately recognizable as one that haunts the world's richest nations today, and his lessons are still to be learned. This is an important book for our unsteady times.Also available from Cosimo Classics: Tocqueville's Selected Letters on Politics and Society.French writer ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE (1805-1859) was born in Paris and practiced law before embarking on travels in America to study the young nation's political experiment. The result, the two-volume Democracy in America (1835, 1840), is considered a classic discourse on 19th-century America.
Author: Richard Swedberg
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Category: Business & Economics
"In Tocqueville's Political Economy, Richard Swedburg shows that Alexis de Tocqueville had a highly original and suggestive approach to economics - one that still has much to teach us today." "Through careful readings of Tocqueville's two major books andmany of his other writings, Swedburg lays bare Tocqueville's ingenious way of thinking about major economic phenomena. When examined together, Swedburg argues, these books and other writings constitute an interesting alternative model of economic thinking, as well as a major contribution to political economy that deserves a place in contemporary discussions about the social effects of economics"--BOOK JACKET.
Tocqueville and Modernization
Author: Seymour Drescher
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre
Alexis de Tocqueville has been extensively chronicled as a pioneer sociologist and political philosopher of democracy during the early nineteenth century. However, his writings on the problems of social and economic transitions to an industrial society have been largely overlooked. In this book, Seymour Drescher presents a thorough analysis of Tocqueville's concern for the lower classes of society, viewing his thoughts on slavery, poverty, criminality, and working class conditions, and their place in an evolving egalitarian society.
Author: Cheryl B. Welch
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Political Science
The Cambridge Companion to Tocqueville contains a set of critical interpretive essays by internationally renowned scholars on the work of Alexis de Tocqueville. The essays cover Tocqueville's major themes (liberty, equality, democracy, despotism, civil society, religion) and texts (Democracy in America, Recollections, Old Regime and the Revolution, other important reports, speeches and letters). The authors analyze both Tocqueville's contributions as a theorist of modern democracy and his craft as a writer. Collections of secondary work on Tocqueville have tended to fall into camps, either bringing together only scholars from one point of view or discipline, or treating only one major text. This Companion transcends national, ideological, disciplinary, and textual boundaries to bring together the best in recent Tocqueville scholarship. The essays not only introduce Tocqueville's major themes and texts, but also put forward provocative arguments that advance the field of Tocqueville studies.
Author: Anthony B. Atkinson,Francois Bourguignon
Category: Social Science
What new theories, evidence, explanations, and policies have shaped our studies of income distribution in the 21st century? Editors Tony Atkinson and Francois Bourguignon assemble the expertise of leading authorities in this survey of substantive issues. In two volumes they address subjects that were not covered in Volume 1 (2000), such as education, health and experimental economics; and subjects that were covered but where there have been substantial new developments, such as the historical study of income inequality and globalization. Some chapters discuss future growth areas, such as inheritance, the links between inequality and macro-economics and finance, and the distributional implications of climate change. They also update empirical advances and major changes in the policy environment. The volumes define and organize key areas of income distribution studies Contributors focus on identifying newly developing questions and opportunities for future research The authoritative articles emphasize the ways that income mobility and inequality studies have recently gained greater political significance
Author: Antony Flew
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
Category: Social Science
In Social Life and Moral Judgment, author and philosopher Antony Flew examines the social problems induced by the mature welfare state. Welfare states make ever-increasing financial demands on their citizenry, yet the evidence clearly supports that such demands are not sustainable. In this superlative collection of thematic essays, Flew investigates and explains why this is so, and calls for a return to individual responsibility. The first essay establishes the philosophical basis for his argument. "Is Human Sociobiology Possible?" answers its titular question in the negative, asserting that we are all members of a peculiar type of creature that can, and therefore must, be responsible for whatever choices between various courses of action or inaction that are open to us as individuals. In other essays, Flew shows how state welfare systems inevitably corrupt and demoralize their citizens by encouraging ever-more people to apply for welfare entitlements and reducing the incentives to avoid or escape the conditions warranting those entitlements. He investigates the origins of this new kind of welfare entitlement, and shows how very different what politicians and public sector employees produce is from what these people claim to be producing. Flew shows that the drive for "social" justice appears to require that the justly acquired income and wealth of all citizens should be progressively taxed away or supplemented by the state so that the eventual result is more, though never perfect, equality. This objective, he asserts, must be radically distinguished from old-fashioned, without prefix or suffix, justice. It was this type of justice Adam Smith referred to when he famously said that it is a virtue "of which the observance is not left to the freedom of our wills" but "which may be extorted by force." Flew question the aims of those who would discredit wealth creators and wealth-creating investment, showing that these are the same people who promote the rising "progressive" taxation needed to finance expenditure in the growing welfare state. Social Life and Moral Judgment is a timely critique, one that will be appreciated at a point in history when governments on both sides of the Atlantic have begun to describe spending on state health, social, education, and welfare services as investments, instead of mechanisms to achieve social justice.
Affirmative Action and Our Continuing Racial Divide
Author: Russell Nieli
Publisher: Encounter Books
Category: Political Science
Racial preference policies first came on the national scene as a response to black poverty and alienation in America as dramatically revealed in the destructive urban riots of the late 1960s. From the start, however, preference policies were controversial and were greeted by many, including many who had fought the good fight against segregation and Jim Crow to further a color-blind justice, with a sense of outrage and deep betrayal. In the more than forty years that preference policies have been with us little has changed in terms of public opinion, as polls indicate that a majority of Americans continue to oppose such policies, often with great intensity. In Wounds That Will Not Heal political theorist Russell K. Nieli surveys some of the more important social science research on racial preference policies over the past two decades, much of which, he shows, undermines the central claims of preference policy supporters. The mere fact that preference policies have to be referred to through an elaborate system of euphemisms and code words— "affirmative action," "diversity," "goals and timetables," "race sensitive admissions"— tells us something, Nieli argues, about their widespread unpopularity, their tendency to reinforce negative stereotypes about their intended beneficiaries, and their incompatibility with core principles of American justice. Nieli concludes with an impassioned plea to refocus our public attention on the "truly disadvantaged" African American population in our nation's urban centers—the people for whom affirmative action policies were initially instituted but whose interests, Nieli charges, were soon forgotten as the fruits of the policies were hijacked by members of the black and Hispanic middle class. Few will be able to read this book without at least questioning the wisdom of our current race-based preference regime, which Nieli analyses with a penetrating gaze and an eye for cant that will leave few unmoved.
Meine Flucht aus Nordkorea
Author: Yeonmi Park
Publisher: Goldmann Verlag
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Yeonmi Park träumte nicht von der Freiheit, als sie im Alter von erst 13 Jahren aus Nordkorea floh. Sie wusste nicht einmal, was Freiheit ist. Alles, was sie wusste war, dass sie um ihr Leben lief, dass sie und ihre Familie sterben würde, wenn sie bliebe - vor Hunger, an einer Krankheit oder gar durch Exekution. In ihrem Buch erzählt Yeonmi Park von ihrem Kampf ums Überleben in einem der dunkelsten und repressivsten Regime unserer Zeit; sie erzählt von ihrer grauenhaften Odyssee durch die chinesische Unterwelt, bevölkert von Schmugglern und Menschenhändlern, bis nach Südkorea; und sie erzählt von ihrem erstaunlichen Weg zur führenden Menschenrechts-Aktivistin mit noch nicht einmal 21 Jahren.
Author: George Orwell
Publisher: Diogenes Verlag AG
Nach seiner Demission als Polizeioffizier in Burma landet Orwell 1933 in den Slums: bei den Arbeitslosen, Asozialen in Paris, wo er sich als Küchenhilfe in einem Luxusrestaurant verdingt; bei den Pennern von London, mit denen er durch die Gossen und Asyle pilgert. Der unsentimentale, erschütternde Bericht eines Betroffenen.