Author: K. C. Nicolaou,Tamsyn Montagnon

Publisher: Wiley-VCH

ISBN: 9783527309832

Category: Science

Page: 385

View: 3540

K.C. Nicolaou - Winner of the Nemitsas Prize 2014 in Chemistry Here, the best-selling author and renowned researcher, K. C. Nicolaou, presents around 40 natural products that all have an enormous impact on our everyday life. Printed in full color throughout with a host of pictures, this book is written in the author's very enjoyable and distinct style, such that each chapter is full of interesting and entertaining information on the facts, stories and people behind the scenes. Molecules covered span the healthy and useful, as well as the much-needed and extremely toxic, including Aspirin, urea, camphor, morphine, strychnine, penicillin, vitamin B12, Taxol, Brevetoxin and quinine. A veritable pleasure to read.
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17 Molecules that Changed History

Author: Penny Le Couteur,Jay Burreson

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781585423316

Category: Science

Page: 375

View: 4160

Examines the roles that the molecular properties of such items as the birth control pill, caffeine, and the buttons on the uniforms of Napoleon's army have played in the course of history.
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Author: E. J. Corey,Barbara Czakó,L?szl? K?rti

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118361733

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 4761

Molecules and Medicine provides, for the first time ever, a completely integrated look at chemistry, biology, drug discovery, and medicine. It delves into the discovery, application, and mode of action of more than one hundred of the most significant molecules in use in modern medicine. Opening sections of the book provide a unique, clear, and concise introduction, which enables readers to understand chemical formulas.
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The Molecule that Made the World

Author: Nick Lane

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198607830

Category: Science

Page: 374

View: 2942

Oxygen takes the reader on an enthralling journey, as gripping as a thriller, as it unravels the unexpected ways in which oxygen spurred the evolution of life and death. The book explains far more than the size of ancient insects: it shows how oxygen underpins the origin of biological complexity, the birth of photosynthesis, the sudden evolution of animals, the need for two sexes, the accelerated ageing of cloned animals like Dolly the sheep, and the surprisingly long lives of bats and birds. Drawing on this grand evolutionary canvas, Oxygen offers fresh perspectives on our own lives and deaths, explaining modern killer diseases, why we age, and what we can do about it.
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Author: Simon Cotton

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439807744

Category: Medical

Page: 280

View: 3721

From cooking to medicine, from engineering to art, chemistry—the science of molecules—is everywhere. A celebration of the molecules of chemistry, Every Molecule Tells a Story celebrates the molecules responsible for the experiences of everyday life: the air we breathe; the water we drink; the chemicals that fuel our living; the steroids that give us sex; the colours of the seasons; the drugs that heal us; and the scented molecules that enrich our diet and our encounters with each other. You can’t see them, but you know that they are there. Unveiling the structures of poisonous "natural" substances and beneficial man-made molecules, this book brushes away any preconceived notions about chemistry to demonstrate why and how molecules matter.
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Author: Bruce Alberts

Publisher: Garland Science

ISBN: 1317563743

Category: Science

Page: 1464

View: 4373

As the amount of information in biology expands dramatically, it becomes increasingly important for textbooks to distill the vast amount of scientific knowledge into concise principles and enduring concepts.As with previous editions, Molecular Biology of the Cell, Sixth Edition accomplishes this goal with clear writing and beautiful illustrations. The Sixth Edition has been extensively revised and updated with the latest research in the field of cell biology, and it provides an exceptional framework for teaching and learning. The entire illustration program has been greatly enhanced.Protein structures better illustrate structure–function relationships, icons are simpler and more consistent within and between chapters, and micrographs have been refreshed and updated with newer, clearer, or better images. As a new feature, each chapter now contains intriguing openended questions highlighting “What We Don’t Know,” introducing students to challenging areas of future research. Updated end-of-chapter problems reflect new research discussed in the text, and these problems have been expanded to all chapters by adding questions on developmental biology, tissues and stem cells, pathogens, and the immune system.
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Poisonous Products, Human Health, and the Promise of Green Chemistry

Author: Elizabeth Grossman

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 1610911571

Category: Nature

Page: 288

View: 2116

Each day, headlines warn that baby bottles are leaching dangerous chemicals, nonstick pans are causing infertility, and plastic containers are making us fat. What if green chemistry could change all that? What if rather than toxics, our economy ran on harmless, environmentally-friendly materials? Elizabeth Grossman, an acclaimed journalist who brought national attention to the contaminants hidden in computers and other high tech electronics, now tackles the hazards of ordinary consumer products. She shows that for the sake of convenience, efficiency, and short-term safety, we have created synthetic chemicals that fundamentally change, at a molecular level, the way our bodies work. The consequences range from diabetes to cancer, reproductive and neurological disorders. Yet it’s hard to imagine life without the creature comforts current materials provide—and Grossman argues we do not have to. A scientific revolution is introducing products that are “benign by design,” developing manufacturing processes that consider health impacts at every stage, and is creating new compounds that mimic rather than disrupt natural systems. Through interviews with leading researchers, Grossman gives us a first look at this radical transformation. Green chemistry is just getting underway, but it offers hope that we can indeed create products that benefit health, the environment, and industry.
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Decoding the Secrets of the Air Around Us

Author: Sam Kean

Publisher: Little, Brown

ISBN: 0316381632

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 2846

The Guardian's Best Science Book of 2017 One of Science News's Favorite Science Books of 2017 The fascinating science and history of the air we breathe It's invisible. It's ever-present. Without it, you would die in minutes. And it has an epic story to tell. In Caesar's Last Breath, New York Times bestselling author Sam Kean takes us on a journey through the periodic table, around the globe, and across time to tell the story of the air we breathe, which, it turns out, is also the story of earth and our existence on it. With every breath, you literally inhale the history of the world. On the ides of March, 44 BC, Julius Caesar died of stab wounds on the Senate floor, but the story of his last breath is still unfolding; in fact, you're probably inhaling some of it now. Of the sextillions of molecules entering or leaving your lungs at this moment, some might well bear traces of Cleopatra's perfumes, German mustard gas, particles exhaled by dinosaurs or emitted by atomic bombs, even remnants of stardust from the universe's creation. Tracing the origins and ingredients of our atmosphere, Kean reveals how the alchemy of air reshaped our continents, steered human progress, powered revolutions, and continues to influence everything we do. Along the way, we'll swim with radioactive pigs, witness the most important chemical reactions humans have discovered, and join the crowd at the Moulin Rouge for some of the crudest performance art of all time. Lively, witty, and filled with the astounding science of ordinary life, Caesar's Last Breath illuminates the science stories swirling around us every second.
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Portraits of Intriguing Materials in Everyday Life

Author: John Emsley

Publisher: Oxford Paperbacks

ISBN: 9780192862068

Category: Science

Page: 250

View: 2771

Discusses interesting chemicals, such as the smelliest, most lethal, and most versatile, in a non-technical style that covers each chemical's importance without using formulas, equations, or diagrams
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Iron, Carbon, Gold, Silver, Uranium, Titanium, Silicon

Author: John Browne

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 0297868063

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 6687

'Fascinating and enjoyable ... enthused with insight' - Brian Cox Uranium, carbon, iron, titanium, gold, silver and silicon - former BP CEO John Browne explains how seven elements are shaping the 21st century, for good and for bad. Humans have put the Earth's resources to extraordinary use, but not always for the benefit of humankind. SEVEN ELEMENTS vividly describes how iron, carbon, gold, silver, uranium, titanium and silicon have shaped the world around us - for good and for bad. This book takes you on an adventure of human passion, ingenuity and discovery, but it is a journey that is far from over: we continue to find surprising new uses for each of these seven key elements. Discover how titanium pervades modern consumer society, how natural gas is transforming the global energy sector and how an innovative new form of carbon could be starting a technological revolution. SEVEN ELEMENTS is a unique mix of science, history and politics, interwoven with the author's extensive personal and professional experience.
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Chemistry of Plants That Changed the World

Author: Raymond Cooper,Jeffrey John Deakin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1498788181

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 252

View: 8636

As the shortcomings of purely synthetic approaches to biochemical discovery and development are becoming more apparent, a renaissance of interest in the chemistry of natural products as sources for new compounds is occurring. A unique approach to natural products chemistry, Botanical Miracles: Chemistry of Plants That Changed the World relates applications of plant extracts to the historical progress of civilization. It focuses on selected plants from around the world, connecting their stories and properties to the development of modern marvels such as medicinal compounds, nutrition products, beverages, perfumes and organic pigments. Each chapter describes a particular group of plant extracts from various perspectives, including their chemistry, interest and value to man and historical background. The ends of the chapters pose challenging questions. Introducing plants that are emerging into more prominent roles in human life and addressing current challenges, Botanical Miracles presents a fascinating point of entry to the chemistry of important natural products. It examines plants and their extracts through the key functional groups, building blocks and concepts of organic chemistry. This book provides, in a single source, information and learning opportunities of value to a wide range of individuals involved in the fields of chemistry, medicine, nutrition or cosmetics whether they be students, educators, researchers or those who simply wish to extend their horizons.
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How one man invented a colour that changed the world

Author: Simon Garfield

Publisher: Canongate Books

ISBN: 1786892790

Category: History

Page: 216

View: 7555

1856. Eighteen-year-old chemistry student William Perkin's experiment has gone horribly wrong. But the deep brown sludge his botched project has produced has an unexpected power: the power to dye everything it touches a brilliant purple. Perkin has discovered mauve, the world's first synthetic dye, bridging a gap between pure chemistry and industry which will change the world forever. From the fetching ribbons soon tying back the hair on every fashionable head in London, to the laboratories in which scientists first scrutinized the human chromosome under the microscope, leading all the way to the development of modern vaccines against cancer and malaria, Simon Garfield's landmark work swirls together science and social history to tell the story of how one colour became a sensation.
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The Personalities and Rivalries That Made Modern Chemistry

Author: Patrick Coffey

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199886547

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 3908

In Cathedrals of Science, Patrick Coffey describes how chemistry got its modern footing-how thirteen brilliant men and one woman struggled with the laws of the universe and with each other. They wanted to discover how the world worked, but they also wanted credit for making those discoveries, and their personalities often affected how that credit was assigned. Gilbert Lewis, for example, could be reclusive and resentful, and his enmity with Walther Nernst may have cost him the Nobel Prize; Irving Langmuir, gregarious and charming, "rediscovered" Lewis's theory of the chemical bond and received much of the credit for it. Langmuir's personality smoothed his path to the Nobel Prize over Lewis. Coffey deals with moral and societal issues as well. These same scientists were the first to be seen by their countries as military assets. Fritz Haber, dubbed the "father of chemical warfare," pioneered the use of poison gas in World War I-vividly described-and Glenn Seaborg and Harold Urey were leaders in World War II's Manhattan Project; Urey and Linus Pauling worked for nuclear disarmament after the war. Science was not always fair, and many were excluded. The Nazis pushed Jewish scientists like Haber from their posts in the 1930s. Anti-Semitism was also a force in American chemistry, and few women were allowed in; Pauling, for example, used his influence to cut off the funding and block the publications of his rival, Dorothy Wrinch. Cathedrals of Science paints a colorful portrait of the building of modern chemistry from the late 19th to the mid-20th century.
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How Risk-Taking Transforms Us, Body and Mind

Author: John Coates

Publisher: Random House Canada

ISBN: 0307359697

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 288

View: 6358

A successful Wall Street trader turned Cambridge neuroscientist reveals the biology of financial boom and bust, showing how risk-taking transforms our body chemistry, driving us to extremes of euphoria or stressed-out depression. The laws of financial boom and bust, it turns out, have a lot to do with male hormones. In a series of startling experiments, Canadian scientist Dr. John Coates identified a feedback loop between testosterone and success that dramatically lowers the fear of risk in men, especially young men; he has vividly dubbed the moment when traders transform into exuberant high flyers "the hour between dog and wolf." Similarly, intense failure leads to a rise in levels of cortisol, which dramatically lowers the appetite for risk. His book expands on his seminal research to offer lessons from the exploding new field studying the biology of risk. Coates's conclusions shed light on all types of high-pressure decision-making, from the sports field to the battlefield, and leaves us with a powerful recognition: to handle risk isn't a matter of mind over body, it's a matter of mind and body working together. We all have it in us to be transformed from dog to wolf; the only question is whether we can understand the causes and the consequences.
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Author: Israel Rosenfield,Edward Ziff,Borin Van Loon

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231512317

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 3055

With humor, depth, and philosophical and historical insight, DNA reaches out to a wide range of readers with its graphic portrayal of a complicated science. Suitable for use in and out of the classroom, this volume covers DNA's many marvels, from its original discovery in 1869 to early-twentieth-century debates on the mechanisms of inheritance and the deeper nature of life's evolution and variety. Even readers who lack a background in science and philosophy will learn a tremendous amount from this engaging narrative. The book elucidates DNA's relationship to health and the cause and cure of disease. It also covers the creation of new life forms, nanomachines, and perspectives on crime detection, and considers the philosophical sources of classical Darwinian theory and recent, radical changes in the understanding of evolution itself. Already these developments have profoundly affected our notions about living things. Borin Van Loon's humorous illustrations recount the contributions of Gregor Mendel, Frederick Griffith, James Watson, and Francis Crick, among other biologists, scientists, and researchers, and vividly depict the modern controversies surrounding the Human Genome Project and cloning.
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Exploring the Marvelous Materials That Shape Our Man-Made World

Author: Mark Miodownik

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 0544237048

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 5724

New York Times Bestseller • New York Times Notable Book 2014 • Winner of the Royal Society Winton Prize for Science Books “A thrilling account of the modern material world.” —Wall Street Journal "Miodownik, a materials scientist, explains the history and science behind things such as paper, glass, chocolate, and concrete with an infectious enthusiasm." —Scientific American Why is glass see-through? What makes elastic stretchy? Why does any material look and behave the way it does? These are the sorts of questions that renowned materials scientist Mark Miodownik constantly asks himself. Miodownik studies objects as ordinary as an envelope and as unexpected as concrete cloth, uncovering the fascinating secrets that hold together our physical world. In Stuff Matters, Miodownik explores the materials he encounters in a typical morning, from the steel in his razor to the foam in his sneakers. Full of enthralling tales of the miracles of engineering that permeate our lives, Stuff Matters will make you see stuff in a whole new way. "Stuff Matters is about hidden wonders, the astonishing properties of materials we think boring, banal, and unworthy of attention...It's possible this science and these stories have been told elsewhere, but like the best chocolatiers, Miodownik gets the blend right." —New York Times Book Review
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Here, There, and Everywhere

Author: A. I?U. Grosberg,A. R. Khokhlov,Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812839224

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 322

View: 3951

?? Giant molecules are important in our everyday life. But, as pointed out by the authors, they are also associated with a culture. What Bach did with the harpsichord, Kuhn and Flory did with polymers. We owe a lot of thanks to those who now make this music accessible ??Pierre-Gilles de GennesNobel Prize laureate in Physics(Foreword for the 1st Edition, March 1996)This book describes the basic facts, concepts and ideas of polymer physics in simple, yet scientifically accurate, terms. In both scientific and historic contexts, the book shows how the subject of polymers is fascinating, as it is behind most of the wonders of living cell machinery as well as most of the newly developed materials. No mathematics is used in the book beyond modest high school algebra and a bit of freshman calculus, yet very sophisticated concepts are introduced and explained, ranging from scaling and reptations to protein folding and evolution. The new edition includes an extended section on polymer preparation methods, discusses knots formed by molecular filaments, and presents new and updated materials on such contemporary topics as single molecule experiments with DNA or polymer properties of proteins and their roles in biological evolution.
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Criminal Molecules and Classic Cases

Author: John Emsley

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1782627995

Category: Science

Page: 252

View: 2894

Molecules of Murder is about infamous murderers and famous victims; about people like Harold Shipman, Alexander Litvinenko, Adelaide Bartlett, and Georgi Markov. Few books on poisons analyse these crimes from the viewpoint of the poison itself, doing so throws a new light on how the murders or attempted murders were carried out and ultimately how the perpetrators were uncovered and brought to justice. Part I includes molecules which occur naturally and were originally used by doctors before becoming notorious as murder weapons. Part II deals with unnatural molecules, mainly man-made, and they too have been dangerously misused in famous crimes. The book ends with the most famous poisoning case in recent years, that of Alexander Litvinenko and his death from polonium chloride. The first half of each chapter starts by looking at the target molecule itself, its discovery, its history, its chemistry, its use in medicine, its toxicology, and its effects on the human body. The second half then investigates a famous murder case and reveals the modus operandi of the poisoner and how some were caught, some are still at large, and some literally got away with murder. Molecules of Murder will explain how forensic chemists have developed cunning ways to detect minute traces of dangerous substances, and explain why some of these poisons, which appear so life-threatening, are now being researched as possible life-savers. Award winning science writer John Emsley has assembled another group of true crime and chemistry stories to rival those of his highly acclaimed Elements of Murder.
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Author: Olovsson Ivar

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9813229136

Category: Science

Page: 156

View: 9711

The book presents the fantastic world of water in all its different forms, from liquid to ice and snow. This book is amply illustrated with a large number of beautiful pictures with. Water plays a unique role in chemistry. The special properties of water are due to hydrogen bonding between the H2O molecules. The hydrogen bond is of fundamental importance in biological systems since all living matter has evolved from and exists in an aqueous environment, and hydrogen bonds are involved in most biological processes. There is a hundred times more water molecules in our bodies than the sum of all the other molecules put together. The unique properties of water are of great importance in our daily life. The origin of these special properties is often not recognized. Even among chemists and physicists, the fundamental facts are not always known. In spite of very active research, there are still many questions to be answered about the structure of liquid water, for instance. The book differs from most books on water as it covers basic facts about structure and properties as well as the influence of these properties in our daily life. Why does ice float on water? Why is the maximum density of water at 4°C? The beauty of snow crystals is amply illustrated, and many of the pictures are unique. Contents: Early Snow Crystal ObservationsArtificially Grown Snow CrystalsTwins, Snowflakes and HailFormation of RainPictures of Snow and Ice Crystals in NatureSnow for Pleasure and ArtThe Ice Surface and Formation of Ice SpikesIce as Aircraft Carrier and Project HabakkukStructure of Water and IcePhysical Properties and Significance in NatureWater, a Solvent with Many Interesting PropertiesWhy is Water Blue?Electron Microscopic Studies of Snow CrystalsIce in Lakes and GlaciersHydrates of Methane, Carbon Dioxide and ChlorineEffects Connected with the Release of MethanePolyhedra Formed by Water, Carbon and HydrocarbonsThe Platonic SolidsMysteries of WaterEscher's Waterfall and the Impossible TriangleMemory of WaterJacques BenvenisteHomeopathyMasaru EmotoCan Warm Water Freeze Faster than Cold Water?Mpemba Effects in Our Daily LifeHot-Water Pipes Break on Freezing While Cold Ones Do Not!The Hydrogen BondThe Role of the Lone-Pair Electrons on the Acceptor AtomThe Hydrated ProtonWater in Biological SystemsWater Transport in TreesTransformations of Our Earth by Water and IceIce AgesGiant's Kettles, PotholesThe Story of Döda Fallet (The 'Dead Fall')The Rain BowThe Physical Origin of the RainbowTeoderick's Rainbow ExperimentPrimary and Secondary RainbowsThe Water Molecule is Unique Readership: Interested lay readers. Keywords: Water;Hydrogen Bond;Ice;Snow;Gas Hydrates;Mysteries of Water;Mpemba Effect;RainbowReview:0
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Author: Daniel P. Weeks

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1285633237

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 1888

This brief guidebook assists you in mastering the difficult concept of pushing electrons that is vital to your success in Organic Chemistry. With an investment of only 12 to 16 hours of self-study you can have a better understanding of how to write resonance structures and will become comfortable with bond-making and bond-breaking steps in organic mechanisms. A paper-on-pencil approach uses active involvement and repetition to teach you to properly push electrons to generate resonance structures and write organic mechanisms with a minimum of memorization. Compatible with any organic chemistry textbook. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
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