Author: Barry Dainton,Howard Robinson
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Featuring chapters on the latest developments in fifteen core subjects in analytic philosophy, The Bloomsbury Companion to Analytic Philosophy is an essential guide for all those working in the field today. Introducing its history and looking ahead to new research directions, this companion brings together a team of internationally renowned philosophers to explore the major concepts, thinkers and areas of inquiry in the analytic tradition With an extensive glossary, an annotated bibliography, a timeline of major events and publications, and a guide to further resources, this comprehensive companion is ideal for use on courses. Broken down into three parts, it covers: The history of analytic philosophy, from Frege, Moore and Russell to Wittgenstein, the Vienna Circle and beyond the more recent work of four influential American philosophers: Quine, Davidson, Putnam and Kripke Current analytic philosophy in action in subjects such as philosophy of mind and language, moral and political philosophy, metaphysics, epistemology and the philosophy of science, mathematics, perception, free will and personal identity Recent trends and developments such as the rise of specialisation and science, self-consciousness and analytic metaphysics Broaching the controversial question of what analytical philosophy is, explaining how it differs from Continental Philosophy and exploring the extent to which it in a state of crisis, The Bloomsbury Companion to Analytic Philosophy presents an authoritative introduction to the origins and future of Anglo-America's dominant philosophical tradition. Now available in paperback, this edition includes updated references and a chapter on Ethics and the problem of overdemandingnes.
Author: Jonathan Raper
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
The way people normally view a GIS is 2-dimensional, a greatly limiting form. However, as developments occur within the field, researchers and practitioners are finding ways to make a GIS 3-dimensional, and in some instances even 4-dimensional. Being able to view a GIS in more than 2 dimensions greatly enhances its usability. This forward-looking text, looks at the ways in which 3- and 4-dimensional (multidimensional) GIS can be incorporated into the area in the future using a variety of programming techniques. The author of this unique book also discusses current examples and uses of multidimensional GIS in the field and shows the way forward for users in the coming years.
The Growth of Scientific Knowledge
Author: Karl Popper
Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.
Author: Howard Robinson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Physicalism has over the past twenty years become almost an orthodoxy, especially in the philosophy of mind. Many philosophers, however, feel uneasy about this development, and this volume is intended as a collective response to it. Together these papers, written by philosophers from Britain,the United States, and Australasia, show that physicalism faces enormous problems in every area in which it is discussed. The contributors not only investigate the well-known difficulties that physicalism has in accommodating sensory consciousness, but also bring out its inadequacies in dealing with thought, intentionality, abstract objects (such as numbers), and principles of both theoretical and practical reason;even its ability to cope with the physical world itself is called into question. Both strong `reductionist' versions and weaker `supervenience' theories are discussed and found to face different but equally formidable obstacles. The impression with which these essays leave the reader is that the advance of physicalism has been achieved more by talking down the problems that face it than by solving them. Contributors: George Bealer, Peter Forrest, John Foster, Grant Gillett, Bob Hale, Michael Lockwood, George Myro, Nicholas Nathan, David Smith, Steven Wagner, Ralph Walker, Richard Warner
counting, thinking, and being
Author: John D. Barrow
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Discusses the history and nature of mathematics, describes the origins of counting, and looks at the individuals who have made important mathematical discoveries
A Pluralist Perspective
Author: Donatella Della Porta,Michael Keating
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Political Science
A revolutionary textbook introducing masters and doctoral students to the major research approaches and methodologies in the social sciences. Written by an outstanding set of scholars, and derived from successful course teaching, this volume will empower students to choose their own approach to research, to justify this approach, and to situate it within the discipline. It addresses questions of ontology, epistemology and philosophy of social science, and proceeds to issues of methodology and research design essential for producing a good research proposal. It also introduces researchers to the main issues of debate and contention in the methodology of social sciences, identifying commonalities, historic continuities and genuine differences.
50th Anniversary Edition
Author: Thomas S. Kuhn
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.
Author: Mark Colyvan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This introduction to the philosophy of mathematics focuses on contemporary debates in an important and central area of philosophy. The reader is taken on a fascinating and entertaining journey through some intriguing mathematical and philosophical territory, including such topics as the realism/anti-realism debate in mathematics, mathematical explanation, the limits of mathematics, the significance of mathematical notation, inconsistent mathematics and the applications of mathematics. Each chapter has a number of discussion questions and recommended further reading from both the contemporary literature and older sources. Very little mathematical background is assumed and all of the mathematics encountered is clearly introduced and explained using a wide variety of examples. The book is suitable for an undergraduate course in philosophy of mathematics and, more widely, for anyone interested in philosophy and mathematics.
with Selections from the Objections and Replies
Author: René Descartes
Publisher: OUP Oxford
'It is some years now since I realized how many false opinions I had accepted as true from childhood onwards...I saw that at some stage in my life the whole structure would have to be utterly demolished' In Descartes's Meditations, one of the key texts of Western philosophy, the thinker rejects all his former beliefs in the quest for new certainties. Discovering his own existence as a thinking entity in the very exercise of doubt, he goes on to prove the existence of God, who guarantees his clear and distinct ideas as a means of access to the truth. He develops new conceptions of body and mind, capable of serving as foundations for the new science of nature. Subsequent philosophy has grappled with Descartes's legacy, questioning many of its conclusions and even his basic approach, but his arguments set the agenda for many of the greatest philosophical thinkers, and their fascination endures. This new translation includes the Third and Fourth Objections and Replies in full, and a selection from the rest of these exchanges with Descartes's contemporaries that helped to expound his philosophy. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.
Author: David J. C. MacKay
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Fun and exciting textbook on the mathematics underpinning the most dynamic areas of modern science and engineering.
An Essay on Free Will
Author: David Foster Wallace
Publisher: Columbia University Press
In 1962, the philosopher Richard Taylor used six commonly accepted presuppositions to imply that human beings have no control over the future. David Foster Wallace not only took issue with Taylor's methods, but also noted a semantic trick at the heart of Taylor's argument. Fate, Time, and Language presents Wallace's critique of Taylor's work. Wallace's thesis reveals his great skepticism of abstract thinking made to function as a negation of something more genuine and real. He was especially suspicious of the cerebral aestheticism of modernism and the clever gimmickry of postmodernism, which abandoned "the very old traditional human verities that have to do with spirituality and emotion and community." As Wallace rises to meet the challenge to free will presented by Taylor, we witness the developing perspective of this major novelist and his struggle to establish logical ground for his convictions. This volume, edited by Steven M. Cahn and Maureen Eckert, reproduces Taylor's original article and other works on fatalism cited by Wallace. James Ryerson's introduction connects Wallace's early philosophical work to the themes and explorations of his later fiction, and Jay Garfield supplies a critical biographical epilogue.
Author: James D. Murray
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Mathematics has always benefited from its involvement with developing sciences. Each successive interaction revitalises and enhances the field. Biomedical science is clearly the premier science of the foreseeable future. For the continuing health of their subject mathematicians must become involved with biology. With the example of how mathematics has benefited from and influenced physics, it is clear that if mathematicians do not become involved in the biosciences they will simply not be a part of what are likely to be the most important and exciting scientific discoveries of all time. Mathematical biology is a fast growing, well recognised, albeit not clearly defined, subject and is, to my mind, the most exciting modern application of mathematics. The increasing use of mathematics in biology is inevitable as biol ogy becomes more quantitative. The complexity of the biological sciences makes interdisciplinary involvement essential. For the mathematician, biology opens up new and exciting branches while for the biologist mathematical modelling offers another research tool commmensurate with a new powerful laboratory technique but only if used appropriately and its limitations recognised. However, the use of esoteric mathematics arrogantly applied to biological problems by mathemati cians who know little about the real biology, together with unsubstantiated claims as to how important such theories are, does little to promote the interdisciplinary involvement which is so essential. Mathematical biology research, to be useful and interesting, must be relevant biologically.
An Introduction to Experimental Mathematics
Author: Jonathan Borwein,Keith Devlin
Publisher: CRC Press
Keith Devlin and Jonathan Borwein, two well-known mathematicians with expertise in different mathematical specialties but with a common interest in experimentation in mathematics, have joined forces to create this introduction to experimental mathematics. They cover a variety of topics and examples to give the reader a good sense of the current state of play in the rapidly growing new field of experimental mathematics. The writing is clear and the explanations are enhanced by relevant historical facts and stories of mathematicians and their encounters with the field over time.
Author: Thomas Hobbes
Publisher: Penguin UK
'The life of man, solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short' Written during the chaos of the English Civil War, Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan asks how, in a world of violence and horror, can we stop ourselves from descending into anarchy? Hobbes' case for a 'common-wealth' under a powerful sovereign - or 'Leviathan' - to enforce security and the rule of law, shocked his contemporaries, and his book was publicly burnt for sedition the moment it was published. But his penetrating work of political philosophy - now fully revised and with a new introduction for this edition - opened up questions about the nature of statecraft and society that influenced governments across the world. Edited with a new introduction by Christopher Brooke
Author: John von Neumann,Oskar Morgenstern
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Category: Business & Economics
First published in 1944, this book, co-written by an economist & a mathematician, conceived a groundbreaking theory of economic & social organisation based on a theory of games of strategy. The result was a revolution in economics & game theory has since emerged as a major tool of analysis in many other fields.
Author: Reuben Hersh
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Reflecting an insider's view of mathematical life, the author argues that mathematics must be historically evolved, and intelligible only in a social context.
Author: Patrick Juola,Stephen Ramsay
Scholars of all stripes are turning their attention to materials that represent enormous opportunities for the future of humanistic inquiry. The purpose of this book is to impart the concepts that underlie the mathematics they are likely to encounter and to unfold the notation in a way that removes that particular barrier completely. This book is a primer for developing the skills to enable humanist scholars to address complicated technical material with confidence. This book, to put it plainly, is concerned with the things that the author of a technical article knows, but isn't saying. Like any field, mathematics operates under a regime of shared assumptions, and it is our purpose to elucidate some of those assumptions for the newcomer. The individual subjects we tackle are (in order): logic and proof, discrete mathematics, abstract algebra, probability and statistics, calculus, and differential equations.
Author: James Mooney
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Category: Cherokee Indians
The sacred formulas here given are selected from a collection of about six hundred, obtained on the Cherokee reservation in North Carolina in 1887 and 1888, and covering every subject pertaining to the daily life and thought of the Indian, including medicine, love, hunting, fishing, war, self-protection, destruction of enemies, witchcraft, the crops, the council, the ball play, etc., and, in fact, embodying almost the whole of the ancient religion of the Cherokees. The original manuscripts, now in the possession of the Bureau of Ethnology, were written by the shamans of the tribe, for their own use, in the Cherokee characters invented by Sikw�ya (Sequoyah) in 1821, and were obtained, with the explanations, either from the writers themselves or from their surviving relatives.
Author: George Orwell
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
George Orwell’s 1984 takes on new life with extraordinary relevance and renewed popularity. “Orwell saw, to his credit, that the act of falsifying reality is only secondarily a way of changing perceptions. It is, above all, a way of asserting power.”—The New Yorker In 1984, London is a grim city in the totalitarian state of Oceania where Big Brother is always watching you and the Thought Police can practically read your mind. Winston Smith is a man in grave danger for the simple reason that his memory still functions. Drawn into a forbidden love affair, Winston finds the courage to join a secret revolutionary organization called The Brotherhood, dedicated to the destruction of the Party. Together with his beloved Julia, he hazards his life in a deadly match against the powers that be. Lionel Trilling said of Orwell’s masterpiece, “1984 is a profound, terrifying, and wholly fascinating book. It is a fantasy of the political future, and like any such fantasy, serves its author as a magnifying device for an examination of the present.” Though the year 1984 now exists in the past, Orwell’s novel remains an urgent call for the individual willing to speak truth to power.