Cache, DRAM, Disk

Author: Bruce Jacob,Spencer Ng,David Wang

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 9780080553849

Category: Computers

Page: 900

View: 6589

Is your memory hierarchy stopping your microprocessor from performing at the high level it should be? Memory Systems: Cache, DRAM, Disk shows you how to resolve this problem. The book tells you everything you need to know about the logical design and operation, physical design and operation, performance characteristics and resulting design trade-offs, and the energy consumption of modern memory hierarchies. You learn how to to tackle the challenging optimization problems that result from the side-effects that can appear at any point in the entire hierarchy. As a result you will be able to design and emulate the entire memory hierarchy. Understand all levels of the system hierarchy -Xcache, DRAM, and disk. Evaluate the system-level effects of all design choices. Model performance and energy consumption for each component in the memory hierarchy.
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Author: Jim Handy

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 9780123229809

Category: Computers

Page: 229

View: 3142

The Second Edition of The Cache Memory Book introduces systems designers to the concepts behind cache design. The book teaches the basic cache concepts and more exotic techniques. It leads readers through someof the most intricate protocols used in complex multiprocessor caches. Written in an accessible, informal style, this text demystifies cache memory design by translating cache concepts and jargon into practical methodologies and real-life examples. It also provides adequate detail to serve as a reference book for ongoing work in cache memory design. The Second Edition includes an updated and expanded glossary of cache memory terms and buzzwords. The book provides new real world applications of cache memory design and a new chapter on cache"tricks". Illustrates detailed example designs of caches Provides numerous examples in the form of block diagrams, timing waveforms, state tables, and code traces Defines and discusses more than 240 cache specific buzzwords, comparing in detail the relative merits of different design methodologies Includes an extensive glossary, complete with clear definitions, synonyms, and references to the appropriate text discussions
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Fundamental and High-Speed Topics

Author: Brent Keeth

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470184752

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 421

View: 6015

A modern, comprehensive introduction to DRAM for students and practicing chip designers Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) technology has been one of the greatestdriving forces in the advancement of solid-state technology. With its ability to produce high product volumes and low pricing, it forces solid-state memory manufacturers to work aggressively to cut costs while maintaining, if not increasing, their market share. As a result, the state of the art continues to advance owing to the tremendous pressure to get more memory chips from each silicon wafer, primarily through process scaling and clever design. From a team of engineers working in memory circuit design, DRAM Circuit Design gives students and practicing chip designers an easy-to-follow, yet thorough, introductory treatment of the subject. Focusing on the chip designer rather than the end user, this volume offers expanded, up-to-date coverage of DRAM circuit design by presenting both standard and high-speed implementations. Additionally, it explores a range of topics: the DRAM array, peripheral circuitry, global circuitry and considerations, voltage converters, synchronization in DRAMs, data path design, and power delivery. Additionally, this up-to-date and comprehensive book features topics in high-speed design and architecture and the ever-increasing speed requirements of memory circuits. The only book that covers the breadth and scope of the subject under one cover, DRAM Circuit Design is an invaluable introduction for students in courses on memory circuit design or advanced digital courses in VLSI or CMOS circuit design. It also serves as an essential, one-stop resource for academics, researchers, and practicing engineers.
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Author: Kiyoo Itoh

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662044781

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 495

View: 4808

A systematic description of microelectronic device design. Topics range from the basics to low-power and ultralow-voltage designs, subthreshold current reduction, memory subsystem designs for modern DRAMs, and various on-chip supply-voltage conversion techniques. It also covers process and device issues as well as design issues relating to systems, circuits, devices and processes, such as signal-to-noise and redundancy.
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Author: Rino Micheloni,Alessia Marelli,Kam Eshghi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400751451

Category: Science

Page: 382

View: 8149

Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well as supporting small robust form factors. Ultimately, client systems are optimizing for best performance/power ratio as well as performance/cost ratio. SSDs promise to address both enterprise and client storage requirements by drastically improving performance while at the same time reducing power. Inside Solid State Drives walks the reader through all the main topics related to SSDs: from NAND Flash to memory controller (hardware and software), from I/O interfaces (PCIe/SAS/SATA) to reliability, from error correction codes (BCH and LDPC) to encryption, from Flash signal processing to hybrid storage. We hope you enjoy this tour inside Solid State Drives.
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You Can't Avoid It, You Can't Ignore It, You Can't Fake it

Author: Bruce Jacob

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 159829587X

Category: Computers

Page: 69

View: 3030

Today, computer-system optimization, at both the hardware and software levels, must consider the details of the memory system in its analysis; failing to do so yields systems that are increasingly inefficient as those systems become more complex. This lecture seeks to introduce the reader to the most important details of the memory system; it targets both computer scientists and computer engineers in industry and in academia. Roughly speaking, computer scientists are the users of the memory system and computer engineers are the designers of the memory system. Both can benefit tremendously from a basic understanding of how the memory system really works: the computer scientist will be better equipped to create algorithms that perform well and the computer engineer will be better equipped to design systems that approach the optimal, given the resource limitations. Currently, there is consensus among architecture researchers that the memory system is "the bottleneck," and this consensus has held for over a decade. Somewhat inexplicably, most of the research in the field is still directed toward improving the CPU to better tolerate a slow memory system, as opposed to addressing the weaknesses of the memory system directly. This lecture should get the bulk of the computer science and computer engineering population up the steep part of the learning curve. Not every CS/CE researcher/developer needs to do work in the memory system, but, just as a carpenter can do his job more efficiently if he knows a little of architecture, and an architect can do his job more efficiently if he knows a little of carpentry, giving the CS/CE worlds better intuition about the memory system should help them build better systems, both software and hardware. Table of Contents: Primers / It Must Be Modeled Accurately / ...\ and It Will Change Soon
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Author: Abhishek Bhattacharjee,Daniel Lustig

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1627059334

Category: Computers

Page: 175

View: 3035

This book provides computer engineers, academic researchers, new graduate students, and seasoned practitioners an end-to-end overview of virtual memory. We begin with a recap of foundational concepts and discuss not only state-of-the-art virtual memory hardware and software support available today, but also emerging research trends in this space. The span of topics covers processor microarchitecture, memory systems, operating system design, and memory allocation. We show how efficient virtual memory implementations hinge on careful hardware and software cooperation, and we discuss new research directions aimed at addressing emerging problems in this space. Virtual memory is a classic computer science abstraction and one of the pillars of the computing revolution. It has long enabled hardware flexibility, software portability, and overall better security, to name just a few of its powerful benefits. Nearly all user-level programs today take for granted that they will have been freed from the burden of physical memory management by the hardware, the operating system, device drivers, and system libraries. However, despite its ubiquity in systems ranging from warehouse-scale datacenters to embedded Internet of Things (IoT) devices, the overheads of virtual memory are becoming a critical performance bottleneck today. Virtual memory architectures designed for individual CPUs or even individual cores are in many cases struggling to scale up and scale out to today's systems which now increasingly include exotic hardware accelerators (such as GPUs, FPGAs, or DSPs) and emerging memory technologies (such as non-volatile memory), and which run increasingly intensive workloads (such as virtualized and/or "big data" applications). As such, many of the fundamental abstractions and implementation approaches for virtual memory are being augmented, extended, or entirely rebuilt in order to ensure that virtual memory remains viable and performant in the years to come.
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Fundamentals of Superscalar Processors

Author: John Paul Shen,Mikko H. Lipasti

Publisher: Waveland Press

ISBN: 147861076X

Category: Computers

Page: 642

View: 4229

Conceptual and precise, Modern Processor Design brings together numerous microarchitectural techniques in a clear, understandable framework that is easily accessible to both graduate and undergraduate students. Complex practices are distilled into foundational principles to reveal the authors insights and hands-on experience in the effective design of contemporary high-performance micro-processors for mobile, desktop, and server markets. Key theoretical and foundational principles are presented in a systematic way to ensure comprehension of important implementation issues. The text presents fundamental concepts and foundational techniques such as processor design, pipelined processors, memory and I/O systems, and especially superscalar organization and implementations. Two case studies and an extensive survey of actual commercial superscalar processors reveal real-world developments in processor design and performance. A thorough overview of advanced instruction flow techniques, including developments in advanced branch predictors, is incorporated. Each chapter concludes with homework problems that will institute the groundwork for emerging techniques in the field and an introduction to multiprocessor systems.
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new architecture DRAMs and SRAMs--evolution and function

Author: Betty Prince

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc

ISBN: 9780471986102

Category: Computers

Page: 338

View: 7864

High Performance Memories New architecture DRAMs and SRAMs evolution and function Revised Edition Betty Prince Memory Strategies International, Leander, Texas, USA Now presenting extra product specific material on the new DDR SDRAMs, ESDRAMs and DDR ESDRAMs, Direct Rambus DRAMs, SLDRAM, VCDRAM, SGRAM and DDR SGRAM, and DP-DRAM. Fully updated to incorporate the latest industry achievements in this fast-moving field, High Performance Memories, Revised provides an overview of the issues involved in advanced memory design. Drawing on her work at the cutting edge of memory technology, Prince surveys the latest trends in development and assesses the range of memory devices and systems available. New features include: * Examination of the latest DRAMs standards * Discussion of electrical characteristics of high speed memories including SSTL interfaces and techniques in the testing of fast RAMS * Coverage of the effect of packaging on memory speed, encompassing DDR DRAM, DR-DRAM and SLDRAM Written by an internationally respected author, this comprehensively revised edition will be a boon to practising engineers involved in the design and manufacture of high speed systems and semiconductor memories. Advanced students of electrical engineering and researchers in computing and telecommunications will find High Performance Memories, Revised an invaluable reference.
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A Performance Directed Approach

Author: Steven A. Przybylski

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080500595

Category: Computers

Page: 223

View: 2205

An authoritative book for hardware and software designers. Caches are by far the simplest and most effective mechanism for improving computer performance. This innovative book exposes the characteristics of performance-optimal single and multi-level cache hierarchies by approaching the cache design process through the novel perspective of minimizing execution times. It presents useful data on the relative performance of a wide spectrum of machines and offers empirical and analytical evaluations of the underlying phenomena. This book will help computer professionals appreciate the impact of caches and enable designers to maximize performance given particular implementation constraints.
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a tutorial

Author: Brent Keeth,R. Jacob Baker

Publisher: Wiley-IEEE Press

ISBN: 9780780360143

Category: Computers

Page: 200

View: 4244

"DRAM Circuit Design" teaches readers the introductory level design of DRAM memory chips. It focuses on giving readers a reference that can be used to educate students or practicing design engineers in DRAM circuit design.
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Help for Unix Administrators

Author: Gian-Paolo D. Musumeci,Mike Loukides

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 9780596552046

Category: Computers

Page: 352

View: 6722

System Performance Tuning answers one of the most fundamental questions you can ask about your computer: How can I get it to do more work without buying more hardware? In the current economic downturn, performance tuning takes on a new importance. It allows system administrators to make the best use of existing systems and minimize the purchase of new equipment. Well-tuned systems save money and time that would otherwise be wasted dealing with slowdowns and errors. Performance tuning always involves compromises; unless system administrators know what the compromises are, they can't make intelligent decisions.Tuning is an essential skill for system administrators who face the problem of adapting the speed of a computer system to the speed requirements imposed by the real world. It requires a detailed understanding of the inner workings of the computer and its architecture. System Performance Tuning covers two distinct areas: performance tuning, or the art of increasing performance for a specific application, and capacity planning, or deciding what hardware best fulfills a given role. Underpinning both subjects is the science of computer architecture. This book focuses on the operating system, the underlying hardware, and their interactions. Topics covered include: Real and perceived performance problems, introducing capacity planning and performance monitoring (highlighting their strengths and weaknesses). An integrated description of all the major tools at a system administrator's disposal for tracking down system performance problems. Background on modern memory handling techniques, including the memory-caching filesystem implementations in Solaris and AIX. Updated sections on memory conservation and computing memory requirements. In depth discussion of disk interfaces, bandwidth capacity considerations, and RAID systems. Comprehensive discussion of NFS and greatly expanded discussion of networking. Workload management and code tuning. Special topics such as tuning Web servers for various types of content delivery and developments in cross-machine parallel computing For system administrators who want a hands-on introduction to system performance, this is the book to recommend.
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A Performance-directed Approach

Author: Steven A. Przybylski

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 1558601368

Category: Computers

Page: 223

View: 2461

A widely read and authoritative book for hardware and software designers. This innovative book exposes the characteristics of performance-optimal single- and multi-level cache hierarchies by approaching the cache design process through the novel perspective of minimizing execution time.
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Concepts and Strategies in Multicore Application Programming

Author: Victor Alessandrini

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 0128038209

Category: Computers

Page: 556

View: 1168

Shared Memory Application Programming presents the key concepts and applications of parallel programming, in an accessible and engaging style applicable to developers across many domains. Multithreaded programming is today a core technology, at the basis of all software development projects in any branch of applied computer science. This book guides readers to develop insights about threaded programming and introduces two popular platforms for multicore development: OpenMP and Intel Threading Building Blocks (TBB). Author Victor Alessandrini leverages his rich experience to explain each platform’s design strategies, analyzing the focus and strengths underlying their often complementary capabilities, as well as their interoperability. The book is divided into two parts: the first develops the essential concepts of thread management and synchronization, discussing the way they are implemented in native multithreading libraries (Windows threads, Pthreads) as well as in the modern C++11 threads standard. The second provides an in-depth discussion of TBB and OpenMP including the latest features in OpenMP 4.0 extensions to ensure readers’ skills are fully up to date. Focus progressively shifts from traditional thread parallelism to modern task parallelism deployed by modern programming environments. Several chapter include examples drawn from a variety of disciplines, including molecular dynamics and image processing, with full source code and a software library incorporating a number of utilities that readers can adapt into their own projects. Designed to introduce threading and multicore programming to teach modern coding strategies for developers in applied computing Leverages author Victor Alessandrini's rich experience to explain each platform’s design strategies, analyzing the focus and strengths underlying their often complementary capabilities, as well as their interoperability Includes complete, up-to-date discussions of OpenMP 4.0 and TBB Based on the author’s training sessions, including information on source code and software libraries which can be repurposed
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From Devices to Systems

Author: Moinuddin K. Qureshi,Sudhanva Gurumurthi,Bipin Rajendran

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 160845665X

Category: Computers

Page: 120

View: 2773

This book will educate readers on the theory and application of Phase-Change Memory (aka, PRAM, PCME, PCRAM, C-RAM, Chalcogenide RAM, and Ovonic Unified Memory). This non-volatile computer memory is a major competitor with the ubiquitous flash memory, which suffers from a number of practical problems that the newer Phase-Change Memory hopes to eradicate. This book is appropriate for professional researchers, graduate students, and advanced undergraduates.
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Author: Eben Upton,Jeffrey Duntemann,Ralph Roberts,Ben Everard,Tim Mamtora

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119183936

Category: Computers

Page: 528

View: 8185

"In the 1980s, the tech revolution was kickstarted by a flood of relatively inexpensive, highly programmable computers like the Commodore. Now, a second revolution in computing is beginning with the Raspberry Pi. Learning Computer Architecture with the Raspberry Pi is the premier guide to understanding the components of the most exciting tech product available. Thanks to this book, every Raspberry Pi owner can understand how the computer works and how to access all of its hardware and software capabilities. Now, students, hackers, and casual users alike can discover how computers work with Learning Computer Architecture with the Raspberry Pi. This book explains what each and every hardware component does, how they relate to one another, and how they correspond to the components of other computing systems. You'll also learn how programming works and how the operating system relates to the Raspberry Pi's physical components. The Raspberry Pi was created to bring forth a new generation of computer scientists, developers, and architects who understand the inner workings of the computers that have become essential to our daily lives. Learning Computer Architecture with the Raspberry Pi is your gateway to the world of computer system design."--Amazon.com.
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Design, Architecture, and Applications

Author: Yuan Xie

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 144199551X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 322

View: 4283

This book explores the design implications of emerging, non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies on future computer memory hierarchy architecture designs. Since NVM technologies combine the speed of SRAM, the density of DRAM, and the non-volatility of Flash memory, they are very attractive as the basis for future universal memories. This book provides a holistic perspective on the topic, covering modeling, design, architecture and applications. The practical information included in this book will enable designers to exploit emerging memory technologies to improve significantly the performance/power/reliability of future, mainstream integrated circuits.
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ARM Edition

Author: Sarah Harris,David Harris

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 012800911X

Category: Computers

Page: 584

View: 4679

Digital Design and Computer Architecture: ARM Edition covers the fundamentals of digital logic design and reinforces logic concepts through the design of an ARM microprocessor. Combining an engaging and humorous writing style with an updated and hands-on approach to digital design, this book takes the reader from the fundamentals of digital logic to the actual design of an ARM processor. By the end of this book, readers will be able to build their own microprocessor and will have a top-to-bottom understanding of how it works. Beginning with digital logic gates and progressing to the design of combinational and sequential circuits, this book uses these fundamental building blocks as the basis for designing an ARM processor. SystemVerilog and VHDL are integrated throughout the text in examples illustrating the methods and techniques for CAD-based circuit design. The companion website includes a chapter on I/O systems with practical examples that show how to use the Raspberry Pi computer to communicate with peripheral devices such as LCDs, Bluetooth radios, and motors. This book will be a valuable resource for students taking a course that combines digital logic and computer architecture or students taking a two-quarter sequence in digital logic and computer organization/architecture. Covers the fundamentals of digital logic design and reinforces logic concepts through the design of an ARM microprocessor. Features side-by-side examples of the two most prominent Hardware Description Languages (HDLs)—SystemVerilog and VHDL—which illustrate and compare the ways each can be used in the design of digital systems. Includes examples throughout the text that enhance the reader’s understanding and retention of key concepts and techniques. The Companion website includes a chapter on I/O systems with practical examples that show how to use the Raspberry Pi computer to communicate with peripheral devices such as LCDs, Bluetooth radios, and motors. The Companion website also includes appendices covering practical digital design issues and C programming as well as links to CAD tools, lecture slides, laboratory projects, and solutions to exercises.
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Author: Bruce Powel Douglass

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 012802349X

Category: Computers

Page: 452

View: 4928

Agile Systems Engineering presents a vision of systems engineering where precise specification of requirements, structure, and behavior meet larger concerns as such as safety, security, reliability, and performance in an agile engineering context. World-renown author and speaker Dr. Bruce Powel Douglass incorporates agile methods and model-based systems engineering (MBSE) to define the properties of entire systems while avoiding errors that can occur when using traditional textual specifications. Dr. Douglass covers the lifecycle of systems development, including requirements, analysis, design, and the handoff to specific engineering disciplines. Throughout, Dr. Douglass couples agile methods with SysML and MBSE to arm system engineers with the conceptual and methodological tools they need to avoid specification defects and improve system quality while simultaneously reducing the effort and cost of systems engineering. Identifies how the concepts and techniques of agile methods can be effectively applied in systems engineering context Shows how to perform model-based functional analysis and tie these analyses back to system requirements and stakeholder needs, and forward to system architecture and interface definition Provides a means by which the quality and correctness of systems engineering data can be assured (before the entire system is built!) Explains agile system architectural specification and allocation of functionality to system components Details how to transition engineering specification data to downstream engineers with no loss of fidelity Includes detailed examples from across industries taken through their stages, including the "Waldo" industrial exoskeleton as a complex system
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