Medicinal Chemistry and Synthesis
Author: Larry Yet
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
A comprehensive guide to privileged structures and their application in the discovery of new drugs The use of privileged structures is a viable strategy in the discovery of new medicines at the lead optimization stages of the drug discovery process. Privileged Structures in Drug Discovery offers a comprehensive text that reviews privileged structures from the point of view of medicinal chemistry and contains the synthetic routes to these structures. In this text, the author—a noted expert in the field—includes an historical perspective on the topic, presents a practical compendium to privileged structures, and offers an informed perspective on the future direction for the field. The book describes the up-to-date and state-of-the-art methods of organic synthesis that describe the use of privileged structures that are of most interest. Chapters included information on benzodiazepines, 1,4-dihydropyridines, biaryls, 4-(hetero)arylpiperidines, spiropiperidines, 2-aminopyrimidines, 2-aminothiazoles, 2-(hetero)arylindoles, tetrahydroisoquinolines, 2,2-dimethylbenzopyrans, hydroxamates, and bicyclic pyridines containing ring-junction nitrogen as privileged scaffolds in medicinal chemistry. Numerous, illustrative case studies document the current use of the privileged structures in the discovery of drugs. This important volume: Describes the drug compounds that have successfully made it to the marketplace and the chemistry associated with them Offers the experience from an author who has worked in many therapeutic areas of medicinal chemistry Details many of the recent developments in organic chemistry that prepare target molecules Includes a wealth of medicinal chemistry case studies that clearly illustrate the use of privileged structures Designed for use by industrial medicinal chemists and process chemists, academic organic and medicinal chemists, as well as chemistry students and faculty, Privileged Structures in Drug Discovery offers a current guide to organic synthesis methods to access the privileged structures of interest, and contains medicinal chemistry case studies that document their application.
Design, Synthesis, Evaluation
Author: Stefan Bräse
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
One strategy to expedite the discovery of new drugs, a process that is somewhat slow and serendipitous, is the identification and use of privileged scaffolds. This book covers the history of the discovery and use of privileged scaffolds and addresses the various classes of these important molecular fragments. The first of the benzodiazepines, a class of drugs that is powerful for treating anxiety, may not have been discovered had it not been for a chance experiment on the contents of a discarded flask found during a lab clean-up. Some years later, scientists discovered that benzodiazepine derivatives were also effective in treating other diseases. This class of molecules was the first to be described as privileged in the sense that it is especially effective at altering the course of disease. Other privileged molecular structures have since been discovered, and since these compounds are so effective at interacting with numerous classes of proteins, they may be an effective starting point to look for new drugs against the supposedly “undruggable” proteins. Following introductory chapters presenting an overview, a historical perspective and the theoretical background and findings, main chapters describe the structure of privileged structures in turn and discuss major drug classes associated with them and their syntheses. This book provides comprehensive coverage of the subject through chapters contributed by expert authors from both academia and industry and will be an excellent reference source for medicinal chemists of a range of disciplines and experiences.
Author: Stephen Hanessian
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The inspiration provided by biologically active natural products to conceive of hybrids, congeners, analogs and unnatural variants is discussed by experts in the field in 16 highly informative chapters. Using well-documented studies over the past decade, this timely monograph demonstrates the current importance and future potential of natural products as starting points for the development of new drugs with improved properties over their progenitors. The examples are chosen so as to represent a wide range of natural products with therapeutic relevance among others, as anticancer agents, antimicrobials, antifungals, antisense nucleosides, antidiabetics, and analgesics. From the content: * Part I: Natural Products as Sources of Potential Drugs and Systematic Compound Collections * Part II: From Marketed Drugs to Designed Analogs and Clinical Candidates * Part III: Natural Products as an Incentive for Enabling Technologies * Part IV: Natural Products as Pharmacological Tools * Part V: Nature: The Provider, the Enticer, and the Healer
Author: Richard B. Silverman,Mark W. Holladay
Publisher: Academic Press
The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action, Third Edition, represents a unique approach to medicinal chemistry based on physical organic chemical principles and reaction mechanisms that rationalize drug action, which allows reader to extrapolate those core principles and mechanisms to many related classes of drug molecules. This new edition includes updates to all chapters, including new examples and references. It reflects significant changes in the process of drug design over the last decade and preserves the successful approach of the previous editions while including significant changes in format and coverage. This text is designed for undergraduate and graduate students in chemistry studying medicinal chemistry or pharmaceutical chemistry; research chemists and biochemists working in pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Updates to all chapters, including new examples and references Chapter 1 (Introduction): Completely rewritten and expanded as an overview of topics discussed in detail throughout the book Chapter 2 (Lead Discovery and Lead Modification): Sections on sources of compounds for screening including library collections, virtual screening, and computational methods, as well as hit-to-lead and scaffold hopping; expanded sections on sources of lead compounds, fragment-based lead discovery, and molecular graphics; and deemphasized solid-phase synthesis and combinatorial chemistry Chapter 3 (Receptors): Drug-receptor interactions, cation-π and halogen bonding; atropisomers; case history of the insomnia drug suvorexant Chapter 4 (Enzymes): Expanded sections on enzyme catalysis in drug discovery and enzyme synthesis Chapter 5 (Enzyme Inhibition and Inactivation): New case histories: for competitive inhibition, the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, erlotinib and Abelson kinase inhibitor, imatinib for transition state analogue inhibition, the purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitors, forodesine and DADMe-ImmH, as well as the mechanism of the multisubstrate analog inhibitor isoniazid for slow, tight-binding inhibition, the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, saxagliptin Chapter 7 (Drug Resistance and Drug Synergism): This new chapter includes topics taken from two chapters in the previous edition, with many new examples Chapter 8 (Drug Metabolism): Discussions of toxicophores and reactive metabolites Chapter 9 (Prodrugs and Drug Delivery Systems): Discussion of antibody–drug conjugates
Author: Iwao Ojima
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The extraordinary potential of fluorine-containing molecules in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology has been recognized by researchers outside of the traditional fluorine chemistry field, and thus a new wave of fluorine chemistry is rapidly expanding its biomedical frontiers. With several of the best selling drugs in the world crucially containing fluorine atoms, the incorporation of fluorine to drug leads has become an essential practice in biomedical research, especially for drug design and discovery as well as development. Focusing on the unique and significant roles that fluorine plays in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology, this book reviews recent advances and future prospects in this rapidly developing field. Topics covered include: Discovery and development of fluorine containing drugs and drug candidates. New and efficient synthetic methods for medicinal chemistry and the optimisation of fluorine-containing drug candidates. Structural and chemical biology of fluorinated amino acids and peptides. Fluorine labels as probes in metabolic study, protein engineering and clinical diagnosis. Applications of 19F NMR spectroscopy in biomedical research. An appendix presents an invaluable index of all fluorine-containing drugs that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, including information on structure and pharmaceutical action. Fluorine in Medicinal Chemistry and Chemical Biology will serve as an excellent reference source for graduate students as well as academic and industrial researchers who want to take advantage of fluorine in biomedical research.
Author: Xiao-Tian Liang,Wei-Shuo Fang
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Current discoveries and research into bioactive natural products Medicinal Chemistry of Bioactive Natural Products provides a much-needed survey of bioactive natural products and their applications in medicinal chemistry. This comprehensive reference features articles by some of the world's leading scientists in the field on discovery, structure elucidation, and elegant synthetic strategies--developed for natural products--with an emphasis on the structure activity relationship of bioactive natural products. The topics have been carefully chosen on the basis of relevance to current research and to importance as clinicially useful agents. Rather than attempting to be a comprehensive encyclopedia of bioactive natural products, Medicinal Chemistry of Bioactive Natural Products guides the reader to the key developments in the field. By providing not only practical detail but a historical perspective on the chemistry and biology of the compounds under consideration, the book serves as a handy resource for researchers in their own work developing pharmaceuticals, and as an inspiring introduction for young scientists to the dynamic field of bioactive natural products research. Enhanced by examples with updated research results, the discussion covers such topics as: * The chemistry and biology of epothilones * Vancomycin and other glycopeptide antibiotic derivates * Antitumor and other related activities of Taxol and its analogs * The antimalarial properties of the traditional Chinese medicine, Quinghaosu (artemisinin) * Huperzine A: A natural drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease * The medicinal chemistry of ginkgolides from Ginkgo biloba * Recent progress in Calophyllum coumarins as potent anti-HIV agents * Plant-derived anti-HIV agents and analogs * Chemical synthesis of annonaceous acetogenins and their structurally modified mimics
Methods and Strategies
Author: J?rg Holenz
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
In this comprehensive two-volume resource on the topic senior lead generation medicinal chemists present a coherent view of the current methods and strategies in industrial and academic lead generation. This is the first book to combine both standard and innovative approaches in comparable breadth and depth, including several recent successful lead generation case studies published here for the first time. Beginning with a general discussion of the underlying principles and strategies, individual lead generation approaches are described in detail, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses, along with all relevant bordering disciplines like e.g. target identification and validation, predictive methods, molecular recognition or lead quality matrices. Novel lead generation approaches for challenging targets like DNA-encoded library screening or chemical biology approaches are treated here side by side with established methods as high throughput and affinity screening, knowledge- or fragment-based lead generation, and collaborative approaches. Within the entire book, a very strong focus is given to highlight the application of the presented methods, so that the reader will be able to learn from real life examples. The final part of the book presents several lead generation case studies taken from different therapeutic fields, including diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, neuroscience, infection and tropical diseases. The result is a prime knowledge resource for medicinal chemists and for every scientist involved in lead generation.
Author: Antonio Guarna,Andrea Trabocchi
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
A peptidomimetic is a small protein-like chain designed to mimic a peptide with adjusted molecular properties such as enhanced stability or biological activity. It is a very powerful approach for the generation of small-molecule-based drugs as enzyme inhibitors or receptor ligands. Peptidomimetics in Organic and Medicinal Chemistry outlines the concepts and synthetic strategies underlying the building of bioactive compounds of a peptidomimetic nature. Topics covered include the chemistry of unnatural amino acids, peptide- and scaffold-based peptidomimetics, amino acid-side chain isosteres, backbone isosteres, dipeptide isosteres, beta-turn peptidomimetics, proline-mimetics as turn inducers, cyclic scaffolds, amino acid surrogates, and scaffolds for combinatorial chemistry of peptidomimetics. Case studies in the hit-to-lead process, such as the development of integrin ligands and thrombin inhibitors, illustrate the successful application of peptidomimetics in drug discovery.
Author: Thierry Langer,Rémy D. Hoffmann
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This handbook is the first to address the practical aspects of this novel method. It provides a complete overview of the field and progresses from general considerations to real life scenarios in drug discovery research. Starting with an introductory historical overview, the authors move on to discuss ligand-based approaches, including 3D pharmacophores and 4D QSAR, as well as the concept and application of pseudoreceptors. The next section on structure-based approaches includes pharmcophores from ligand-protein complexes, FLIP and 3D protein-ligand binding interactions. The whole is rounded off with a complete section devoted to applications and examples, including modeling of ADME properties. With its critical evaluation of pharmacophore-based strategies, this book represents a valuable aid for project leaders and decision-makers in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as pharmacologists, and medicinal and chemists.
Theory, research and practice
Author: Joop van der Pligt,Michael Vliek
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Whether it’s our choice of a new car or what we think about our neighbours, our opinions and attitudes are a way of negotiating the world around us. The Psychology of Influence explores how these preferences and behaviours are influenced and affected by the messages we receive in daily life. From consumer choices to political, lifestyle and financial decisions, the book examines how and why we may be influenced by a range of sources, from written text and television to social media and interpersonal communication. In a field that has fascinated scholars since Plato, the book addresses the key questions across cognitive, social and emotional domains: When do arguments become persuasive? What influence do role models have? What role do simple rules of thumb, social norms or emotions play? Which behaviours are difficult to influence, and why? Covering topics from attraction, prejudice and discrimination to reward, punishment and unconscious bias, The Psychology of Influence will be invaluable reading for students and researchers across a range of areas within applied and social psychology, as well as those in political science, communications, marketing and business and management.
Author: Goutam Brahmachari
Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant Heterocycles reviews this significant group of organic compounds within the context of sustainable methods and processes. Each clearly structured chapter features in-depth coverage of various green protocols for the synthesis of a wide variety of bioactive heterocycles classified on the basis of ring-size and/or presence of heteratoms(s). Techniques covered include microwave heating, ultrasound, ionic liquids, solid phase, solvent-free, heterogeneous catalysis, and aqueous media, along with multi-component reaction strategies. This book also integrates advances in green chemistry research into industrial applications and process developments. Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant Heterocycles is an essential resource on green chemistry technologies for academic researchers, R&D professionals, and students working in medicinal, organic, natural product, and agricultural chemistry. Includes global coverage of a wide variety of green synthetic techniques Features cutting-edge research in the field of bioactive heterocyclic compounds Focuses extensively on applications, with numerous examples of biologically relevant heterocycles
Author: Nathan Brown
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This first systematic treatment of the concept and practice of scaffold hopping shows the tricks of the trade and provides invaluable guidance for the reader's own projects. The first section serves as an introduction to the topic by describing the concept of scaffolds, their discovery, diversity and representation, and their importance for finding new chemical entities. The following part describes the most common tools and methods for scaffold hopping, whether topological, shape-based or structure-based. Methods such as CATS, Feature Trees, Feature Point Pharmacophores (FEPOPS), and SkelGen are discussed among many others. The final part contains three fully documented real-world examples of successful drug development projects by scaffold hopping that illustrate the benefits of the approach for medicinal chemistry. While most of the case studies are taken from medicinal chemistry, chemical and structural biologists will also benefit greatly from the insights presented here.
Author: Camille Georges Wermuth,David Aldous,Pierre Raboisson,Didier Rognan
The Practice of Medicinal Chemistry, Fourth Edition provides a practical and comprehensive overview of the daily issues facing pharmaceutical researchers and chemists. In addition to its thorough treatment of basic medicinal chemistry principles, this updated edition has been revised to provide new and expanded coverage of the latest technologies and approaches in drug discovery. With topics like high content screening, scoring, docking, binding free energy calculations, polypharmacology, QSAR, chemical collections and databases, and much more, this book is the go-to reference for all academic and pharmaceutical researchers who need a complete understanding of medicinal chemistry and its application to drug discovery and development. Includes updated and expanded material on systems biology, chemogenomics, computer-aided drug design, and other important recent advances in the field Incorporates extensive color figures, case studies, and practical examples to help users gain a further understanding of key concepts Provides high-quality content in a comprehensive manner, including contributions from international chapter authors to illustrate the global nature of medicinal chemistry and drug development research An image bank is available for instructors at www.textbooks.elsevier.com
A Molecular and Biochemical Approach
Author: Thomas Nogrady,Donald F. Weaver
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Fully updated and rewritten by a basic scientist who is also a practicing physician, the third edition of this popular textbook remains comprehensive, authoritative and readable. Taking a receptor-based, target-centered approach, it presents the concepts central to the study of drug action in a logical, mechanistic way grounded on molecular and principles. Students of pharmacy, chemistry and pharmacology, as well as researchers interested in a better understanding of drug design, will find this book an invaluable resource. Starting with an overview of basic principles, Medicinal Chemistry examines the properties of drug molecules, the characteristics of drug receptors, and the nature of drug-receptor interactions. Then it systematically examines the various families of receptors involved in human disease and drug design. The first three classes of receptors are related to endogenous molecules: neurotransmitters, hormones and immunomodulators. Next, receptors associated with cellular organelles (mitochondria, cell nucleus), endogenous macromolecules (membrane proteins, cytoplasmic enzymes) and pathogens (viruses, bacteria) are examined. Through this evaluation of receptors, all the main types of human disease and all major categories of drugs are considered. There have been many changes in the third edition, including a new chapter on the immune system. Because of their increasingly prominent role in drug discovery, molecular modeling techniques, high throughput screening, neuropharmacology and genetics/genomics are given much more attention. The chapter on hormonal therapies has been thoroughly updated and re-organized. Emerging enzyme targets in drug design (e.g. kinases, caspases) are discussed, and recent information on voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channels has been incorporated. The sections on antihypertensive, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiarrhythmic, and anticancer drugs, as well as treatments for hyperlipidemia and peptic ulcer, have been substantially expanded. One new feature will enhance the book's appeal to all readers: clinical-molecular interface sections that facilitate understanding of the treatment of human disease at a molecular level.
Author: Bruno Pignataro
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This volume represents one of the two edited by inviting a selection of young researchers participating to the European Young Chemist Award 2010. The other volume concerns the area of Nanotechnology/Material Science and is titled: Molecules at Work. This book contains the contributions of selected young chemists from the field of synthetic chemistry. The contributions are grouped under the three following umbrella topics: Synthetic Methods Catalysis Combinatorial and Chemical Biology This volume is an indispensable read for all organic and inorganic chemists, biochemists, chemists working with/on organometallics, and Ph.D. students in chemistry interested in seeing what tomorrow's chemistry will look like.
A Chemist's Guide to Biotech and Pharmaceutical Research
Author: Robert M. Rydzewski
Drug discovery increasingly requires a common understanding by researchers of the many and diverse factors that go into the making of new medicines. The scientist entering the field will immediately face important issues for which his education may not have prepared him: project teams, patent law, consultants, target product profiles, industry trends, Gantt charts, target validation, pharmacokinetics, proteomics, phenotype assays, biomarkers, and many other unfamiliar topics for which a basic understanding must somehow be obtained. Even the more experienced scientist can find it frustratingly difficult to get an overview of the many factors involved in modern drug discovery and often only after years of exploring does a whole and integrated picture emerge in the mind of the researcher. Real World Drug Discovery: A Chemist’s Guide to Biotech and Pharmaceutical Research presents this kind of map of the landscape of drug discovery. In a single, readable volume it outlines processes and explains essential concepts and terms for the recent science graduate wondering what to expect in pharma or biotech, the medicinal chemist seeking a broader and more timely understanding of the industry, or the contractor or collaborator whose understanding of the commercial drug discovery process could increase the value of his contribution to it. Interviews with well-known experts in many of the fields involved, giving insightful comments from authorities on many of the sub-disciplines important to cutting edge drug discovery. Helpful suggestions gleaned from years of experience in biotech and pharma, which represents a repository drug discovery "lore" not previously available in any book. "Periodic Table of Drugs" listing current top-selling drugs arranged by target and laid out so that structural similarities and differences are plain and clear. Extensive use of diagrams to illustrate concepts like biotech startup models, preteomic profiling for target identification, Gantt charts for project planning, etc.
Sources, Separations and Structures
Author: Raymond Cooper,George Nicola
Publisher: CRC Press
Notoriously cumbersome to isolate and challenging to synthesize, the path of natural products to viable drugs is an arduous journey. Yet compounds isolated from nature may possess fascinating structures, biological profiles and pharmaceutical potential far greater than anything made by man. Natural Products Chemistry: Sources, Separations and Structures presents a practical guide to sourcing, isolating, and discovering new compounds from nature many of which become pharmaceutical drugs. This book emphasizes the challenges and advantages of products acquired from nature, compared to those obtained from combinatorial chemistry. A basic introduction, the book describes the whole cycle from farm to final compound, backed up by case studies drawn from industry and research applications. It broadens the scope of applications and draws upon examples from various sources. Natural products chemistry, as taught today, draws its examples mainly from marine chemistry or plant chemistry; however, there is also a fascinating and rich world of fermented (microbial and algal) products leading to complex structures. Thus, the book draws upon examples from the microbial world and from insects too. Therefore, this is a source of bioactive metabolites, not traditionally available in academic settings, more the mainstay of the pharmaceutical industry. Providing a roadmap of the process of collecting a compound from nature, isolating the active ingredient, and determining the chemical structure, this book provides a unique approach to the world of natural products.
Innovations and Methodologies
Author: Debarshi Kar Mahapatra,Sanjay Kumar Bharti
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
This valuable new book, Handbook of Research on Medicinal Chemistry: Innovations and Methodologies, presents some of the latest advancements in the various fields of combinatorial chemistry, drug discovery, biochemical aspects, pharmacology of medicinal agents, current practical problems, and nutraceuticals. The editors keep the drug molecule as the central component of the volume and aim to explain the associated features essential to exhibiting pharmacological activity. With a unique combination of chapters in biology, clinical aspects, biochemistry, synthetic chemistry, medicine and technology, the volume provides broad exposure to the essential aspect of pharmaceuticals. The volume many important aspects of medicinal chemistry, including techniques in drug discovery pharmacological aspects of natural products chemical mediators: druggable targets advances in medicinal chemistry The field of medicinal chemistry is growing at an unprecedented pace, and this volume takes an interdisciplinary approach, covering a range of new research and new practices in the field. The volume takes into account the latest therapeutic guidelines put forward by the World Health Organization and the U.S Food and Drug Administration.. Topics include: drug design drug discovery natural products and supplements and nutraceuticals pharmaceutical approaches to sexual dysfunction drug resistance parasites new natural compounds and identification of new targets stereochemistry aspects in medicinal chemistry common drug interactions in daily practices Handbook of Research on Medicinal Chemistry: Innovations and Methodologies will be a valuable addition to the bookshelves of pharmaceutical scientists and faculty as well as for industry professionals.
Author: Frank Petersen,René Amstutz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The use of substances derived from plants, fungi, bacteria and marine organisms has a long tradition in medicine. This book highlights the biodiversity-driven approaches which are now of eminent importance in natural products research. It addresses the question why natural products display such a complex chemical information, what makes them often unique and what their characteristics are. A compilation of current applicable technology makes this a brilliant reference work.