Medicinal Chemistry and Synthesis

Author: Larry Yet

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118145666

Category: Medical

Page: 560

View: 3033

A comprehensive guide to privileged structures and their application in the discovery of new drugs The use of privileged structures is a viable strategy in the discovery of new medicines at the lead optimization stages of the drug discovery process. Privileged Structures in Drug Discovery offers a comprehensive text that reviews privileged structures from the point of view of medicinal chemistry and contains the synthetic routes to these structures. In this text, the author—a noted expert in the field—includes an historical perspective on the topic, presents a practical compendium to privileged structures, and offers an informed perspective on the future direction for the field. The book describes the up-to-date and state-of-the-art methods of organic synthesis that describe the use of privileged structures that are of most interest. Chapters included information on benzodiazepines, 1,4-dihydropyridines, biaryls, 4-(hetero)arylpiperidines, spiropiperidines, 2-aminopyrimidines, 2-aminothiazoles, 2-(hetero)arylindoles, tetrahydroisoquinolines, 2,2-dimethylbenzopyrans, hydroxamates, and bicyclic pyridines containing ring-junction nitrogen as privileged scaffolds in medicinal chemistry. Numerous, illustrative case studies document the current use of the privileged structures in the discovery of drugs. This important volume: Describes the drug compounds that have successfully made it to the marketplace and the chemistry associated with them Offers the experience from an author who has worked in many therapeutic areas of medicinal chemistry Details many of the recent developments in organic chemistry that prepare target molecules Includes a wealth of medicinal chemistry case studies that clearly illustrate the use of privileged structures Designed for use by industrial medicinal chemists and process chemists, academic organic and medicinal chemists, as well as chemistry students and faculty, Privileged Structures in Drug Discovery offers a current guide to organic synthesis methods to access the privileged structures of interest, and contains medicinal chemistry case studies that document their application.
Read More

Design, Synthesis, Evaluation

Author: Stefan Bräse

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1782620303

Category: Drug development

Page: 468

View: 8580

One strategy to expedite the discovery of new drugs, a process that is somewhat slow and serendipitous, is the identification and use of privileged scaffolds. This book covers the history of the discovery and use of privileged scaffolds and addresses the various classes of these important molecular fragments. The first of the benzodiazepines, a class of drugs that is powerful for treating anxiety, may not have been discovered had it not been for a chance experiment on the contents of a discarded flask found during a lab clean-up. Some years later, scientists discovered that benzodiazepine derivatives were also effective in treating other diseases. This class of molecules was the first to be described as privileged in the sense that it is especially effective at altering the course of disease. Other privileged molecular structures have since been discovered, and since these compounds are so effective at interacting with numerous classes of proteins, they may be an effective starting point to look for new drugs against the supposedly "undruggable" proteins. Following introductory chapters presenting an overview, a historical perspective and the theoretical background and findings, main chapters describe the structure of privileged structures in turn and discuss major drug classes associated with them and their syntheses. This book provides comprehensive coverage of the subject through chapters contributed by expert authors from both academia and industry and will be an excellent reference source for medicinal chemists of a range of disciplines and experiences.
Read More

Author: Iwao Ojima

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470744086

Category: Science

Page: 640

View: 5552

The extraordinary potential of fluorine-containing molecules in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology has been recognized by researchers outside of the traditional fluorine chemistry field, and thus a new wave of fluorine chemistry is rapidly expanding its biomedical frontiers. With several of the best selling drugs in the world crucially containing fluorine atoms, the incorporation of fluorine to drug leads has become an essential practice in biomedical research, especially for drug design and discovery as well as development. Focusing on the unique and significant roles that fluorine plays in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology, this book reviews recent advances and future prospects in this rapidly developing field. Topics covered include: Discovery and development of fluorine containing drugs and drug candidates. New and efficient synthetic methods for medicinal chemistry and the optimisation of fluorine-containing drug candidates. Structural and chemical biology of fluorinated amino acids and peptides. Fluorine labels as probes in metabolic study, protein engineering and clinical diagnosis. Applications of 19F NMR spectroscopy in biomedical research. An appendix presents an invaluable index of all fluorine-containing drugs that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, including information on structure and pharmaceutical action. Fluorine in Medicinal Chemistry and Chemical Biology will serve as an excellent reference source for graduate students as well as academic and industrial researchers who want to take advantage of fluorine in biomedical research.
Read More

Author: Stephen Hanessian

Publisher: Wiley-VCH

ISBN: 9783527332182

Category: Medical

Page: 652

View: 1163

The inspiration provided by biologically active natural products to conceive of hybrids, congeners, analogs and unnatural variants is discussed by experts in the field in 16 highly informative chapters. Using well-documented studies over the past decade, this timely monograph demonstrates the current importance and future potential of natural products as starting points for the development of new drugs with improved properties over their progenitors. The examples are chosen so as to represent a wide range of natural products with therapeutic relevance among others, as anticancer agents, antimicrobials, antifungals, antisense nucleosides, antidiabetics, and analgesics. From the content: * Part I: Natural Products as Sources of Potential Drugs and Systematic Compound Collections * Part II: From Marketed Drugs to Designed Analogs and Clinical Candidates * Part III: Natural Products as an Incentive for Enabling Technologies * Part IV: Natural Products as Pharmacological Tools * Part V: Nature: The Provider, the Enticer, and the Healer
Read More

Author: Patrick M. Woster,Robert Anthony Casero

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 184973190X

Category: Medical

Page: 289

View: 4738

Polyamines are ubiquitous molecules that are involved in a number of important cellular processes. Aberrations in their function or metabolism play a role in diseases such as cancer and parasitic infection. A number of validated drug targets have been identified, including enzymes in the polyamine biosynthetic and catabolic pathways and the S-adenosylmethionine synthetic and salvage pathways. Polyamine Drug Discovery is the first comprehensive volume to cover all aspects of the design and development of potential therapeutics targeting polyamine metabolism. The book details research progress from 1975 to the present date and discusses the design and use of polyamine metabolism inhibitors as therapeutic agents. Various polyamine-containing drugs are described that can be used in chemotherapy, and as treatments for infections including trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis and malaria. Finally, the roles of polyamine analogues in chemoprevention, polyamine-containing vectors for gene delivery, and the design of polyamine-based epigenetic modulators are detailed. Each chapter addresses a different aspect of polyamine drug discovery and all are written by medicinal and biological chemists with particular expertise in developing agents that modulate polyamine metabolism or function. The book will increase the visibility of polyamine drug discovery among pharmaceutical researchers and provide a valuable reference for everyone working in the field.
Read More

Methods and Strategies

Author: J?rg Holenz,Raimund Mannhold,Hugo Kubinyi,Gerd Folkers

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527333290

Category: Medical

Page: 824

View: 5444

In this comprehensive two-volume resource on the topic senior lead generation medicinal chemists present a coherent view of the current methods and strategies in industrial and academic lead generation. This is the first book to combine both standard and innovative approaches in comparable breadth and depth, including several recent successful lead generation case studies published here for the first time. Beginning with a general discussion of the underlying principles and strategies, individual lead generation approaches are described in detail, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses, along with all relevant bordering disciplines like e.g. target identification and validation, predictive methods, molecular recognition or lead quality matrices. Novel lead generation approaches for challenging targets like DNA-encoded library screening or chemical biology approaches are treated here side by side with established methods as high throughput and affinity screening, knowledge- or fragment-based lead generation, and collaborative approaches. Within the entire book, a very strong focus is given to highlight the application of the presented methods, so that the reader will be able to learn from `real life? examples. The final part of the book presents several lead generation case studies taken from different therapeutic fields, including diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, neuroscience, infection and tropical diseases. The result is a prime knowledge resource for medicinal chemists and for every scientist involved in lead generation.
Read More

A Molecular and Biochemical Approach

Author: Thomas Nogrady,Donald F. Weaver

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198026457

Category: Medical

Page: 672

View: 2364

Fully updated and rewritten by a basic scientist who is also a practicing physician, the third edition of this popular textbook remains comprehensive, authoritative and readable. Taking a receptor-based, target-centered approach, it presents the concepts central to the study of drug action in a logical, mechanistic way grounded on molecular and principles. Students of pharmacy, chemistry and pharmacology, as well as researchers interested in a better understanding of drug design, will find this book an invaluable resource. Starting with an overview of basic principles, Medicinal Chemistry examines the properties of drug molecules, the characteristics of drug receptors, and the nature of drug-receptor interactions. Then it systematically examines the various families of receptors involved in human disease and drug design. The first three classes of receptors are related to endogenous molecules: neurotransmitters, hormones and immunomodulators. Next, receptors associated with cellular organelles (mitochondria, cell nucleus), endogenous macromolecules (membrane proteins, cytoplasmic enzymes) and pathogens (viruses, bacteria) are examined. Through this evaluation of receptors, all the main types of human disease and all major categories of drugs are considered. There have been many changes in the third edition, including a new chapter on the immune system. Because of their increasingly prominent role in drug discovery, molecular modeling techniques, high throughput screening, neuropharmacology and genetics/genomics are given much more attention. The chapter on hormonal therapies has been thoroughly updated and re-organized. Emerging enzyme targets in drug design (e.g. kinases, caspases) are discussed, and recent information on voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channels has been incorporated. The sections on antihypertensive, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiarrhythmic, and anticancer drugs, as well as treatments for hyperlipidemia and peptic ulcer, have been substantially expanded. One new feature will enhance the book's appeal to all readers: clinical-molecular interface sections that facilitate understanding of the treatment of human disease at a molecular level.
Read More

Author: Camille Georges Wermuth

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080497772

Category: Science

Page: 736

View: 9512

The Practice of Medicinal Chemistry, 2E, is a single-volume source on the practical aspects of medicinal chemistry. The successful first edition was nicknamed "The Bible" by medicinal chemists, and the second edition has been updated, expanded and refocused to reflect developments over the last decade. Emphasis is put on how medicinal chemists conduct their search for and design of new drug entities. In contrast to competing books, it focuses on the chemistry rather than pharmacological concepts or descriptions of the various therapeutic classes of drugs. Most medicinal chemists working in the pharmaceutical industry are organic synthetic chemists who must acquire a strong knowledge of medicinal chemistry as they enter the industry. This book aims to be their practical handbook - a complete guide to the drug discovery process. * The only book available dealing with the practical aspects of medicinal chemistry * Serves as a complete guide to the drug discovery process, from conception of the molecules to drug production * Updated chapters devoted to the discovery of new lead compounds, including combinatorial chemistry
Read More

Strategies and Technologies

Author: Werngard Czechtizky,Peter Hamley

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118771605

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 1585

Stressing strategic and technological solutions to medicinal chemistry challenges, this book presents methods and practices for optimizing the chemical aspects of drug discovery. Chapters discuss benefits, challenges, case studies, and industry perspectives for improving drug discovery programs with respect to quality and costs. • Focuses on small molecules and their critical role in medicinal chemistry, reviewing chemical and economic advantages, challenges, and trends in the field from industry perspectives • Discusses novel approaches and key topics, like screening collection enhancement, risk sharing, HTS triage, new lead finding approaches, diversity-oriented synthesis, peptidomimetics, natural products, and high throughput medicinal chemistry approaches • Explains how to reduce design-make-test cycle times by integrating medicinal chemistry, physical chemistry, and ADME profiling techniques • Includes descriptive case studies, examples, and applications to illustrate new technologies and provide step-by-step explanations to enable them in a laboratory setting
Read More

Author: Thierry Langer,Rémy D. Hoffmann

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527608729

Category: Science

Page: 395

View: 4753

This handbook is the first to address the practical aspects of this novel method. It provides a complete overview of the field and progresses from general considerations to real life scenarios in drug discovery research. Starting with an introductory historical overview, the authors move on to discuss ligand-based approaches, including 3D pharmacophores and 4D QSAR, as well as the concept and application of pseudoreceptors. The next section on structure-based approaches includes pharmcophores from ligand-protein complexes, FLIP and 3D protein-ligand binding interactions. The whole is rounded off with a complete section devoted to applications and examples, including modeling of ADME properties. With its critical evaluation of pharmacophore-based strategies, this book represents a valuable aid for project leaders and decision-makers in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as pharmacologists, and medicinal and chemists.
Read More

Author: Tudor I. Oprea

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527604200

Category: Science

Page: 515

View: 8412

This handbook provides the first-ever inside view of today's integrated approach to rational drug design. Chemoinformatics experts from large pharmaceutical companies, as well as from chemoinformatics service providers and from academia demonstrate what can be achieved today by harnessing the power of computational methods for the drug discovery process. With the user rather than the developer of chemoinformatics software in mind, this book describes the successful application of computational tools to real-life problems and presents solution strategies to commonly encountered problems. It shows how almost every step of the drug discovery pipeline can be optimized and accelerated by using chemoinformatics tools -- from the management of compound databases to targeted combinatorial synthesis, virtual screening and efficient hit-to-lead transition. An invaluable resource for drug developers and medicinal chemists in academia and industry.
Read More

Author: N.A

Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers

ISBN: 1608052087

Category:

Page: 466

View: 9100

"Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry" is an Ebook series devoted to the review of areas of important topical interest to medicinal chemists and others in allied disciplines. "Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry" covers all the areas of medicinal chemistry, including developments in rational drug design, bioorganic chemistry, high-throughput screening, combinatorial chemistry, compound diversity measurements, drug absorption, drug distribution, metabolism, new and emerging drug targets, natural products, pharmacogenomics, chemoinformatics, and structure-activity relationships. Medicinal chemistry as.
Read More

Author: Richard B. Silverman,Mark W. Holladay

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123820316

Category: Medical

Page: 536

View: 5076

The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action, Third Edition, represents a unique approach to medicinal chemistry based on physical organic chemical principles and reaction mechanisms that rationalize drug action, which allows reader to extrapolate those core principles and mechanisms to many related classes of drug molecules. This new edition includes updates to all chapters, including new examples and references. It reflects significant changes in the process of drug design over the last decade and preserves the successful approach of the previous editions while including significant changes in format and coverage. This text is designed for undergraduate and graduate students in chemistry studying medicinal chemistry or pharmaceutical chemistry; research chemists and biochemists working in pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Updates to all chapters, including new examples and references Chapter 1 (Introduction): Completely rewritten and expanded as an overview of topics discussed in detail throughout the book Chapter 2 (Lead Discovery and Lead Modification): Sections on sources of compounds for screening including library collections, virtual screening, and computational methods, as well as hit-to-lead and scaffold hopping; expanded sections on sources of lead compounds, fragment-based lead discovery, and molecular graphics; and deemphasized solid-phase synthesis and combinatorial chemistry Chapter 3 (Receptors): Drug-receptor interactions, cation-π and halogen bonding; atropisomers; case history of the insomnia drug suvorexant Chapter 4 (Enzymes): Expanded sections on enzyme catalysis in drug discovery and enzyme synthesis Chapter 5 (Enzyme Inhibition and Inactivation): New case histories: for competitive inhibition, the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, erlotinib and Abelson kinase inhibitor, imatinib for transition state analogue inhibition, the purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitors, forodesine and DADMe-ImmH, as well as the mechanism of the multisubstrate analog inhibitor isoniazid for slow, tight-binding inhibition, the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, saxagliptin Chapter 7 (Drug Resistance and Drug Synergism): This new chapter includes topics taken from two chapters in the previous edition, with many new examples Chapter 8 (Drug Metabolism): Discussions of toxicophores and reactive metabolites Chapter 9 (Prodrugs and Drug Delivery Systems): Discussion of antibody–drug conjugates
Read More

Author: Camille Georges Wermuth

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080568775

Category: Science

Page: 982

View: 6826

The Practice of Medicinal Chemistry fills a gap in the list of available medicinal chemistry literature. It is a single-volume source on the practical aspects of medicinal chemistry. Considered ""the Bible"" by medicinal chemists, the book emphasizes the methods that chemists use to conduct their research and design new drug entities. It serves as a practical handbook about the drug discovery process, from conception of the molecules to drug production. The first part of the book covers the background of the subject matter, which includes the definition and history of medicinal chemistry, the measurement of biological activities, and the main phases of drug activity. The second part of the book presents the road to discovering a new lead compound and creating a working hypothesis. The main parts of the book discuss the optimization of the lead compound in terms of potency, selectivity, and safety. The Practice of Medicinal Chemistry can be considered a ""first-read"" or ""bedside book"" for readers who are embarking on a career in medicinal chemistry. NEW TO THIS EDITION: * Focus on chemoinformatics and drug discovery * Enhanced pedagogical features * New chapters including: - Drug absorption and transport - Multi-target drugs * Updates on hot new areas: NEW! Drug discovery and the latest techniques NEW! How potential drugs can move through the drug discovery/ development phases more quickly NEW! Chemoinformatics
Read More

Drug Discovery

Author: Mukund S. Chorghade

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 047178009X

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 3002

This two volume set provides a comprehensive account of the entire sequence of operations involved in discovering a drug through the actual delivery of the drug to clinicians and medical practitioners. Includes case studies of the discovery of erythromycin analogs (antibiotics), Tagamet, and Ultiva (remifentanil) Discusses the discovery of agents for the treatment and management of bacterial infections, Parkinson's disease, psoriasis, ulcers and stomach pain, atopic dermatitis, asthma, and cancer Contains chapters on combinatorial chemistry, molecular biology-based drug discovery, genomics, and chemogenomics The first volume of this set thoroughly describes conceptualizing a drug, creating a library of candidates for testing, screening those candidates for in vitro and in vivo activity, conducting and analyzing the results of clinical trials, and revising the drug as necessary.
Read More

Applications in Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences

Author: Kunal Roy

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319568507

Category: Science

Page: 555

View: 3338

The book covers theoretical background and methodology as well as all current applications of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR). Written by an international group of recognized researchers, this edited volume discusses applications of QSAR in multiple disciplines such as chemistry, pharmacy, environmental and agricultural sciences addressing data gaps and modern regulatory requirements. Additionally, the applications of QSAR in food science and nanoscience have been included – two areas which have only recently been able to exploit this versatile tool. This timely addition to the series is aimed at graduate students, academics and industrial scientists interested in the latest advances and applications of QSAR.
Read More

Technology in Transition

Author: Raymond G Hill

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0702053163

Category: Medical

Page: 368

View: 1433

The modern pharmacopeia has enormous power to alleviate disease, and owes its existence almost entirely to the work of the pharmaceutical industry. This book provides an introduction to the way the industry goes about the discovery and development of new drugs. The first part gives a brief historical account from its origins in the mediaeval apothecaries’ trade, and discusses the changing understanding of what we mean by disease, and what therapy aims to achieve, as well as summarising case histories of the discovery and development of some important drugs. The second part focuses on the science and technology involved in the discovery process: the stages by which a promising new chemical entity is identified, from the starting point of a medical need and an idea for addressing it. A chapter on biopharmaceuticals, whose discovery and development tend to follow routes somewhat different from synthetic compounds, is included here, as well as accounts of patent issues that arise in the discovery phase, and a chapter on research management in this environment. The third section of the book deals with drug development: the work that has to be undertaken to turn the drug candidate that emerges from the discovery process into a product on the market. The definitive introduction to how a pharmaceutical company goes about its business of discovering and developing drugs. The second edition has a new editor: Professor Raymond Hill ● non-executive director of Addex Pharmaceuticals, Covagen and of Orexo AB ● Visiting Industrial Professor of Pharmacology in the University of Bristol ● Visiting Professor in the School of Medical and Health Sciences at the University of Surrey ● Visiting Professor in Physiology and Pharmacology at the University of Strathclyde ● President and Chair of the Council of the British Pharmacological Society ● member of the Nuffield Council on Bioethics and the Advisory Council on Misuse of Drugs. New to this edition: Completely rewritten chapter on The Role of Medicinal Chemistry in the Drug Discovery Process. New topic - DMPK Optimization Strategy in drug discovery. New chapter on Scaffolds: Small globular proteins as antibody substitutes. Totally updated chapters on Intellectual Property and Marketing 50 new illustrations in full colour Features Accessible, general guide to pharmaceutical research and development. Examines the interfaces between cost and social benefit, quality control and mass production, regulatory bodies, patent management, and all interdisciplinary intersections essential to effective drug development. Written by a strong team of scientists with long experience in the pharmaceutical industry. Solid overview of all the steps from lab bench to market in an easy-to-understand way which will be accessible to non-specialists. From customer reviews of the previous edition: ‘... it will have everything you need to know on this module. Deeply referenced and, thus, deeply reliable. Highly Commended in the medicine category of the BMA 2006 medical book competition Winner of the Royal Society of Medicine Library Prize for Medical Book of the Year
Read More

Experimental and Computational Approaches

Author: P.W. Codding

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401590281

Category: Science

Page: 290

View: 2192

Structure-Based Drug Design brings together scientists working on different aspects of the subject, demonstrating the necessary collaboration and interdisciplinary approach to this complex area. The focus is on X-ray crystallographic and computational approaches. The general aspects of these approaches are introduced in the first six articles. The remaining articles provide examples of the application of X-ray crystallography, molecular modelling, molecular dynamics, QSAR, database analysis, and homology modelling. The papers cover a wealth of interesting problems in the design of new and enhanced pharmaceuticals.
Read More

Synthesis and Application

Author: Stephen R. Wilson,Anthony W. Czarnik

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471126874

Category: Medical

Page: 269

View: 1554

Explores a new approach to drug discovery, covers a selection of organic chemistry technologies now available, and explains how the new techniques allows chemical compounds to be synthesized much more quickly
Read More

Author: Om Silakari

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0081021054

Category: Science

Page: 436

View: 2805

Key Heterocycle Cores for Designing Multitargeting Molecules provides a helpful overview of current developments in the field. Following a detailed introduction to the manipulation of heterocycle cores for the development of dual or multitargeting molecules, the book goes on to describe specific examples of such developments, focusing on compounds such as Benzimidazole, Acridine, Flavones, Thiazolidinedione and Oxazoline. Drawing on the latest developments in the field, this volume provides a valuable guide to current approaches in the design and development of molecules capable of acting on multiple targets. Adapting the heterocyclic core of a single-target molecule can facilitate its development into an agent capable of acting on multiple targets. Such multi-targeting drugs have the potential to become essential components in the design of novel, holistic treatment plans for complex diseases, making the design of such active agents an increasingly important area of research. Emphasizes the chemical development of heterocyclic nuclei, from single to multitargeting molecules Provides chapter-by-chapter coverage of the key heterocyclic compounds used in synthesizing multitargeting agents Outlines current trends and future developments in multitarget molecule design for the treatment of various diseases
Read More