A Handbook for Field Biologists
Author: Caryl L. Elzinga,Daniel W. Salzer,John W. Willoughby,James P. Gibbs
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Monitoring Plant and Animal Populations offers an overviewof population monitoring issues that is accessible to the typicalfield biologist and land managers with a modest statisticalbackground. The text includes concrete guidelines for ecologists tofollow to design a statistically defensible monitoringprogram. User-friendly, practical guide, written in a highly readableformat. The authors provide an interdisciplinary scope to address thecurrent, widespread interest in monitoring in many environmentalfields, including pure and applied ecology, conservation biology,and wildlife management. Emphasizes the role of monitoring in adaptive management. Defines important terminology and contrasts monitoring withother data-collection activities. Covers the applicable principlesof sampling and shows how to design a monitoring project. Provides a step-by-step overview of the monitoring process,illustrated by flow charts and references. The authors also offerguidelines for analyzing and interpreting monitoring data. Illustrates the foundation of management objectives anddescribes their components, types, and development. Describes common field techniques for measuring importantattributes of animal and plant populations. Reviews different methods for recording monitoring data in thefield, managing the data, and communicating data to policymakers.
A Practitioner's Guide
Author: Brenda McComb,Benjamin Zuckerberg,David Vesely,Christopher Jordan
Publisher: CRC Press
In the face of so many unprecedented changes in our environment, the pressure is on scientists to lead the way toward a more sustainable future. Written by a team of ecologists, Monitoring Animal Populations and Their Habitats: A Practitioner’s Guide provides a framework that natural resource managers and researchers can use to design monitoring programs that will benefit future generations by distilling the information needed to make informed decisions. In addition, this text is valuable for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses that are focused on monitoring animal populations. With the aid of more than 90 illustrations and a four-page color insert, this book offers practical guidance for the entire monitoring process, from incorporating stakeholder input and data collection, to data management, analysis, and reporting. It establishes the basis for why, what, how, where, and when monitoring should be conducted; describes how to analyze and interpret the data; explains how to budget for monitoring efforts; and discusses how to assemble reports of use in decision-making. The book takes a multi-scaled and multi-taxa approach, focusing on monitoring vertebrate populations and upland habitats, but the recommendations and suggestions presented are applicable to a variety of monitoring programs. Lastly, the book explores the future of monitoring techniques, enabling researchers to better plan for the future of wildlife populations and their habitats. Monitoring Animal Populations and Their Habitats: A Practitioner’s Guide furthers the goal of achieving a world in which biodiversity is allowed to evolve and flourish in the face of such uncertainties as climate change, invasive species proliferation, land use expansion, and population growth.
Concepts, Designs, and Techniques for Estimating Population Parameters
Author: William Thompson
Publisher: Island Press
Information regarding population status and abundance of rare species plays a key role in resource management decisions. Ideally, data should be collected using statistically sound sampling methods, but by their very nature, rare or elusive species pose a difficult sampling challenge. Sampling Rare or Elusive Species describes the latest sampling designs and survey methods for reliably estimating occupancy, abundance, and other population parameters of rare, elusive, or otherwise hard-to-detect plants and animals. It offers a mixture of theory and application, with actual examples from terrestrial, aquatic, and marine habitats around the world. Sampling Rare or Elusive Species is the first volume devoted entirely to this topic and provides natural resource professionals with a suite of innovative approaches to gathering population status and trend data. It represents an invaluable reference for natural resource professionals around the world, including fish and wildlife biologists, ecologists, biometricians, natural resource managers, and all others whose work or research involves rare or elusive species.
A Manual of in Situ Conservation
Author: Danny Hunter
This interdisciplinary volume explores art, its development, and its role in the construction of knowledge. Presenting theory and research on artistic development as a cultural and creative endeavor, contributors examine the origins of human art during the Paleolithic cultural revolution, as part of a modern cultural transformation, in the growth of a creative artist, and in developing children. Target chapters expressing the disciplinary perspectives of psychology, archaeology, communications, education, and the performing arts are followed by commentaries from internationally acclaimed scholars of human development. Part 1 explores how cultures harness and exploit the arts to give expression to values, social practices, and traditions. This section traces the emergence of new art forms that arose during social unrest, including the symbolization of spiritual beliefs expressed on the walls of Paleolithic caves, and the racial identity and cultural values expressed in the media of the hip-hop generation. Part 2 examines the journeys of a composer and a group of students to highlight the process of becoming an artist and the role education plays in its development. The book concludes with a focus on the development of aesthetic appreciation and artistic activity in childhood and adolescence, including, for example, how a child s developing theory of mind affects appreciation for the arts, and how developing empathy and emotional regulation contribute to the cognitive and affective underpinnings of acting in adolescence. As a whole contributors explore the developmental, sociocultural, and evolutionary processes that make the creation and experience of art possible. Intended for researchers and advanced students in both human development and the arts, this book will also serve as a textbook for advanced courses on psychology and the arts and/or special topics courses in cognitive and/or human development."
Working with the Land
Author: Napier Shelton
Publisher: University of Missouri Press
In Natural Missouri: Working with the Land, Napier Shelton offers a tour of notable natural sites in Missouri through the eyes of the people who work with them. Over a period of three years, he roamed all over the state, visiting such different places as Wilson’s Creek National Battlefield, Pomme de Terre Lake, Mark Twain National Forest, the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Roaring River State Park, Prairie State Park, Ted Shanks Conservation Area, and Mingo National Wildlife Refuge. Along the way he interviewed professional resource managers and naturalists, biologists, interpreters, conservation agents, engineers, farmers, hunters, fishermen, writers, and many others in an effort to gain a perspective that only people who work with the land—for business or for pleasure—can have. Shelton describes a range of land-management philosophies and techniques, from largely hands-off, as in state parks, to largely hands-on, as in farming. He also addresses the questions that surround some of the more controversial practices, such as the use of fire for land management and the introduction of nonnative species. With his relaxed writing style, Shelton invites the reader along on his journeys to experience the places and people as he did. Natural Missouri captures the essence of Missouri and gives readers a greater appreciation for the natural resources of the state and the people who work so hard to manage and protect them.
Author: Pier Luigi Nimis,Christoph Scheidegger,Patricia A. Wolseley
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
A comprehensive, up-to-date review of lichens as biomonitors of air pollution (bioindication, metal and radionuclide accumulation, biomarkers), and as monitors of environmental change (including global climate change and biodiversity loss) in a wide array of terrestrial habitats. Several methods for using lichens as biomonitors are described in a special section of the book.
Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Habitats (Bern Convention)
Author: Piero Genovesi,Clare Shine
Publisher: Council of Europe
The introduction of alien species can upset ecosystems and have been identified as the second main cause of species extinction at a global level after habitat loss or deterioration. This publication sets out a European strategy to address this issue, developed in the framework of the Bern Convention and in line with guidelines adopted in 2002 on biological diversity. This strategy seeks to encourage the implementation of co-ordinated measures in all European states which are designed to prevent or minimise adverse impacts of non-native species on native biological diversity.
Author: Robert A. Gitzen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Comprehensive and multidisciplinary coverage of fundamental and advanced statistical tools and issues relevant to long-term ecological monitoring.
ecology and management of annual rangelands
Author: Stephen B. Monsen,Stanley G. Kitchen
Category: Cheatgrass brome
Introductory papers: Symposium introduction: management of semiarid rangelands impacts of annual weeds on resource values; History and use of semiarid plant communities changes in vegetation; Evolution of weedy annuals; Cheatgrass demography establishment attributes, recruitment, ecotypes, and genetic variability; Ecological impacts of cheatgrass and resultant fire on ecosystems in the western great basin; Fire conditions and pre and postoccurrence of annual grasses on the snake river plain; Potential for replacing naturalized weeds in California's annual grasslands with selected mediterranean species: plant exploration and management consderations; The competitive influences of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) on site restoration; Fire ecology and Management: Effects of fire on juniper woodland ecosystems in the Great Basin; Cheatgrass dynamics following wildfire on a sagebrush semidesert site in Central Utah; History and applications of the intermountain greenstripping program; Prescribed burning considerations in sagebrush annual grassland communities; Effects of fire on salt desert shrub rangelands; A technical comparison model: class a foam compared to water as an example; Nevada live fuel moisture sampling project implications for fire behavior; Ecology: Management implications of yellow starthistle adaptations in the Pacific Northwest; Pristine vegetation of the Jordan Crater Kipukas: 1978-91; Medusahead: natural successor to the cheatgrass type in the Northern Great Basin; Ecological relationships between yellow satarthistle and cheatgrass; Potential interactions between global change and intermountai annual grasslands; Assessment of biological control of exotic broadleaf weeds in intermountain rangelands; Quantitative variation within and among cheatgrass populations: the role of multiple introductions; Distribution of two exotic grasses on intermountain rangelands: status in 1992; Effects of simulated fall and early spring grazing on cheatgrass and perennial grass in western Nevada; Patterns of annual grass dominance on Anaho Island: implications for Great Basin vegetation management; Great Basin annual vegetation patterns assessed by remote sensing; VA mycorrhizal status of burned and unburned sagebrush habitat; Growth, reproduction, and life history features of fourwing saltbush grown in a common garden; Potential role of soil microoganisms in medusahead invasion; Controlling erosin on lands administered by the bureu of land management, Winnemucca District, Nevada; Resources: Washington State shrub steppe ecosystem studies with emphasis on the relationship between nongame birds and shrub and grass cover densities; Grasshopper community responses to shrub loss, annual grasslands, and crested wheatgrass seedlings: management implications; Resource impacts of cheatgrass and wildfires on public lands and livestock grazing; Displacement of rare plants by exotic grasses; Restoratin: weed control: Potential role of cryptobiotic soil crusts in semiarid rangelands; Biological control of annual grass weeds; Mechanical control of undesirable annuals on the boise front, Idaho; A review of the chemical control of downy brome; Ecological significance of seed banks with special reference to alien annuals; Use of livestock to control cheatgrass a review; Mycorrhizal ecology of shrub steppe habitat; New weedy grasses associated with downy brome; Restoration: seed germination and establishment: Regulation of germination timing in facultatively fall emerging grasses; Water soluble chemistry following simulated burning of soil litter of big sagebrush, squirreltail, cheatgrass, and medusahead; Establishment characteristics of cheatgrass under various wet dry watering sequences; Germination enhancement of perennial grasses native to the intermountain region; Seed use by desert granivores; Temperature profiles for germination of cheatgrass versus native perennial buchgrasses; Germination and establishment ecology of big sagebrush: implications for community restoration; Spiny hopsage seed germination and seedling establishment; Rangeland species germination through 25 and up to 40 years of warehouse storage; Enhanced performance of grass seed by matriconditioning; Reproductive biology of bitterbrush: interaccessional hybridization of plants grown in a common garden; The (certified) seeds of revegetation; Restoration: seedbed preparation and seeding: Effects of polyacrylamide on establishment and growth of crested wheatgrass seedlings and sagebrush tubelings; Factors influencing postfire sagebrush regeneration in south central Idaho; An international approach for selecting seeding sites: a case study; Relating seedbed environmental conditions to seedling establishment; Interseeding and transplanting to enhance species composition; Drill seeding in western Canada; Direct seeding of alfalfa into northern pasture and rangeland; Disk chain diker considerations for sedbed preparation; Decision support systems for restoration and management of annual rangelands.Drills for rangeland sod seeding; Effect of seeding data and furrow opener on forage crop establishment at swift current, Saskatchewan; Disk chain diker operation; Restoration: species utility: Fructan metabolism and cool temperature growth in cheatgrass; Selection for enhanced seedling establishment in cool season range grasses; Perennial forb life history strategies on semiarid rangelands: implications for revegetation; Ecology, distribution, and values of sagebrush within the intermountain region; Role of nitrogen availability in the transition fromn annual dominated to perennial dominated seral communities; Selection of plants for fire suppression on semiarid sites; Woody chenopods useful for rangeland reclamation in western north America; 'Appar' Lewis flax: beauty and wildlife food in on plant; ' Delar'small burnet: an outstanding range forb; Cyperaceae and juncaceae selected low elevation species; ' Goldar' bluebunch wheatgrass: release of a new range plant; Management: Forage yield and quality trends of annual grasses in the Great Basin; Annual rangeland management principles and practices: the California experience; Japanese brome in the northern great plains; Lessons from 5 years of vegetation monitoring on the Nevada test site; Economic factors for consideration in converting annual grasslands to improved rangelands; Can annual rangelands be converted and maintained as perennial grasslands trhough grazing management?; Cheatgrass, livestock, and rangeland.
Author: Nathalie Pettorelli
Publisher: OUP Oxford
There has been a recent surge of interest in remote sensing and its use in ecology and conservation but this is the first book to focus explicitly on the NDVI (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index), a simple numerical indicator and powerful tool that can be used to assess spatio-temporal changes in green vegetation. The NDVI opens the possibility of addressing questions on scales inaccessible to ground-based methods alone; it is mostly freely available with global coverage over several decades. This novel text provides an authoritative overview of the principles and possible applications of the NDVI in ecology, environmental and wildlife management, and conservation. NDVI data can provide valuable information about temporal and spatial changes in vegetation distribution, productivity, and dynamics; allowing monitoring of habitat degradation and fragmentation, or assessment of the ecological effects of climatic disasters such as drought or fire. The NDVI has also provided ecologists with a promising way to couple vegetation with animal distribution, abundance, movement, survival and reproductive parameters. Over the last few decades, numerous studies have highlighted the potential key role of satellite data and the NDVI in macroecology, plant ecology, animal population dynamics, environmental monitoring, habitat selection and habitat use studies, and paleoecology. The chapters are organised around two sections: the first detailing vegetation indices and the NDVI, the principles behind the NDVI, its correlation with climate, the available NDVI datasets, and the possible complications and errors associated with the use of this satellite-based vegetation index. The second section discusses the possible applications of the NDVI in ecology, environmental and wildlife management, and conservation. This practical handbook is suitable for terrestrial ecologists and conservation biologists working with remote sensing tools. It will also be of relevance and use to both graduate students in the biological and ecological sciences and specialists in the fields of conservation biology, biodiversity monitoring, and natural resource management.
Author: Robert A. Long,Paula MacKay,Justina Ray,William Zielinski
Publisher: Island Pr
The status of many carnivore populations is of growing concern to scientists and conservationists, making the need for data pertaining to carnivore distribution, abundance, and habitat use ever more pressing. Recent developments in “noninvasive” research techniques—those that minimize disturbance to the animal being studied—have resulted in a greatly expanded toolbox for the wildlife practitioner. Presented in a straightforward and readable style, Noninvasive Survey Methods for Carnivores is a comprehensive guide for wildlife researchers who seek to conduct carnivore surveys using the most up-to-date scientific approaches. Twenty-five experts from throughout North America discuss strategies for implementing surveys across a broad range of habitats, providing input on survey design, sample collection, DNA and endocrine analyses, and data analysis. Photographs from the field, line drawings, and detailed case studies further illustrate on-the-ground application of the survey methods discussed. Coupled with cutting-edge laboratory and statistical techniques, which are also described in the book, noninvasive survey methods are effi cient and effective tools for sampling carnivore populations. Noninvasive Survey Methods for Carnivores allows practitioners to carefully evaluate a diversity of detection methods and to develop protocols specific to their survey objectives, study area, and species of interest. It is an essential resource for anyone interested in the study of carnivores, from scientists engaged in primary research to agencies or organizations requiring carnivore detection data to develop management or conservation plans.
Author: Colin J. Bibby
In this book there are entire chapters devoted to the most widely used bird counting techniques, and attempts to amalgamate other counting methodologies into major groups were made. Examples of the use of methods are provided wherever possible and the relative value of various approaches for answering specific questions is also addressed. Contents - Acknowledgements. About the Authors. Preface to the Second Edition. Purpose and Design in Counting Birds. Census Errors. Territory Mapping Methods. Line Transects. Point Counts and Point Transects. Relative Measure for Bird Communities in Habitats with High Species Richness. Catching and Marking. Counting Individual Species. Counting Colonial Nesting, Flocking and Migrating Birds. Distribution Studies. Description and Measurement of Bird Habitat. Appendix. References. Species Index. General Index.
Controversies and Consequences
Author: Luigi Boitani,Todd Fuller
Publisher: Columbia University Press
The present biodiversity crisis is rife with opportunities to make important conservation decisions; however, the misuse or misapplication of the methods and techniques of animal ecology can have serious consequences for the survival of species. Still, there have been relatively few critical reviews of methodology in the field. This book provides an analysis of some of the most frequently used research techniques in animal ecology, identifying their limitations and misuses, as well as possible solutions to avoid such pitfalls. In the process, contributors to this volume present new perspectives on the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. Research Techniques in Animal Ecology is an overarching account of central theoretical and methodological controversies in the field, rather than a handbook on the minutiae of techniques. The editors have forged comprehensive presentations of key topics in animal ecology, such as territory and home range estimates, habitation evaluation, population viability analysis, GIS mapping, and measuring the dynamics of societies. Striking a careful balance, each chapter begins by assessing the shortcomings and misapplications of the techniques in question, followed by a thorough review of the current literature, and concluding with possible solutions and suggested guidelines for more robust investigations.