Author: Mohamed Shahabuddeen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Although precedent in the International Court of Justice is not binding, the Court relies on its previous judgments as authoritative expressions of its views. In this book, Mohamed Shahabuddeen, a judge in the International Court of Justice, shows the extent to which the Court is guided by previous decisions, and how parties to cases themselves use the Court's decisions when framing and presenting their cases. He also traces the possibilities for future development of the system. Judge Shahabuddeen's analysis of the Court is a major contribution to this important subject.
Author: Marc Jacob
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Marc Jacob analyses in depth the most important justificatory and decision-making tool of one of the world's most powerful courts.
American Law and the New Global Realities
Author: Stephen Breyer
"In this original, far-reaching, and timely book, Justice Stephen Breyer examines the work of the Supreme Court of the United States in an increasingly interconnected world, a world in which all sorts of activity, both public and private--from the conduct of national security policy to the conduct of international trade--obliges the Court to understand and consider circumstances beyond America's borders. It is a world of instant communications, lightning-fast commerce, and shared problems (like public health threats and environmental degradation), and it is one in which the lives of Americans are routinely linked ever more pervasively to those of people in foreign lands. Indeed, at a moment when anyone may engage in direct transactions internationally for services previously bought and sold only locally (lodging, for instance, through online sites), it has become clear that, even in ordinary matters, judicial awareness can no longer stop at the water's edge. To trace how foreign considerations have come to inform the thinking of the Court, Justice Breyer begins with that area of the law in which they have always figured prominently: national security in its constitutional dimension--how should the Court balance this imperative with others, chiefly the protection of basic liberties, in its review of presidential and congressional actions? He goes on to show that as the world has grown steadily "smaller," the Court's horizons have inevitably expanded: it has been obliged to consider a great many more matters that now cross borders. What is the geographical reach of an American statute concerning, say, securities fraud, antitrust violations, or copyright protections? And in deciding such matters, can the Court interpret American laws so that they might work more efficiently with similar laws in other nations? While Americans must necessarily determine their own laws through democratic process, increasingly, the smooth operation of American law--and, by extension, the advancement of American interests and values--depends on its working in harmony with that of other jurisdictions. Justice Breyer describes how the aim of cultivating such harmony, as well as the expansion of the rule of law overall, with its attendant benefits, has drawn American jurists into the relatively new role of "constitutional diplomats," a little remarked but increasingly important job for them in this fast-changing world."--Publisher's description.
Its Role in the Maintenance of International Peace and Security
Author: Oliver James Lissitzyn
Publisher: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.
A successor to the League of Nation's Permanent Court of International Justice, the International Court of Justice was established in 1946 by the United Nations. Written during its early years, this incisive study outlines how the court functioned as an "instrument for the maintenance of international peace and security" and how it may function in the future. Though skeptical that the court would be a powerful institution, Lissitzyn believed its rulings would have a modest but notable effect on the development of international law. Long out of print, this essay was originally published in the Carnegie series United Nations Studies.
Author: Emmanuel Gaillard,Yas Banifatemi,International Arbitration Institute
Publisher: Juris Publishing, Inc.
IAI Series No. 5 The International Arbitration Institute (IAI) series on international arbitration is a new periodic series of publications that will focus on cutting edge issues and developments in international arbitration. About the IAI: The International Arbitration Institute (IAI), an organization created under the auspices of the Comite Francais de l'Arbitrage (CFA), was created to promote exchanges international arbitration. The IAI is designed to promote exchanges on current issues in the field of international commercial arbitration. Its activities include the regular organization of international conferences, colloquiums, as well as conducting various research projects. About the book: Arbitrators routinely refer in their decisions to awards rendered by other arbitral tribunals that deal with the same issues. However natural it may seem to arbitrators and to parties who will refer to arbitral precedents in an attempt to support their position, such an approach raises many practical and theoretical questions: Is there such a thing as arbitral precedent? What weight should arbitrators give to decisions previously rendered by other arbitral tribunals? Can arbitral "case law" exist without consistency? Does such consistency exist? Is it necessary or simply desirable? What is the respective weight to be given to arbitral and national case law when arbitrators have to decide a case in accordance with a given law? These are some of the questions that this book explores, in the context of both international commercial arbitration and investment arbitration.
Author: Gleider I Hernández
Publisher: OUP Oxford
This book evaluates the concept of the function of law through the prism of the International Court of Justice. It goes beyond a conventional analysis of the Court's case law and applicable law, to consider the compromise between supranational order and state sovereignty that lies at the heart of its institutional design. It argues that this compromise prevents the Court from playing a progressive role in the development of international law. Instead, it influences the international legal order in more subtle ways, in particular, in shaping understanding of the nature or form of the international legal order as a whole. The book concludes that the role of the Court is not to advance some universal conception of international law but rather to decide the cases before it in the best possible way within its institutional limits, while remaining aware of law's deeper theoretical foundations. The book considers three key elements: firstly, it examines the historical aspects of the Court's constitutive Statute, and the manner in which it defines its judicial character. Secondly, it considers the drafting process, the function of a dissenting opinion, and the role of the individual judge, in an attempt to discern insights on the function of the Court. Finally, the book examines the Court's practice in regard to three conceptual issues which assist in understanding the Court's function: its theory of precedent; its definition of the 'international community'; and its theory on the completeness of the international legal order.
Author: Gleider Hernandez
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The International Court of Justice embodies a compromise between ideas of state sovereignty and pressures for a stronger 'international community'. This book elaborates on the Court's role in the international legal system, and argues that as a result of this tension, the Court's contribution to international law is subtle rather than progressive.
Author: Curtis A. Bradley
Publisher: Oxford University Press
International Law in the U.S. Legal System provides a wide-ranging overview of how international law intersects with the domestic legal system within the United States, and points out various unresolved issues and areas of controversy. Curtis Bradley covers all of the principal forms of international law: treaties, decisions and orders of international institutions, customary international law, and jus cogens norms. He also explores a number of issues that are implicated by the intersection of U.S. law and international law, such as foreign sovereign immunity, international human rights litigation, war powers, extradition, and extraterritoriality. This book highlights recent decisions and events relating to the topic (including decisions and events arising out of the war on terrorism), while also taking into account relevant historical materials, including materials relating to the U.S. Constitutional founding. Written by one of the most cited international law scholars in the United States, the book is a resource for lawyers, law students, legal scholars, and judges from around the world.
Practice and Procedure
Author: David Palmeter,Petros C. Mavroidis
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Business & Economics
Any experienced lawyer knows that cases are most often won or lost on procedural grounds; yet procedural issues are often considered too technical for proper treatment in legal literature. In this extensively revised 2004 edition of Palmeter and Mavroidis' authoritative book on WTO dispute settlement, the authors discuss all WTO dispute settlement provisions and their interpretation in WTO jurisprudence. All the decisions of panels and the Appellate Body are discussed, from the inception of the WTO in 1995 until the end of May 2003. Although the book contains considerable technical expertise, it is at the same time written for accessibility to a wide readership. This volume - an essential tool for practitioners, diplomats and government lawyers - is a comprehensive study of compulsory third party adjudication in international law.
Author: Thomas G. Hansford,James F. Spriggs
Publisher: Princeton University Press
The Politics of Precedent on the U.S. Supreme Court offers an insightful and provocative analysis of the Supreme Court's most important task--shaping the law. Thomas Hansford and James Spriggs analyze a key aspect of legal change: the Court's interpretation or treatment of the precedents it has set in the past. Court decisions do not just resolve immediate disputes; they also set broader precedent. The meaning and scope of a precedent, however, can change significantly as the Court revisits it in future cases. The authors contend that these interpretations are driven by an interaction between policy goals and variations in the legal authoritativeness of precedent. From this premise, they build an explanation of the legal interpretation of precedent that yields novel predictions about the nature and timing of legal change. Hansford and Spriggs test their hypotheses by examining how the Court has interpreted the precedents it set between 1946 and 1999. This analysis provides compelling support for their argument, and demonstrates that the justices' ideological goals and the role of precedent are inextricably linked. The two prevailing, yet contradictory, views of precedent--that it acts either solely as a constraint, or as a "cloak" that never actually influences the Court--are incorrect. This book shows that while precedent can operate as a constraint on the justices' decisions, it also represents an opportunity to foster preferred societal outcomes.
Author: James Crawford,Sarah Nouwen
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
This book continues the series Select Proceedings of the European Society of International Law, containing the proceedings of the Fourth Biennial Conference organised by ESIL and the University of Cambridge in 2010. The title of the conference was 'International Law 1989-2010: A Performance Appraisal'. The highlights, selected for publication in this volume, cover a wide spectrum of topics in international law.
Impacts on International Law
Author: Edgardo Sobenes Obregon,Benjamin Samson
This book analyses Nicaragua's role in the development of international law, through its participation in cases that have come before the International Court of Justice. Nicaragua has appeared before the ICJ in fourteen cases, either as an applicant, respondent or intervening State, thus setting an important example of committment to the peaceful judicial settlement of disputes. The “Nicaraguan” cases have enabled the ICJ to take positions on and clarify a whole range of important procedural, jurisdictional and substantive legal issues, which have inspired the jurisprudence of international and regional courts and tribunals and influenced the development of international law. The book focuses on reviewing Nicaragua's cases before the ICJ, using a thematic approach to identify their impact on international law. Each chapter includes a discussion of the relevant cases on a particular theme and their impact over time on general as well as specific branches of international law, notably through their use as precedent by other international and regional courts and tribunals.
Chief Justice John Marshall and His Times
Author: Joel Richard Paul
The remarkable story of John Marshall who, as chief justice, statesman, and diplomat, played a pivotal role in the founding of the United States. No member of America's Founding Generation had a greater impact on the Constitution and the Supreme Court than John Marshall, and no one did more to preserve the delicate unity of the fledgling United States. From the nation's founding in 1776 and for the next forty years, Marshall was at the center of every political battle. As Chief Justice of the United States - the longest-serving in history - he established the independence of the judiciary and the supremacy of the federal Constitution and courts. As the leading Federalist in Virginia, he rivaled his cousin Thomas Jefferson in influence. As a diplomat and secretary of state, he defended American sovereignty against France and Britain, counseled President John Adams, and supervised the construction of the city of Washington. D.C. This is the astonishing true story of how a rough-cut frontiersman - born in Virginia in 1755 and with little formal education - invented himself as one of the nation's preeminent lawyers and politicians who then reinvented the Constitution to forge a stronger nation. Without Precedent is the engrossing account of the life and times of this exceptional man, who with cunning, imagination, and grace shaped America's future as he held together the Supreme Court, the Constitution, and the country itself.
Author: Hugh Thirlway
Publisher: OUP Oxford
In recent years States have made more and more extensive use of the International Court of Justice for the judicial settlement of disputes. Despite being declared by the Courts Statute to have no binding force for States other than the parties to the case, its decisions have come to constitute a body of jurisprudence that is frequently invoked in other disputes, in international negotiation, and in academic writing. This jurisprudence, covering a wide range of aspects of international law, is the subject of considerable ongoing academic examination; it needs however to be seen against the background, and in the light, of the Courts structure, jurisdiction and operation, and the principles applied in these domains. The purpose of this book is thus to provide an accessible and comprehensive study of this aspect of the Court, and in particular of its procedure, written by a scholar who has had unique opportunities of close observation of the Court in action. This distillation of direct experience and expertise makes it essential reading for all those who study, teach or practise international law.
A Theory of Precedent
Author: Randy J. Kozel
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
In this timely book, Randy J. Kozel develops a theory of precedent designed to enhance the stability and impersonality of constitutional law. Kozel contends that the prevailing approach to precedent in American law is undermined by principled disagreements among judges over the proper means and ends of constitutional interpretation. The structure and composition of the doctrine all but guarantee that conclusions about the durability of precedent will track individual views about whether decisions are right or wrong, and whether mistakes are harmful or benign. This is a serious challenge, but it also reveals a path toward maintaining legal continuity even as judges come and go. Kozel's account of precedent should be read by anyone interested in the nature of the judicial role and the trajectory of constitutional law.
Author: Tania Groppi,Marie-Claire Ponthoreau
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
In 2007 the International Association of Constitutional Law established an Interest Group on 'The Use of Foreign Precedents by Constitutional Judges' to conduct a survey of the use of foreign precedents by Supreme and Constitutional Courts in deciding constitutional cases. Its purpose was to determine - through empirical analysis employing both quantitative and qualitative indicators - the extent to which foreign case law is cited. The survey aimed to test the reliability of studies describing and reporting instances of transjudicial communication between Courts. The research also provides useful insights into the extent to which a progressive constitutional convergence may be taking place between common law and civil law traditions. The present work includes studies by scholars from African, American, Asian, European, Latin American and Oceania countries, representing jurisdictions belonging to both common law and civil law traditions, and countries employing both centralised and decentralised systems of judicial review. The results, published here for the first time, give us the best evidence yet of the existence and limits of a transnational constitutional communication between courts.
Bringing Theory into Practice
Author: Zachary Douglas,Joost Pauwelyn,Jorge E. Viñuales
Publisher: OUP Oxford
International investment law is one of the fastest growing areas of international law. It has led to the signing of thousands of agreements, mostly in the form of investment contracts and bilateral investment treaties. Also, in the last two decades, there has been an exponential growth in the number of disputes being resolved by investment arbitration tribunals. Yet the legal principles at the basis of international investment law and arbitration remain in a state of flux. Perhaps the best illustration of this phenomenon is the wide disagreement among investment tribunals on some of the core concepts underpinning the regime, such as investment, property, regulatory powers, scope of jurisdiction, applicable law, or the interactions with other areas of international law. The purpose of this book is to revisit these conceptual foundations in order to shed light on the practice of international investment law. It is an attempt to bridge the growing gap between the theory and the practice of this thriving area of international law. The first part of the book focuses on the 'infrastructure' of the investment regime or, more specifically, on the structural arrangements that have been developed to manage foreign investment transactions and the potential disputes arising from them. The second part of the book identifies the common conceptual bases of an array of seemingly unconnected practical problems in order to clarify the main stakes and offer balanced solutions. The third part addresses the main sources of 'regime stress' as well as the main legal mechanisms available to manage such challenges to the operation of the regime. Overall, the book offers a thorough investigation of the conflicting theoretical positions underlying international investment law, testing their worth by reference to concrete issues that have arisen in the jurisprudence. It demonstrates that many of the most important practical questions arising in practice can be addressed by a carefully dosed resort to theory.
The Declaration of Independence, the Advisory Opinion and Implications for Statehood, Self-Determination and Minority Rights
Author: James Summers
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
This book brings together leading scholars to consider the legal impact of the precedent set by Kosovo’s 2008 declaration of independence and its consequences for statehood, self-determination and minority rights.
Author: Fulvio Maria Palombino
This book moves from the circumstance whereby currently the obligation to provide fair and equitable treatment (FET) to foreign investments is included in the majority of international investment agreements and has proved to be the most invoked standard in investor-State arbitration. Hence, it is no overstatement to describe this standard as the basic norm of international investment law. Yet both its meaning and normative basis continue to be shrouded in ambiguity and, as a consequence, to inspire a considerable number of interpretations by legal writers. The book’s precise aim is to unravel such ambiguity, arguing from the idea that FET has become part of the fabric of general international law, but has done so by means of a source somewhat neglected in legal doctrine. This being the category of general principles peculiar to a certain field of international law, i.e. those principles having their own foundations in the international legal order itself, but which, through the mediation of the judge, end up being shaped according to the features typical of a specific normative field. The book, as well as having a solid theoretical backdrop as its basis, offers a careful and critical analysis of pertinent case law, and will prove useful to both scholars and practitioners. Fulvio Maria Palombino is Professor of International Law at the Law Department of the University of Naples Federico II and a member of the Executive Board of the European Society of International Law.