Case Studies and Strategies from the Field
Author: Madelon L. Finkel, PhD
Publisher: Dartmouth College Press
Worldwide, cancer is responsible for one in eight deaths--more than AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined. This global burden starkly illustrates the inequality between the developed and the developing world. While the majority of people living in developed countries receive timely treatment, those living in developing countries are not as fortunate and their survival rates are much lower--not only due to delays in diagnosis, but also to a lack of personnel, a paucity of treatment facilities, and the unavailability of many medications. Routine screening--a mainstay in the developed world--could greatly increase the likelihood of identifying individuals with early stage cancers and thus reduce the number of people who present with advanced disease. This book represents a critical addition to the literature of global health studies. Focusing on cervical, breast, and oral cancers, these case studies highlight innovative strategies in cancer screening in a diverse array of developing countries. The authors discuss common issues and share how obstacles--medical, economic, legal, social, and psychological--were addressed or overcome in specific settings. Each chapter offers an empirical discussion of the nature and scope of a screening program, the methodology used, and its findings, along with a candid discussion of challenges and limitations and suggestions for future efforts.
Author: Hellen Gelband,Prabhat Jha,Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan,Susan Horton
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Volume 3, Cancer, presents the complex patterns of cancer incidence and death around the world and evidence on effective and cost-effective ways to control cancers. The DCP3 evaluation of cancer will indicate where cancer treatment is ineffective and wasteful, and offer alternative cancer care packages that are cost-effective and suited to low-resource settings. Main messages from the volume include: -Quality matters in all aspects of cancer treatment and palliation. -Cancer registries that track incidence, mortality, and survival †“ paired with systems to capture causes of death are important to understanding the national cancer burden and the effect of interventions over time. -Effective interventions exist at a range of prices. Adopting "resource appropriate" measures which allow the most effective treatment for the greatest number of people will be advantageous to countries. -Prioritizing resources toward early stage and curable cancers is likely to have the greatest health impact in low income settings. -Research prioritization is no longer just a global responsibility. Providing cancer treatment requires adequate numbers of trained healthcare professionals and infrastructure beyond what is available in most LMICs, especially low income countries. Careful patient monitoring is a requirement of good quality cancer care and this often involves laboratory tests in addition to clinical examination. Even if financing were immediately available to build or expand a cancer control system, reaching capacity will take many years.
Author: Kevin J. Harrington,Rehan Kazi,Raghav C. Dwivedi,Peter Rhys-Evans
Publisher: Byword Books Private Limited
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a rapidly evolving field of medical science. Tremendous progress has been made over the past five decades in revealing the basic molecular biology involved in the disease process, developing and adopting more effective organ-preserving treatment protocols and refining surgical ablative and reconstructive approaches to facilitate functional restoration of patients without compromising survival. We now have a much clearer understanding of the disease, its management and the rehabilitation of patients. But there is still much to be done. This book aims to cover a range of exciting new findings in clinical sciences, basic sciences and allied specialties with an emphasis on their relevance to HNC. This work promises to improve preventive and therapeutic strategies and will hopefully culminate in improved outcomes of HNC. The contributions have been made by established leaders in the field and every effort has been made to address the issue in a comprehensive, yet concise, manner for the benefit of readers. We believe that this book will be of value to established/in-training clinicians, scientists, allied professionals, as well as medical students who have inquisitive minds and wish to further enhance their knowledge of HNC.
Concepts, Principles and Controversies
Author: Rosalind A. Eeles,Christine D. Berg,Jeffrey S. Tobias
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Cancer Prevention and Screening offers physicians and all clinical healthcare professionals a comprehensive, useful source of the latest information on cancer screening and prevention with both a global and a multidisciplinary perspective. Includes background information on epidemiology, cancer prevention, and cancer screening, for quick reference Offers the latest information for clinical application of the most recent techniques in prevention and screening of all major and many lesser cancer types Emphasises the importance of multidisciplinary teamwork in cancer screening Highlights frequent dilemmas and difficulties encountered during cancer screening Provides clear-cut clinical strategies for optimal patient education, communication, and compliance with cancer prevention techniques
Author: Waun Ki Hong,William N. Hait
The consummate reference source for medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, internists, surgical oncologists and others who treat cancer patients, Cancer Medicine 8 covers the ever-widening sphere of current cancer knowledge and clinical practice. In this new 8th edition an outstanding editorial team from world-renowned medical centers continues to hone the leading edge forged in previous editions, with timely information on biology, immunology, etiology, epidemiology, prevention, screening, pathology, imaging and therapy. The book is a testament to the editorial panel's creed that innovative, comprehensive, multidisciplinary treatment of cancer patients must be grounded in a fundamental understanding of cancer biology. Cancer Medicine 8 does a superb job of bringing scientific principles into clinical practice. This text is the ultimate resource of new information providing the basis for better informed cancer therapy choices. Cancer Medicine 8 features hundreds of 4-color illustrations, photographs, tables, graphs and algorithms that make this text an invaluable clinical tool in recognizing characteristic appearances of both patient and tissue. The 137 tightly focused chapters are organized into 5 sections: I: Cardinal Manifestations of Cancer II: Scientific Foundations of Cancer III: Principles of Cancer Diagnosis IV: Principles of Therapeutic Modalities V: Principles of Multidisciplinary Management Major Revisions: Chapter 6: Oncogenes An entire section is devoted to oncogenes like kit, Ret, Braf, Akt genes and the new drugs that specifically target them. This chapter not only provides a list of these new therapies but also insight as to how they target the oncogenes and their mutations, as well as therapy response and efficacy. Chapter 11: Tumor Angiogenesis This chapter provides a wealth of new data and understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis and how it contributes to the malignancy of various cancers The Clinical Advancement section provides an extensive summary of new trials investigating numerous novel angiogenesis agents Chapter 33: Chemoprevention This chapter also provides a considerable amount of new information for a broad range of clinical trials such as the HPV vaccine trial Future, Select, Star, Approve and PreSAP. The rationales for these trials are discussed and resulting data from the completed trials are presented. Chapter 55: Cytokines Research on cytokines is another area that is exploding in magnitude. This chapter presents a wealth of new information on promising new therapeutic agents.There is also updated information on the therapeutic usage of currently available agents such as hemotopoietic growth factors (HGF), erythropoietin and thromobopoietic agents. Chapter 56: Monoclonal Serotherapy A considerable amount of research has been done in the past few years on therapeutic and targeted agents in cancer therapy. Updated information and data is provided from recent trials for therapies previously discussed in Cancer Medicine edition 7 covering therapeutic agents and targeted toxins. Chapter 77: Neoplasms of the Head and Neck There is a discussion of changes in treatment methods for certain cancers such as the recent shift from surgery to combined chemotherapy with radiotherapy for tonsillar cancer, nasal and paranasal sinuses cancers and laryngeal cancer. Chapter 78: Lung Cancer Advances in diagnostic techniques are described such as ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration or electromagnetic navigation diagnostic bronchoscopy. Video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) discussion is updated. New sections are devoted to prognostic and predictive biomarkers.
Author: U. S. Preventive Services Task Force
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
A report on recommended clinical preventive services that should be provided to patients in the course of routine clinical care, including screening for vascular, neoplastic and infectious diseases, and metabolic, hematologic, ophthalmologic and ontologic, prenatal, and musculoskeletal disorders. Also, mental disorders and substance abuse, counseling, and immunizations/chemoprophylaxis. Tables.
Author: Anthony B. Miller
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Pub
Screening for cancer is an important focus of cancer control. Yet screening, as it involves administering a test to large segments of the population deemed to be at risk for the disease of interest, is potentially a major consumer of scarce health care resources. In addition, the benefits sought from cancer screening, particularly reduction in mortality from the disease, are not always realized, either for biological or organizational reasons. Thus, the paradigm that 'early detection must always be beneficial', taught to health care professionals, and publicized widely through the media to the public, has been challenged in the last two decades for a number of cancer sites. It is the purpose of Advances in Cancer Screening to determine the extent to which the requirements for the introduction of population-based screening programs have been met, as a result of extensive research on screening during the last two decades, with a major concentration on findings from the recent decade.
Author: R. Sankaranarayanan,J. Wahrendorf,E. Démaret
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
This directory is an annual compendium of current research in epidemiology. The 1994 edition (17th in the series) contains abstracts of the 1246 projects being carried out in over 80 countries, and reflects the huge range of epidemiological research into the distribution, causes, and prevention of cancer around the world. Each project is indexed in up to eight separate indexes, enabling rapid searches for current studies fitting almost any description. The eight indexes are: name of investigator(s); keywords; cancer site(s); study type (cohort, case-control, etc.); country; chemical exposure; occupational exposure; and cancer registry. The Directory also includes comprehensive lists of 261 population-based cancer registries and over 300 biological material banks, all available for collaboration in epidemiological research. The addresses, telephone and telex numbers of nearly 1000 principal investigators is provided to improve contact between research workers.
Setting Priorities with Limited Resources
Author: Paula Braveman,E. Tarimo
Establishes a framework and a method for assessing the place of screening programmes in primary health care and determining which programmes will be most likely to benefit patients and health services alike. Though the principles described can be used in any country, particular attention is given to the setting of priorities in situations where resources are extremely limited and choices must be carefully made. Some 97 different health problems and risk factors which might form the focus of screening programmes are critically assessed. The book has eight chapters. The first three examine a number of policies, principles, and widely held assumptions that arise when decisions are made about the value of screening programmes. Chapter one discusses the aims, requirements, and potential benefits of preventive screening within the context of primary health care. In chapter two, the authors establish seven criteria that can help planners and programme administrators decide whether screening will contribute to the aims of primary health care in a particular situation. Chapter three on the planning and implementation of services alerts readers to several important issues that frequently arise at the local level when screening services are implemented. Various proposals for mandatory HIV screening are used to illustrate legal and ethical issues. In a key achievement, chapter four sets out a method for the systematic assessment of screening programmes and the setting of priorities. Focused on the questions of why, who, how, and when, the method is intended to help decision-makers assess local conditions, think through resource needs for diagnosis and intervention as well as screening anticipate problems, and then select the most appropriate preventive option. Having established a framework for setting priorities, the remaining chapters issue recommendations for a large number of screening options of potential value in primary health care programmes. Separate chapters cover screening in maternal, reproductive and newborn health care, child health care, care to prevent communicable disease, and the health care of adults. Readers are also alerted to situations where screening constitutes a waste of resources where patients may be harmed, and where other preventive options should have first call on resources. The book concludes with a 25-page tabular summary of all screening options considered; the level of resources required for screening, diagnosis, and intervention; and the recommendations made.
A Clinical Approach
Author: Carole Bernstein Lewis,Jennifer M. Bottomley
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Provides the advanced applied science of normal & pathological aging, clinical problems, implications for therapeutic interventions, & considerations specific to the elderly.
A Clinical Approach
Author: Jennifer M. Bottomley,Carole Bernstein Lewis
Publisher: Appleton & Lange
Covers the special needs of the elderly in different health care settings. This book emphasizes a balance of theory, clinical application of knowledge, and clinical skills in caring for the older adult population, and focuses on the practical components for their comprehensive rehabilitation.
Author: Michele Leonardi Darby
Category: Dental hygiene
The testing resource of choice for dental hygienists, this textbook aids students in preparing for national, regional, and/or state dental hygiene board examinations; prepares licensed dental hygienists to reenter the profession; and assists dental hygiene educators in preparing and designing course lectures and outlines. 330 illus.