How We Developed the Apollo Lunar Module

Author: Thomas J. Kelly

Publisher: Smithsonian Institution

ISBN: 1588343618

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 9936

Chief engineer Thomas J. Kelly gives a firsthand account of designing, building, testing, and flying the Apollo lunar module. It was, he writes, “an aerospace engineer’s dream job of the century.” Kelly’s account begins with the imaginative process of sketching solutions to a host of technical challenges with an emphasis on safety, reliability, and maintainability. He catalogs numerous test failures, including propulsion-system leaks, ascent-engine instability, stress corrosion of the aluminum alloy parts, and battery problems, as well as their fixes under the ever-present constraints of budget and schedule. He also recaptures the exhilaration of hearing Apollo 11’s Neil Armstrong report that “The Eagle has landed,” and the pride of having inadvertently provided a vital “lifeboat” for the crew of the disabled Apollo 13. From the Hardcover edition.
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Human and Machine in Spaceflight

Author: David A. Mindell

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262266680

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 9588

As Apollo 11's Lunar Module descended toward the moon under automatic control, a program alarm in the guidance computer's software nearly caused a mission abort. Neil Armstrong responded by switching off the automatic mode and taking direct control. He stopped monitoring the computer and began flying the spacecraft, relying on skill to land it and earning praise for a triumph of human over machine. In Digital Apollo, engineer-historian David Mindell takes this famous moment as a starting point for an exploration of the relationship between humans and computers in the Apollo program. In each of the six Apollo landings, the astronaut in command seized control from the computer and landed with his hand on the stick. Mindell recounts the story of astronauts' desire to control their spacecraft in parallel with the history of the Apollo Guidance Computer. From the early days of aviation through the birth of spaceflight, test pilots and astronauts sought to be more than "spam in a can" despite the automatic controls, digital computers, and software developed by engineers.Digital Apollo examines the design and execution of each of the six Apollo moon landings, drawing on transcripts and data telemetry from the flights, astronaut interviews, and NASA's extensive archives. Mindell's exploration of how human pilots and automated systems worked together to achieve the ultimate in flight -- a lunar landing -- traces and reframes the debate over the future of humans and automation in space. The results have implications for any venture in which human roles seem threatened by automated systems, whether it is the work at our desktops or the future of exploration.
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The Grumman Lunar Module

Author: Joshua Stoff

Publisher: Arcadia Publishing

ISBN: 1439615780

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 128

View: 382

In 1961, after the United States had acquired a total of fifteen minutes of spaceflight experience, President John F. Kennedy announced his plans for landing a man on the moon by 1970. The space race had begun. In 1962, after a strenuous competition, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announced that the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation of Bethpage, Long Island, had won the contract to build the lunar module-the spacecraft that would take Americans to the moon. This was the first, and the only, vehicle designed to take humans from one world to another. Although much has been written about the first men to set foot on the moon, those first hesitant steps would not have been possible without the efforts of the designers and technicians assigned to Project Apollo. Building Moonships: The Grumman Lunar Module tells the story of the people who built and tested the lunar modules that were deployed on missions as well as the modules that never saw the light of day. This is the first publication to chronicle the visual history of the design, construction, and launch of the lunar module-one of the most historic machines in all of human history.
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Author: Grumman Aircraft Engineering Co.

Publisher: Periscope Film LLC

ISBN: 9781935700661

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 164

View: 4284

Designed by Grumman's brilliant Tom Kelly, the Apollo Lunar Excursion Module (or "LEM" for short) was a triumph of purpose-built engineering. In the six years 1962-1968 between drawing board and first flight, a myriad of challenges were overcome related to weight, reliability and safety. The final design, designated the Lunar Module or "LM," boasted tiny windows instead of large portholes, four legs instead of five and most famously had no seats instead relying on the astronauts' legs to cushion a lunar landing. Ten LMs made it into space including three flown in development and test missions, and six which landed on the Moon. A seventh famously saved the crew of Apollo 13 when that mission's Command Module suffered a catastrophic malfunction. Originally created for NASA by Grumman in 1964, this LEM Familiarization Manual provides an operational description of all subsystems and major components of the lunar lander. It includes sections about the LEM mission, spacecraft structure, operational subsystems, prelaunch operations, and ground support equipment."
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The Untold Story Behind the Race to the Moon

Author: Charles R. Pellegrino,Joshua Stoff

Publisher: Quill

ISBN: 9780380802616

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 4305

Describes the design and construction of the lunar module, behind-the-scenes conflicts at NASA, and the drama of the Apollo Moon missions
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The Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum Collection

Author: Amanda Joan Young,Mark Avino

Publisher: powerHouse Books

ISBN: 9781576874981

Category: Science

Page: 150

View: 2768

Presents a history of space suits, from the first pressurized suits in the 1930s to the present day, along with a collection of photographs of mission suits, prototypes, and training gear.
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Author: W. David Woods

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1441971793

Category: Science

Page: 555

View: 406

Stung by the pioneering space successes of the Soviet Union - in particular, Gagarin being the first man in space, the United States gathered the best of its engineers and set itself the goal of reaching the Moon within a decade. In an expanding 2nd edition of How Apollo Flew to the Moon, David Woods tells the exciting story of how the resulting Apollo flights were conducted by following a virtual flight to the Moon and its exploration of the surface. From launch to splashdown, he hitches a ride in the incredible spaceships that took men to another world, exploring each step of the journey and detailing the enormous range of disciplines, techniques, and procedures the Apollo crews had to master. While describing the tremendous technological accomplishment involved, he adds the human dimension by calling on the testimony of the people who were there at the time. He provides a wealth of fascinating and accessible material: the role of the powerful Saturn V, the reasoning behind trajectories, the day-to-day concerns of human and spacecraft health between two worlds, the exploration of the lunar surface and the sheer daring involved in traveling to the Moon and the mid-twentieth century. Given the tremendous success of the original edition of How Apollo Flew to the Moon, the second edition will have a new chapter on surface activities, inspired by reader's comment on Amazon.com. There will also be additional detail in the existing chapters to incorporate all the feedback from the original edition, and will include larger illustrations.
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Author: Grumman,NASA

Publisher: Periscope Film LLC

ISBN: 9781937684631

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 176

View: 5768

Originally created for NASA in 1969 by prime contractor Grumman, this Lunar Module Vehicle Familiarization Manual was mandatory reading for Apollo astronauts, contractors and NASA support staff. This version of the manual describes the so-called ELM, or Extended Lunar Modules designed for the "J"class missions Apollo 15-17 and the never-flown Apollo 18 and 19. The ELM came about as part of NASA's efforts to enhance the scientific study of the Moon and its geology. To do that, longer surface stays would be needed. To make it possible, LM 10 to LM 14 received various modifications intended to increase their payloads, and allow them to return larger samples to Earth. Over forty major changes were planned, including enlarging the fuel and oxidizer tanks on both the ascent and descent stages, extension of the descent engine nozzle to improve its efficiency and allow it to deliver more power, and added capacity of oxygen and water. Some changes, such as adding solar cells and affiliated batteries to allow surface stays of up to 72 hours, proved too difficult given the program's schedule. In the end, the maximum duration of stays on the Moon would be limited to 54 hours. The extended LM weighed up to 36,500 pounds compared to 32,000 for earlier versions. The ELM's larger payload capacity enabled it to carry the 463 pound (mass) Lunar Roving Vehicle and other scientific equipment. The LRV greatly enhanced the astronauts' range and ability to retrieve samples. It's never been easy to find a copy of this text because copies were never made available to the general public -- until now. This reprint features all the original text and diagrams. It's a wonderful reference for the space flight fan, docent or engineering buff or for anyone else who ever wondered, "How'd they do that!"
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The NASA History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft to 1969

Author: Courtney G. Brooks,James M. Grimwood,Loyd S. Swenson

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486140938

Category: Science

Page: 576

View: 6973

This illustrated history by a trio of experts is the definitive reference on the Apollo spacecraft and lunar modules. It traces the vehicles' design, development, and operation in space. More than 100 photographs and illustrations.
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An Exciting Account of the Gemini Missions

Author: David Michael Harland

Publisher: Collectors Guide Pub

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 6610

NASA learned to fly in space in a time when the agency was young and lean, and had an explicit mandate of staggering audacity set against a tight deadline; in a time when the agency readily accepted risk, and made momentous decisions 'on the run'; in a time when a rendezvous was a major objective of a mission, in a time when opening the hatch and venturing outside was a serious challenge. Apollo claimed the glory, but it was Gemini that 'stretched the envelope' of spaceflight to make going to the Moon feasible. As Dr Robert Gilruth, director of the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, observed: "In order to go to the Moon, we had to learn how to operate in space. We had to learn how to manoeuvre with precision to rendezvous and to dock; to work outside in the hard vacuum of space; to endure long-duration in the weightless environment; and to learn how to make precise landings from orbital flight -- that is where the Gemini Program came in."
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The Selling of the Apollo Lunar Program

Author: David Meerman Scott,Richard Jurek,Eugene A Cernan

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262026961

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 130

View: 6883

One of the most successful public relations campaigns in history, featuring heroic astronauts, press-savvy rocket scientists, enthusiastic reporters, deep-pocketed defense contractors, and Tang.
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Author: Roger D. Launius

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780313325243

Category: History

Page: 245

View: 4423

Provides information and analysis on all aspects of space exploration with a historical overview, profiles of American and Soviet space pioneers, and a timeline of key events.
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A History in 50 Objects

Author: Teasel E. Muir-Harmony

Publisher: National Geographic

ISBN: 1426219938

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 462

A celebration of the 50th anniversary of NASA's Apollo missions to the moon, this narrative uses 50 key artifacts from the Smithsonian archives to tell the story of the groundbreaking space exploration program. Bold photographs, fascinating graphics, and engaging stories commemorate the 20th century's most important space endeavor: NASA's Apollo program to reach the moon. From the lunar rover and a survival kit to space food and moon rocks, it's a carefully curated array of objects--complete with intriguing back stories and profiles of key participants. This book showcases the historic space exploration program that landed humans on the moon, advanced the world's capabilities for space travel, and revolutionized our sense of humanity's place in the universe. Each historic accomplishment is symbolized by a different object, from a Russian stamp honoring Yuri Gagarin and plastic astronaut action figures to the Apollo 11 command module, piloted by Michael Collins as Armstrong and Aldrin made the first moonwalk, together with the monumental art inspired by these moon missions. Throughout, Apollo to the Moon also tells the story of people who made the journey possible: the heroic astronauts as well as their supporters, including President John F. Kennedy, newsman Walter Cronkite, and NASA scientists such as Margaret Hamilton.
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The Magnificent Madness of the American Lunar Quest

Author: Gerard Degroot

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9780814721131

Category: History

Page: 321

View: 6321

A selection of the History, Scientific American, and Quality Paperback Book Clubs For a very brief moment during the 1960s, America was moonstruck. Boys dreamt of being an astronaut; girls dreamed of marrying one. Americans drank Tang, bought “space pens” that wrote upside down, wore clothes made of space age Mylar, and took imaginary rockets to the moon from theme parks scattered around the country. But despite the best efforts of a generation of scientists, the almost foolhardy heroics of the astronauts, and 35 billion dollars, the moon turned out to be a place of “magnificent desolation,” to use Buzz Aldrin’s words: a sterile rock of no purpose to anyone. In Dark Side of the Moon, Gerard J. DeGroot reveals how NASA cashed in on the Americans’ thirst for heroes in an age of discontent and became obsessed with putting men in space. The moon mission was sold as a race which America could not afford to lose. Landing on the moon, it was argued, would be good for the economy, for politics, and for the soul. It could even win the Cold War. The great tragedy is that so much effort and expense was devoted to a small step that did virtually nothing for mankind. Drawing on meticulous archival research, DeGroot cuts through the myths constructed by the Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson administrations and sustained by NASA ever since. He finds a gang of cynics, demagogues, scheming politicians, and corporations who amassed enormous power and profits by exploiting the fear of what the Russians might do in space. Exposing the truth behind one of the most revered fictions of American history, Dark Side of the Moon explains why the American space program has been caught in a state of purposeless wandering ever since Neil Armstrong descended from Apollo 11 and stepped onto the moon. The effort devoted to the space program was indeed magnificent and its cultural impact was profound, but the purpose of the program was as desolate and dry as lunar dust.
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Architecture and Operation

Author: Frank O'Brien

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1441908773

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 440

View: 6031

The technological marvel that facilitated the Apollo missions to the Moon was the on-board computer. In the 1960s most computers filled an entire room, but the spacecraft’s computer was required to be compact and low power. Although people today find it difficult to accept that it was possible to control a spacecraft using such a ‘primitive’ computer, it nevertheless had capabilities that are advanced even by today’s standards. This is the first book to fully describe the Apollo guidance computer’s architecture, instruction format and programs used by the astronauts. As a comprehensive account, it will span the disciplines of computer science, electrical and aerospace engineering. However, it will also be accessible to the ‘space enthusiast’. In short, the intention is for this to be the definitive account of the Apollo guidance computer. Frank O’Brien’s interest in the Apollo program began as a serious amateur historian. About 12 years ago, he began performing research and writing essays for the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal, and the Apollo Flight Journal. Much of this work centered on his primary interests, the Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) and the Lunar Module. These Journals are generally considered the canonical online reference on the flights to the Moon. He was then asked to assist the curatorial staff in the creation of the Cradle of Aviation Museum, on Long Island, New York, where he helped prepare the Lunar Module simulator, a LM procedure trainer and an Apollo space suit for display. He regularly lectures on the Apollo computer and related topics to diverse groups, from NASA's computer engineering conferences, the IEEE/ACM, computer festivals and university student groups.
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The Definitive Sourcebook

Author: Richard W. Orloff,David M. Harland

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387300436

Category: Nature

Page: 633

View: 2733

A complete resource for Apollo program information covers the technological and managerial setbacks, tracks the development of the Saturn rocket, and details each Apollo mission.
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A User's Guide to the Moon

Author: Grant Heiken,David Vaniman,Bevan M. French

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521334440

Category: Science

Page: 736

View: 7679

The only work to date to collect data gathered during the American and Soviet missions in an accessible and complete reference of current scientific and technical information about the Moon.
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In Search of the Men who Fell to Earth

Author: Andrew Smith

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 0747588147

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 2927

In 1999, Andrew Smith was interviewing Charlie Duke, astronaut and moon walker, for the Sunday Times. During the course of the interview, which took place at Duke's Texan home, the telephone rang and Charlie left the room to answer it. When he returned, some twenty minutes later, he seemed visibly upset. It seemed that he'd just heard that, the previous day, one of his fellow moon walkers, the astronaut Pete Conrad, had died. The more Charlie spoke the more Andrew realised that his grief was something more than the mere fact of losing a friend. 'Now theres only nine of us,' he said. Only nine. Which meant that, one day not long from now, there would be none, and when that day came, no one on earth would have known the giddy thrill of gazing back at us from the surface of the moon. The thought shocked Andrew, and still does. Moondust is his attempt to understand why. The Apollo moon programme has been called the last optimistic act of the 20th Century. Over a strange three year period between 1969 and 1972, twelve men made the longest and most eccentric of all journeys, and all were indelibly marked by it. In Moondust Andrew sets out to interview all the remaining astronauts who walked on the moon, and to find out how their lives were changed for ever by what had happened. 'Where do you go after you've been to the moon?' In addition to this question that would prove hugely troubling to many of the returned astronauts, they also had to deal with the fantasies of faceless millions at their backs, for this was the first truly global media event. The walkers would forever be caught between the gravitational pull of the moon and the earth's collective dreaming.
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How to Explore, Live, and Prosper in Space Using the Moon's Resources

Author: Paul D. Spudis

Publisher: Smithsonian Institution

ISBN: 1588345033

Category: Science

Page: 243

View: 1686

While the Moon was once thought to hold the key to space exploration, in recent decades, the U.S. has largely turned its sights toward Mars and other celestial bodies instead. In The Value of the Moon, lunar scientist Paul Spudis argues that the U.S. can and should return to the moon in order to remain a world leader in space utilization and development and a participant in and beneficiary of a new lunar economy. Spudis explores three reasons for returning to the Moon: it is close, it is interesting, and it is useful. The proximity of the Moon not only allows for frequent launches, but also control of any machinery we place there. It is interesting because recorded deep on its surface and in its craters is the preserved history of the moon, the sun, and indeed the entire galaxy. And finally, the moon is useful because it is rich with materials and energy. The moon, Spudis argues, is a logical base for further space exploration and even a possible future home for us all. Throughout his work, Spudis incorporates details about man's fascination with the moon and its place in our shared history. He also explores its religious, cultural, and scientific resonance and assesses its role in the future of spaceflight and our national security and prosperity.
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