Author: R. McNeill Alexander

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400849519

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 7767

How can geckoes walk on the ceiling and basilisk lizards run over water? What are the aerodynamic effects that enable small insects to fly? What are the relative merits of squids' jet-propelled swimming and fishes' tail-powered swimming? Why do horses change gait as they increase speed? What determines our own vertical leap? Recent technical advances have greatly increased researchers' ability to answer these questions with certainty and in detail. This text provides an up-to-date overview of how animals run, walk, jump, crawl, swim, soar, hover, and fly. Excluding only the tiny creatures that use cilia, it covers all animals that power their movements with muscle--from roundworms to whales, clams to elephants, and gnats to albatrosses. The introduction sets out the general rules governing all modes of animal locomotion and considers the performance criteria--such as speed, endurance, and economy--that have shaped their selection. It introduces energetics and optimality as basic principles. The text then tackles each of the major modes by which animals move on land, in water, and through air. It explains the mechanisms involved and the physical and biological forces shaping those mechanisms, paying particular attention to energy costs. Focusing on general principles but extensively discussing a wide variety of individual cases, this is a superb synthesis of current knowledge about animal locomotion. It will be enormously useful to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and a range of professional biologists, physicists, and engineers.
Read More

Author: R. McNeill Alexander

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691086781

Category: Science

Page: 371

View: 1352

How can geckoes walk on the ceiling and basilisk lizards run over water? What are the aerodynamic effects that enable small insects to fly? What are the relative merits of squids' jet-propelled swimming and fishes' tail-powered swimming? Why do horses change gait as they increase speed? What determines our own vertical leap? Recent technical advances have greatly increased researchers' ability to answer these questions with certainty and in detail. This text provides an up-to-date overview of how animals run, walk, jump, crawl, swim, soar, hover, and fly. Excluding only the tiny creatures that use cilia, it covers all animals that power their movements with muscle--from roundworms to whales, clams to elephants, and gnats to albatrosses. The introduction sets out the general rules governing all modes of animal locomotion and considers the performance criteria--such as speed, endurance, and economy--that have shaped their selection. It introduces energetics and optimality as basic principles. The text then tackles each of the major modes by which animals move on land, in water, and through air. It explains the mechanisms involved and the physical and biological forces shaping those mechanisms, paying particular attention to energy costs. Focusing on general principles but extensively discussing a wide variety of individual cases, this is a superb synthesis of current knowledge about animal locomotion. It will be enormously useful to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and a range of professional biologists, physicists, and engineers.
Read More

Author: R. McNeill Alexander

Publisher: Taylor & Francis US

ISBN: 9780691086781

Category: Science

Page: 371

View: 1796

How can geckoes walk on the ceiling and basilisk lizards run over water? What are the aerodynamic effects that enable small insects to fly? What are the relative merits of squids' jet-propelled swimming and fishes' tail-powered swimming? Why do horses change gait as they increase speed? What determines our own vertical leap? Recent technical advances have greatly increased researchers' ability to answer these questions with certainty and in detail. This text provides an up-to-date overview of how animals run, walk, jump, crawl, swim, soar, hover, and fly. Excluding only the tiny creatures that use cilia, it covers all animals that power their movements with muscle--from roundworms to whales, clams to elephants, and gnats to albatrosses. The introduction sets out the general rules governing all modes of animal locomotion and considers the performance criteria--such as speed, endurance, and economy--that have shaped their selection. It introduces energetics and optimality as basic principles. The text then tackles each of the major modes by which animals move on land, in water, and through air. It explains the mechanisms involved and the physical and biological forces shaping those mechanisms, paying particular attention to energy costs. Focusing on general principles but extensively discussing a wide variety of individual cases, this is a superb synthesis of current knowledge about animal locomotion. It will be enormously useful to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and a range of professional biologists, physicists, and engineers.
Read More

Physical Principles and Adaptations

Author: Malcolm S. Gordon,Reinhard Blickhan,John O. Dabiri,John J. Videler

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351966200

Category: Medical

Page: 267

View: 4431

Animal Locomotion: Physical Principles and Adaptations is a professional-level, state of the art review and reference summarizing the current understanding of macroscopic metazoan animal movement. The comparative biophysics, biomechanics and bioengineering of swimming, flying and terrestrial locomotion are placed in contemporary frameworks of biodiversity, evolutionary process, and modern research methods, including mathematical analysis. The intended primary audience is advanced-level students and researchers primarily interested in and trained in mathematics, physical sciences and engineering. Although not encyclopedic in its coverage, anyone interested in organismal biology, functional morphology, organ systems and ecological physiology, physiological ecology, molecular biology, molecular genetics and systems biology should find this book useful.
Read More

Author: Graham Taylor,Michael S. Triantafyllou,Cameron Tropea

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642116339

Category: Science

Page: 443

View: 8532

The physical principles of swimming and flying in animals are intriguingly different from those of ships and airplanes. The study of animal locomotion therefore holds a special place not only at the frontiers of pure fluid dynamics research, but also in the applied field of biomimetics, which aims to emulate salient aspects of the performance and function of living organisms. For example, fluid dynamic loads are so significant for swimming fish that they are expected to have developed efficient flow control procedures through the evolutionary process of adaptation by natural selection, which might in turn be applied to the design of robotic swimmers. And yet, sharply contrasting views as to the energetic efficiency of oscillatory propulsion – especially for marine animals – demand a careful assessment of the forces and energy expended at realistic Reynolds numbers. For this and many other research questions, an experimental approach is often the most appropriate methodology. This holds as much for flying animals as it does for swimming ones, and similar experimental challenges apply – studying tethered as opposed to free locomotion, or studying the flow around robotic models as opposed to real animals. This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them.
Read More

Text with Translation, Commentary, and Interpretive Essays

Author: Aristotle,Martha Craven Nussbaum

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691020353

Category: Philosophy

Page: 430

View: 7955

The aim of this book is to ask through a study of one of his most complicated treatises on explanation, how far, and in what sense, the demands of the 'scientific person' are Aristotle's.
Read More

Models, Concepts, Control and Applications

Author: Maziar Ahmad Sharbafi,André Seyfarth

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: 0128037741

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 638

View: 5346

Bioinspired Legged Locomotion: Models, Concepts, Control and Applications explores the universe of legged robots, bringing in perspectives from engineering, biology, motion science, and medicine to provide a comprehensive overview of the field. With comprehensive coverage, each chapter brings outlines, and an abstract, introduction, new developments, and a summary. Beginning with bio-inspired locomotion concepts, the book's editors present a thorough review of current literature that is followed by a more detailed view of bouncing, swinging, and balancing, the three fundamental sub functions of locomotion. This part is closed with a presentation of conceptual models for locomotion. Next, the book explores bio-inspired body design, discussing the concepts of motion control, stability, efficiency, and robustness. The morphology of legged robots follows this discussion, including biped and quadruped designs. Finally, a section on high-level control and applications discusses neuromuscular models, closing the book with examples of applications and discussions of performance, efficiency, and robustness. At the end, the editors share their perspective on the future directions of each area, presenting state-of-the-art knowledge on the subject using a structured and consistent approach that will help researchers in both academia and industry formulate a better understanding of bioinspired legged robotic locomotion and quickly apply the concepts in research or products. Presents state-of-the-art control approaches with biological relevance Provides a thorough understanding of the principles of organization of biological locomotion Teaches the organization of complex systems based on low-dimensional motion concepts/control Acts as a guideline reference for future robots/assistive devices with legged architecture Includes a selective bibliography on the most relevant published articles
Read More

Author: Andrew A. Biewener

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198500223

Category: Science

Page: 281

View: 2914

This work provides a clear foundation for understanding the underlying mechanisms by which animals have evolved to move in their physical environment. It integrates the biomechanics of animal movement with the physiology of animal energetics and the neural control of locomotion.
Read More

Author: Eadweard Muybridge

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486129993

Category: Art

Page: 416

View: 4399

More than 4,000 photographs in series and stopped action of horses, cats, lions, deer, kangaroos, etc. Indispensable for animal artists. Classic of 19th-century photography. "Impressive and valuable collection." — Scientific American.
Read More

Author: Aristotle

Publisher: Charles River Editors via PublishDrive

ISBN: 1531266584

Category: Philosophy

Page: 33

View: 2470

Aristotle was an ancient Greek philosopher who was largely responsible for shaping Western philosophy as it is known today. Aristotle, who was one of Plato’s students and would later tutor Alexander the Great, was also regarded as the world’s first scientist and his many writings are still revered today. This edition of On the Gait of Animals includes a table of contents.
Read More

Animal locomotion and design concepts for animators

Author: Michael D. Mattesi

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1136131736

Category: Art

Page: 237

View: 6327

Many artists are unsure how to bridge the gap between the many basic 'how to draw' books and the more advanced ones dealing with the esoteric details of composition, perspective and anatomy. Force: Animal Drawing is the comprehensive guide to developing artistic animals that are creative, dynamic and anatomical, bridging the gap between foundational art and advanced techniques. Artists and animators alike all find animal inspiration when animating characters- be they human or inhuman. For a unique 'larger than life' character, readers will learn to apply the unique facets of animal movement, locomotion, expressions, facial features, physical build and personality to their traditional and digital art. Readers will also adapt key industry tricks and techniques to personify animal animations with key characteristics of a human's face. Explore the practical application of force theories and learn from today's leading character designers with the included artist interviews and an extended video tutorial via www.drawingforce.com.
Read More

Author: Hiroshi Kimura,Kazuo Tsuchiya,Akio Ishiguro,Hartmut Witt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 4431313818

Category: Computers

Page: 298

View: 9489

• Motivation It is our dream to understand the principles of animals’ remarkable ability for adaptive motion and to transfer such abilities to a robot. Up to now, mechanisms for generation and control of stereotyped motions and adaptive motions in well-known simple environments have been formulated to some extentandsuccessfullyappliedtorobots.However,principlesofadaptationto variousenvironmentshavenotyetbeenclari?ed,andautonomousadaptation remains unsolved as a seriously di?cult problem in robotics. Apparently, the ability of animals and robots to adapt in a real world cannot be explained or realized by one single function in a control system and mechanism. That is, adaptation in motion is induced at every level from thecentralnervoussystemtothemusculoskeletalsystem.Thus,weorganized the International Symposium on Adaptive Motion in Animals and Machines(AMAM)forscientistsandengineersconcernedwithadaptation onvariouslevelstobebroughttogethertodiscussprinciplesateachleveland to investigate principles governing total systems. • History AMAM started in Montreal (Canada) in August 2000. It was organized by H. Kimura (Japan), H. Witte (Germany), G. Taga (Japan), and K. Osuka (Japan), who had agreed that having a small symposium on motion control, with people from several ?elds coming together to discuss speci?c issues, was worthwhile. Those four organizing committee members determined the scope of AMAM as follows.
Read More

Author: R. McNeill Alexander

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691027982

Category: Mathematics

Page: 169

View: 8573

Optimization theory is designed to find the best ways of doing things. The structures of animals, their movements, their behavior, and their life histories have all been shaped by the optimizing processes of evolution or of learning by trial and error. In this revised edition of R. McNeil Alexander's widely acclaimed Optima for Animals, we see how extraordinarily diverse branches of biology are illuminated by the powerful methods of optimization theory. The mathematics involved is explained very simply, with biology students in mind, but the book is not just for them. It is also for professionals, ranging from teachers to researchers.
Read More

Author: N.A

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642766954

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 1242

GeoffGoldspink and I edited a book, Mechanics and Energetics of Animal Locomotion, which was published by Chapman and Hall in 1977. It dealt at an advanced level with all aspects of animal locomotion, emphasizing particularly the topics of then current research. Since then there have been more elementary books on the subject, including my own Locomotion of Animals (Blackie 1982), and specialized books on such topics as swimming and flight, but (despite very substantial progress in research) there has been no advanced book covering the whole range of animal locomotion. It seemed to me and to Professor Gilles (editor ofthis series) that a new book was needed. Plainly, a book of this length cannot contain everything that is known about animal locomotion. We have not attempted to make it encyclopedic, but have tried to show where the study of animal locomotion stands now, and where it is going. Older books remain useful as sources of long-established information.
Read More

Author: Robert Alexander

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401160090

Category: Science

Page: 163

View: 8812

This book is about how animals travel around on land, in water and in the air. It is mainly about mechanisms of locomotion, their limitations and their energy requirements. There is some information about muscle physiology in Chapter 1, but only as much as seems necessary for the discussions of mechanisms and energetics. There is information in later chapters about the patterns of repetitive movement involved, for instance, in different gaits, but nothing about nervous mechanisms of coordination. I have tried to include most ofthe widely-used methods of locomotion, but have not thought it sensible to try to mention every variety of locomotion used by animals. This book is designed for undergraduates, but I hope that other people will also find it interesting. It is possible and sometimes illuminating to use complex mathematics in discussions of animal locomotion. This book includes many equations, but little mathematics. Such mathematics as there is, is simple. Discussions of the mechanisms and energetics of locomotion inevitably involve mechanics. I expect that some readers will know a lot of mechanics, and some hardly any. I have tried to help the latter without boring the former, by putting a summary of the necessary mechanics in an appendix (p. 140). References from the main text to the appendix will tell readers where they can find help, if they need it. Figures and equations in the appendix have numbers distinguished by a prefix A (for instance, Figure A.3).
Read More

Structure and Mechanics

Author: John D. Currey

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400849500

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 2382

This is a comprehensive and accessible overview of what is known about the structure and mechanics of bone, bones, and teeth. In it, John Currey incorporates critical new concepts and findings from the two decades of research since the publication of his highly regarded The Mechanical Adaptations of Bones. Crucially, Currey shows how bone structure and bone's mechanical properties are intimately bound up with each other and how the mechanical properties of the material interact with the structure of whole bones to produce an adapted structure. For bone tissue, the book discusses stiffness, strength, viscoelasticity, fatigue, and fracture mechanics properties. For whole bones, subjects dealt with include buckling, the optimum hollowness of long bones, impact fracture, and properties of cancellous bone. The effects of mineralization on stiffness and toughness and the role of microcracking in the fracture process receive particular attention. As a zoologist, Currey views bone and bones as solutions to the design problems that vertebrates have faced during their evolution and throughout the book considers what bones have been adapted to do. He covers the full range of bones and bony tissues, as well as dentin and enamel, and uses both human and non-human examples. Copiously illustrated, engagingly written, and assuming little in the way of prior knowledge or mathematical background, Bones is both an ideal introduction to the field and also a reference sure to be frequently consulted by practicing researchers.
Read More

Author: Peter Bentley

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 9781558606050

Category: Computers

Page: 446

View: 9280

Some of the most startling achievements in the use of computers to automate design are being accomplished by the use of evolutionary search algorithms to evolve designs. Evolutionary Design By Computers provides a showcase of the best and most original work of the leading international experts in Evolutionary Computation, Engineering Design, Computer Art, and Artificial Life. By bringing together the highest achievers in these fields for the first time, including a foreword by Richard Dawkins, this book provides the definitive coverage of significant developments in Evolutionary Design. This book explores related sub-areas of Evolutionary Design, including: * design optimization * creative design * the creation of art * artificial life. It shows for the first time how techniques in each area overlap, and promotes the cross-fertilization of ideas and methods. A CD-ROM is included with the book, providing the reader with hands-on activities, evolved images, animations, and source-code related to the text. Evolutionary Design By Computers will be an essential resource for researchers in academia and industry.
Read More

Author: Robert RH Anholt,Trudy F. C. Mackay

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080919898

Category: Psychology

Page: 334

View: 2325

Principles of Behavioral Genetics provides an introduction to the fascinating science that aims to understand how our genes determine what makes us tick. It presents a comprehensive overview of the relationship between genes, brain, and behavior. Introductory chapters give clear explanations of basic processes of the nervous system and fundamental principles of genetics of complex traits without excessive statistical jargon. Individual chapters describe the genetics of social interactions, olfaction and taste, memory and learning, circadian behavior, locomotion, sleep, and addiction, as well as the evolution of behavior. Whereas the focus is on genetics, neurobiological and ecological aspects are also included to provide intellectual breadth. The book uses examples that span the gamut from classical model organisms to non-model systems and human biology, and include both laboratory and field studies. Samples of historical information accentuate the text to provide the reader with an appreciation of the history of the field. This book will be a valuable resource for future generations of scientists who focus on the field of behavioral genetics. Defines the emerging science of behavioral genetics Engagingly written by two leading experts in behavioral genetics Clear explanations of basic quantitative genetic, neurogenetic and genomic applications to the study of behavior Numerous examples ranging from model organisms to non-model systems and humans Concise overviews and summaries for each chapter
Read More

Author: McDowell Lyon

Publisher: Dogwise Publishing

ISBN: 1617811270

Category: Animal locomotion

Page: 288

View: 4198

Read More