## Modal Logic

An Introduction to its Syntax and Semantics

Author: Nino B. Cocchiarella,Max A. Freund

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199710638

Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

View: 3167

In this text, a variety of modal logics at the sentential, first-order, and second-order levels are developed with clarity, precision and philosophical insight. All of the S1-S5 modal logics of Lewis and Langford, among others, are constructed. A matrix, or many-valued semantics, for sentential modal logic is formalized, and an important result that no finite matrix can characterize any of the standard modal logics is proven. Exercises, some of which show independence results, help to develop logical skills. A separate sentential modal logic of logical necessity in logical atomism is also constructed and shown to be complete and decidable. On the first-order level of the logic of logical necessity, the modal thesis of anti-essentialism is valid and every de re sentence is provably equivalent to a de dicto sentence. An elegant extension of the standard sentential modal logics into several first-order modal logics is developed. Both a first-order modal logic for possibilism containing actualism as a proper part as well as a separate modal logic for actualism alone are constructed for a variety of modal systems. Exercises on this level show the connections between modal laws and quantifier logic regarding generalization into, or out of, modal contexts and the conditions required for the necessity of identity and non-identity. Two types of second-order modal logics, one possibilist and the other actualist, are developed based on a distinction between existence-entailing concepts and concepts in general. The result is a deeper second-order analysis of possibilism and actualism as ontological frameworks. Exercises regarding second-order predicate quantifiers clarify the distinction between existence-entailing concepts and concepts in general. Modal Logic is ideally suited as a core text for graduate and undergraduate courses in modal logic, and as supplementary reading in courses on mathematical logic, formal ontology, and artificial intelligence.

## Einführung in die Modallogik

Author: G.E. Hughes,Max J. Cresswell

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110830027

Category: Philosophy

Page: 350

View: 662

## Enzyklopädie Philosophie und Wissenschaftstheorie

Bd. 5: Log–N

Author: Jürgen Mittelstraß

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3476001407

Category: Philosophy

Page: 629

View: 5166

Das gesamte Wissen der Philosophie und Wissenschaftstheorie. Die Sach- und Personenartikel des Nachschlagewerks erfassen nicht nur den klassischen Bestand des philosophischen Wissens, sondern werden auch den neueren Entwicklungen in der Philosophie gerecht. Insbesondere in den Bereichen Logik, Erkenntnis- und Wissenschaftstheorie sowie Sprachphilosophie. Jetzt erscheint der fünfte Band der Neuauflage mit über 70 neuen Artikeln u. a. zu diesen Begriffen: antike Logik, Lüge, Macht, Medizin, Nano und Neurowissenschaften. Mit neuen Personenartikeln, darunter Luhmann, Lyotard, Maturana.

## Logische Syntax der Sprache

Author: Rudolf Carnap

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662253763

Category: Mathematics

Page: 274

View: 5766

## Type-logical Semantics

Author: Bob Carpenter

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262531498

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 575

View: 4691

The book, which stepwise develops successively more powerful logical and grammatical systems, covers an unusually broad range of material.

## Symbolic Logic

Syntax, Semantics, and Proof

Author: David W. Agler

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1442217421

Category: Mathematics

Page: 375

View: 2956

Brimming with visual examples of concepts, derivation rules, and proof strategies, this introductory text is ideal for students with no previous experience in logic. Students will learn translation both from formal language into English and from English into formal language; how to use truth trees and truth tables to test propositions for logical properties; and how to construct and strategically use derivation rules in proofs.

## Structured Meanings

The Semantics of Propositional Attitudes

Author: M. J. Cresswell

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262031080

Category: Psychology

Page: 202

View: 3451

M. J. Cresswell is a logician and philosopher of language who has been a major continuing influence on the growth and development of formal semantics over the past 15 years or more. This book is the outgrowth of years of work on propositional attitudes, the hardest problem in semantics. In it, he traces the problem to the foundations of semantics and solves it by distinguishing between the result of the composition of the simple parts of complex expressions and structure consisting of the uncomposed parts. Cresswell explains the basis of the great intuitive appeal of structured meanings, and why previous attempts, from Carnap's notion of intensional isomorphism on, to use them to solve the propositional attitudes problem have been unsuccessful. His own formalization is integrated into a model-theoretic framework which is capable of incorporating and extending all the insights obtained from Montague's semantics. M. J. Cresswell is Professor of Philosophy, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. He is the author of Logics and Languages, in which he developed an alternative version of Montague Grammar, as well as many articles on possible-worlds semantics; and coauthor with G. E. Hughes of An Introduction to Modal Logic and A Companion to Modal Logic, the standard works in the field. A Bradford Book.

## Meaning and Grammar

An Introduction to Semantics

Author: Gennaro Chierchia,Sally McConnell-Ginet

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262531641

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 573

View: 9853

This self-contained introduction to natural language semanticsaddresses the major theoretical questions in the field. This self-contained introduction to natural language semantics addresses the major theoretical questions in the field. The authors introduce the systematic study of linguistic meaning through a sequence of formal tools and their linguistic applications. Starting with propositional connectives and truth conditions, the book moves to quantification and binding, intensionality and tense, and so on. To set their approach in a broader perspective, the authors also explore the interaction of meaning with context and use (the semantics-pragmatics interface) and address some of the foundational questions, especially in connection with cognition in general. They also introduce a few of the most accessible and interesting ideas from recent research to give the reader a bit of the flavor of current work in semantics. The organization of this new edition is modular; after the introductory chapters, the remaining material can be covered in flexible order. The book presupposes no background in formal logic (an appendix introduces the basic notions of set theory) and only a minimal acquaintance with linguistics. This edition includes a substantial amount of completely new material and has been not only updated but redesigned throughout to enhance its user-friendliness.

## What Logics Mean

From Proof Theory to Model-Theoretic Semantics

Author: James W. Garson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110703910X

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 302

View: 8259

This book explains how the meanings of the symbols of logic are determined by the rules that govern them.

## Analyzing meaning

An introduction to semantics and pragmatics

Author: Paul R. Kroeger

Publisher: Language Science Press

ISBN: 3961100349

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 502

View: 9026

{This book provides an introduction to the study of meaning in human language, from a linguistic perspective. It covers a fairly broad range of topics, including lexical semantics, compositional semantics, and pragmatics. The chapters are organized into six units: (1) Foundational concepts; (2) Word meanings; (3) Implicature (including indirect speech acts); (4) Compositional semantics; (5) Modals, conditionals, and causation; (6) Tense & aspect. Most of the chapters include exercises which can be used for class discussion and/or homework assignments, and each chapter contains references for additional reading on the topics covered. As the title indicates, this book is truly an INTRODUCTION: it provides a solid foundation which will prepare students to take more advanced and specialized courses in semantics and/or pragmatics. It is also intended as a reference for fieldworkers doing primary research on under-documented languages, to help them write grammatical descriptions that deal carefully and clearly with semantic issues. The approach adopted here is largely descriptive and non-formal (or, in some places, semi-formal), although some basic logical notation is introduced. The book is written at level which should be appropriate for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students. It presupposes some previous coursework in linguistics, but does not presuppose any background in formal logic or set theory.

## Logic in Linguistics

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521291743

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 185

View: 4729

An elementary introduction to formal logic, particularly intended for linguists and others interested in languages. Concepts and theories developed within formal logic for the study of artificial languages have for some time been fruitfully applied to the study of natural languages and some knowledge of them is necessary for students of linguists (especially semantics). With this need in mind the authors offer a clear, succinct and basic introduction to set theory, inference, propositional and predicate logic, deduction, modal and intensional logic, and various concomitant extensions of these. There is a discussion too of the relation between linguistics and logical analysis and between logic and natural language. The authors see increasing scope for co-operation between logicians and linguistics in studying the structure of language, and it is the overall aim of the book to promote this co-operation.

## Linguistic Semantics

An Introduction

Author: John Lyons

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521438773

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 376

View: 2348

This successor to Language, Meaning and Context provides an invaluable introduction to linguistic semantics.

## Multi-Dimensional Modal Logic

Author: Maarten Marx,Yde Venema

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792343455

Category: Philosophy

Page: 239

View: 1286

Modal Logic is a branch of logic with applications in many related disciplines such as computer science, philosophy, linguistics and artificial intelligence. Over the last twenty years, in all of these neighbouring fields, modal systems have been developed that we call multi-dimensional. (Our definition of multi-dimensionality in modal logic is a technical one: we call a modal formalism multi-dimensional if, in its intended semantics, the universe of a model consists of states that are tuples over some more basic set.) This book treats such multi-dimensional modal logics in a uniform way, linking their mathematical theory to the research tradition in algebraic logic. We will define and discuss a number of systems in detail, focusing on such aspects as expressiveness, definability, axiomatics, decidability and interpolation. Although the book will be mathematical in spirit, we take care to give motivations from the disciplines mentioned earlier on.

## Modalities and Multimodalities

Author: Walter Carnielli,Claudio Pizzi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402085907

Category: Philosophy

Page: 304

View: 7480

In the last two decades modal logic has undergone an explosive growth, to thepointthatacompletebibliographyofthisbranchoflogic,supposingthat someone were capable to compile it, would ?ll itself a ponderous volume. What is impressive in the growth of modal logic has not been so much the quick accumulation of results but the richness of its thematic dev- opments. In the 1960s, when Kripke semantics gave new credibility to the logic of modalities? which was already known and appreciated in the Ancient and Medieval times? no one could have foreseen that in a short time modal logic would become a lively source of ideas and methods for analytical philosophers,historians of philosophy,linguists, epistemologists and computer scientists. The aim which oriented the composition of this book was not to write a new manual of modal logic (there are a lot of excellent textbooks on the market, and the expert reader will realize how much we bene?ted from manyofthem)buttoo?ertoeveryreader,evenwithnospeci?cbackground in logic, a conceptually linear path in the labyrinth of the current panorama of modal logic. The notion which in our opinion looked suitable to work as a compass in this enterprise was the notion of multimodality, or, more speci?cally, the basic idea of grounding systems on languages admitting more than one primitive modal operator.

## Recent Advances in the Syntax and Semantics of Tense, Aspect and Modality

Author: Louis de Saussure,Jacques Moeschler,Genoveva Puskás

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110198762

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 253

View: 396

It is a fact that tense, aspect and modality together form one of the most recurring and active areas of research in contemporary syntax and semantics, as well as in other disciplines of linguistics. A large number of syntactic and semantic phenomena are concerned by the temporal-aspectual-modal level of representation: information about time, aspect and modality is part of virtually all sentences; inflexion is quite widely considered as the core of syntactic projections. Because of this very crucial situation and role in the sentence structure, temporal-aspectual and modal information concerns virtually any part of the sentence and this information has scope over the whole characterization of the eventuality denoted by the sentence. This book is an up-to-date milestone for the studies of temporality and language, in particular regarding syntax and semantics, but with incidental hints to pragmatics and theories of human natural language understanding. Through this very tight selection of 15 papers (originally delivered during the 6th Chronos colloquium), tenses, aspect and modality are investigated both at the descriptive and theoretical levels, involving many different Indo-European and non-Indo-European languages. The volume sheds light on a wide array of phenomena that remained too little explored until now. These include the following: modal subordination in Japanese, epistemic modals in Dutch and English in Free Indirect Speech contexts, aspectual readings of idioms, adverb-licensing with the German perfect, French imperfective past compared with English progressive past, infinitival perfect in English, Adult Root Infinitives, economy constraints on temporal subordinations, future modality, past interpretation of present tense in embedded clauses, and time without tenses in Mandarin and Navajo. The book is of interest to scholars and advanced students in the fields of linguistics (general linguistics, semantics, syntax) as well as philosophy and logic.

## Meaning and Necessity

A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic

Author: Rudolf Carnap

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226093475

Category: Philosophy

Page: 258

View: 8749

"This book is valuable as expounding in full a theory of meaning that has its roots in the work of Frege and has been of the widest influence. . . . The chief virtue of the book is its systematic character. From Frege to Quine most philosophical logicians have restricted themselves by piecemeal and local assaults on the problems involved. The book is marked by a genial tolerance. Carnap sees himself as proposing conventions rather than asserting truths. However he provides plenty of matter for argument."—Anthony Quinton, Hibbert Journal

## Introduction to Montague Semantics

Author: D. R. Dowty,David Robe Dowty,R. Wall,S. Peters

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789027711410

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 313

View: 7278

This book acquaints the reader with the fundamentals of truth conditional model-theoretic semantics, and in particular with a version of this developed by Richard Montague.

## Investigations of the Syntax-semantics-pragmatics Interface

Author: Robert D. Van Valin

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027205728

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 484

View: 5259

Investigations of the Syntax-Semantics-Pragmatics Interface presents on-going research in Role and Reference Grammar in a number of critical areas of linguistic theory: verb semantics and argument structure, the nature of syntactic categories and syntactic representation, prosody and syntax, information structure and syntax, and the syntax and semantics of complex sentences. In each of these areas there are important results which not only advance the development of the theory, but also contribute to the broader theoretical discussion. In particular, there are analyses of grammatical phenomena such as transitivity in Kabardian, the verb-less numeral quantifier construction in Japanese, and an unusual kind of complex sentence in Wari' (Chapakuran, Brazil) which not only illustrate the descriptive and explanatory power of the theory, but also present interesting challenges to other approaches. In addition, there are papers looking at the implications and applications of Role and Reference Grammar for neurolinguistic research, parsing and automated text analysis.

## Studies in the Pragmatics of Discourse

Author: Teun A. Dijk

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110826143

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 343

View: 1171