Principles and Techniques

Author: Daphne Koller,Nir Friedman,Francis Bach

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262013193

Category: Computers

Page: 1231

View: 720

Proceedings of the annual Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, available for 1991-present. Since 1985, the Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI) has been the primary international forum for exchanging results on the use of principled uncertain-reasoning methods in intelligent systems. The UAI Proceedings have become a basic reference for researches and practitioners who want to know about both theoretical advances and the latest applied developments in the field.
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Principles and Techniques

Author: Daphne Koller,Nir Friedman

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262258358

Category: Computers

Page: 1280

View: 5551

Most tasks require a person or an automated system to reason -- to reach conclusions based on available information. The framework of probabilistic graphical models, presented in this book, provides a general approach for this task. The approach is model-based, allowing interpretable models to be constructed and then manipulated by reasoning algorithms. These models can also be learned automatically from data, allowing the approach to be used in cases where manually constructing a model is difficult or even impossible. Because uncertainty is an inescapable aspect of most real-world applications, the book focuses on probabilistic models, which make the uncertainty explicit and provide models that are more faithful to reality. Probabilistic Graphical Models discusses a variety of models, spanning Bayesian networks, undirected Markov networks, discrete and continuous models, and extensions to deal with dynamical systems and relational data. For each class of models, the text describes the three fundamental cornerstones: representation, inference, and learning, presenting both basic concepts and advanced techniques. Finally, the book considers the use of the proposed framework for causal reasoning and decision making under uncertainty. The main text in each chapter provides the detailed technical development of the key ideas. Most chapters also include boxes with additional material: skill boxes, which describe techniques; case study boxes, which discuss empirical cases related to the approach described in the text, including applications in computer vision, robotics, natural language understanding, and computational biology; and concept boxes, which present significant concepts drawn from the material in the chapter. Instructors (and readers) can group chapters in various combinations, from core topics to more technically advanced material, to suit their particular needs.
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Author: M.I. Jordan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401150141

Category: Computers

Page: 630

View: 7632

In the past decade, a number of different research communities within the computational sciences have studied learning in networks, starting from a number of different points of view. There has been substantial progress in these different communities and surprising convergence has developed between the formalisms. The awareness of this convergence and the growing interest of researchers in understanding the essential unity of the subject underlies the current volume. Two research communities which have used graphical or network formalisms to particular advantage are the belief network community and the neural network community. Belief networks arose within computer science and statistics and were developed with an emphasis on prior knowledge and exact probabilistic calculations. Neural networks arose within electrical engineering, physics and neuroscience and have emphasised pattern recognition and systems modelling problems. This volume draws together researchers from these two communities and presents both kinds of networks as instances of a general unified graphical formalism. The book focuses on probabilistic methods for learning and inference in graphical models, algorithm analysis and design, theory and applications. Exact methods, sampling methods and variational methods are discussed in detail. Audience: A wide cross-section of computationally oriented researchers, including computer scientists, statisticians, electrical engineers, physicists and neuroscientists.
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A Probabilistic Perspective

Author: Kevin P. Murphy

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262018020

Category: Computers

Page: 1067

View: 3484

A comprehensive introduction to machine learning that uses probabilistic models and inference as a unifying approach.
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Author: David Barber

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521518148

Category: Computers

Page: 697

View: 7733

A practical introduction perfect for final-year undergraduate and graduate students without a solid background in linear algebra and calculus.
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Author: Lise Getoor,Ben Taskar

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262072882

Category: Computers

Page: 586

View: 3047

Advanced statistical modeling and knowledge representation techniques for a newly emerging area of machine learning and probabilistic reasoning; includes introductory material, tutorials for different proposed approaches, and applications. Handling inherent uncertainty and exploiting compositional structure are fundamental to understanding and designing large-scale systems. Statistical relational learning builds on ideas from probability theory and statistics to address uncertainty while incorporating tools from logic, databases and programming languages to represent structure. In Introduction to Statistical Relational Learning, leading researchers in this emerging area of machine learning describe current formalisms, models, and algorithms that enable effective and robust reasoning about richly structured systems and data. The early chapters provide tutorials for material used in later chapters, offering introductions to representation, inference and learning in graphical models, and logic. The book then describes object-oriented approaches, including probabilistic relational models, relational Markov networks, and probabilistic entity-relationship models as well as logic-based formalisms including Bayesian logic programs, Markov logic, and stochastic logic programs. Later chapters discuss such topics as probabilistic models with unknown objects, relational dependency networks, reinforcement learning in relational domains, and information extraction. By presenting a variety of approaches, the book highlights commonalities and clarifies important differences among proposed approaches and, along the way, identifies important representational and algorithmic issues. Numerous applications are provided throughout.
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Principles and Techniques

Author: Daphne Koller,Nir Friedman,Francis Bach

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262013193

Category: Computers

Page: 1231

View: 3041

Proceedings of the annual Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, available for 1991-present. Since 1985, the Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI) has been the primary international forum for exchanging results on the use of principled uncertain-reasoning methods in intelligent systems. The UAI Proceedings have become a basic reference for researches and practitioners who want to know about both theoretical advances and the latest applied developments in the field.
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An Introduction

Author: Richard S. Sutton,Andrew G. Barto

Publisher: A Bradford Book

ISBN: 0262039249

Category: Computers

Page: 552

View: 9274

The significantly expanded and updated new edition of a widely used text on reinforcement learning, one of the most active research areas in artificial intelligence. Reinforcement learning, one of the most active research areas in artificial intelligence, is a computational approach to learning whereby an agent tries to maximize the total amount of reward it receives while interacting with a complex, uncertain environment. In Reinforcement Learning, Richard Sutton and Andrew Barto provide a clear and simple account of the field's key ideas and algorithms. This second edition has been significantly expanded and updated, presenting new topics and updating coverage of other topics. Like the first edition, this second edition focuses on core online learning algorithms, with the more mathematical material set off in shaded boxes. Part I covers as much of reinforcement learning as possible without going beyond the tabular case for which exact solutions can be found. Many algorithms presented in this part are new to the second edition, including UCB, Expected Sarsa, and Double Learning. Part II extends these ideas to function approximation, with new sections on such topics as artificial neural networks and the Fourier basis, and offers expanded treatment of off-policy learning and policy-gradient methods. Part III has new chapters on reinforcement learning's relationships to psychology and neuroscience, as well as an updated case-studies chapter including AlphaGo and AlphaGo Zero, Atari game playing, and IBM Watson's wagering strategy. The final chapter discusses the future societal impacts of reinforcement learning.
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Author: Kevin B. Korb,Ann E. Nicholson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439815925

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 491

View: 3184

Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology. New to the Second Edition New chapter on Bayesian network classifiers New section on object-oriented Bayesian networks New section that addresses foundational problems with causal discovery and Markov blanket discovery New section that covers methods of evaluating causal discovery programs Discussions of many common modeling errors New applications and case studies More coverage on the uses of causal interventions to understand and reason with causal Bayesian networks Illustrated with real case studies, the second edition of this bestseller continues to cover the groundwork of Bayesian networks. It presents the elements of Bayesian network technology, automated causal discovery, and learning probabilities from data and shows how to employ these technologies to develop probabilistic expert systems. Web Resource The book’s website at www.csse.monash.edu.au/bai/book/book.html offers a variety of supplemental materials, including example Bayesian networks and data sets. Instructors can email the authors for sample solutions to many of the problems in the text.
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Foundations of Neural Computation

Author: Michael Irwin Jordan,Terrence Joseph Sejnowski,Tomaso A. Poggio

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262600422

Category: Computers

Page: 421

View: 9039

This book exemplifies the interplay between the general formal framework of graphical models and the exploration of new algorithm and architectures. The selections range from foundational papers of historical importance to results at the cutting edge of research. Graphical models use graphs to represent and manipulate joint probability distributions. They have their roots in artificial intelligence, statistics, and neural networks. The clean mathematical formalism of the graphical models framework makes it possible to understand a wide variety of network-based approaches to computation, and in particular to understand many neural network algorithms and architectures as instances of a broader probabilistic methodology. It also makes it possible to identify novel features of neural network algorithms and architectures and to extend them to more general graphical models.This book exemplifies the interplay between the general formal framework of graphical models and the exploration of new algorithms and architectures. The selections range from foundational papers of historical importance to results at the cutting edge of research. Contributors H. Attias, C. M. Bishop, B. J. Frey, Z. Ghahramani, D. Heckerman, G. E. Hinton, R. Hofmann, R. A. Jacobs, Michael I. Jordan, H. J. Kappen, A. Krogh, R. Neal, S. K. Riis, F. B. Rodríguez, L. K. Saul, Terrence J. Sejnowski, P. Smyth, M. E. Tipping, V. Tresp, Y. Weiss
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The Machine Learning Approach

Author: Pierre Baldi,Søren Brunak,Professor Pierre Baldi,Francis Bach

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262025065

Category: Computers

Page: 452

View: 8920

Pierre Baldi and Soren Brunak present the key machine learning approaches and apply them to the computational problems encountered in the analysis of biological data. The book is aimed at two types of researchers and students. First are the biologists and biochemists who need to understand new data-driven algorithms, such as neural networks and hidden Markov models, in the context of biological sequences and their molecular structure and function. Second are those with a primary background in physics, mathematics, statistics, or computer science who need to know more about specific applications in molecular biology.
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Author: Gökhan BakIr,Neural Information Processing Systems Foundation

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262026171

Category: Computers

Page: 348

View: 5890

State-of-the-art algorithms and theory in a novel domain of machine learning,prediction when the output has structure.
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Principles and Applications

Author: Luis Enrique Sucar

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 144716699X

Category: Computers

Page: 253

View: 5713

This accessible text/reference provides a general introduction to probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) from an engineering perspective. The book covers the fundamentals for each of the main classes of PGMs, including representation, inference and learning principles, and reviews real-world applications for each type of model. These applications are drawn from a broad range of disciplines, highlighting the many uses of Bayesian classifiers, hidden Markov models, Bayesian networks, dynamic and temporal Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, influence diagrams, and Markov decision processes. Features: presents a unified framework encompassing all of the main classes of PGMs; describes the practical application of the different techniques; examines the latest developments in the field, covering multidimensional Bayesian classifiers, relational graphical models and causal models; provides exercises, suggestions for further reading, and ideas for research or programming projects at the end of each chapter.
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Author: Søren Højsgaard,David Edwards,Steffen Lauritzen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146142299X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 182

View: 878

Graphical models in their modern form have been around since the late 1970s and appear today in many areas of the sciences. Along with the ongoing developments of graphical models, a number of different graphical modeling software programs have been written over the years. In recent years many of these software developments have taken place within the R community, either in the form of new packages or by providing an R interface to existing software. This book attempts to give the reader a gentle introduction to graphical modeling using R and the main features of some of these packages. In addition, the book provides examples of how more advanced aspects of graphical modeling can be represented and handled within R. Topics covered in the seven chapters include graphical models for contingency tables, Gaussian and mixed graphical models, Bayesian networks and modeling high dimensional data.
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Author: Kiran R Karkera

Publisher: Packt Publishing Ltd

ISBN: 1783289015

Category: Computers

Page: 172

View: 2475

This is a short, practical guide that allows data scientists to understand the concepts of Graphical models and enables them to try them out using small Python code snippets, without being too mathematically complicated. If you are a data scientist who knows about machine learning and want to enhance your knowledge of graphical models, such as Bayes network, in order to use them to solve real-world problems using Python libraries, this book is for you.This book is intended for those who have some Python and machine learning experience, or are exploring the machine learning field.
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Author: Sebastian Nowozin,Peter V. Gehler,Jeremy Jancsary,Christoph H. Lampert

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262028379

Category: Computers

Page: 432

View: 3339

The goal of structured prediction is to build machine learning models that predict relational information that itself has structure, such as being composed of multiple interrelated parts. These models, which reflect prior knowledge, task-specific relations, and constraints, are used in fields including computer vision, speech recognition, natural language processing, and computational biology. They can carry out such tasks as predicting a natural language sentence, or segmenting an image into meaningful components. These models are expressive and powerful, but exact computation is often intractable. A broad research effort in recent years has aimed at designing structured prediction models and approximate inference and learning procedures that are computationally efficient. This volume offers an overview of this recent research in order to make the work accessible to a broader research community. The chapters, by leading researchers in the field, cover a range of topics, including research trends, the linear programming relaxation approach, innovations in probabilistic modeling, recent theoretical progress, and resource-aware learning.Sebastian Nowozin is a Researcher in the Machine Learning and Perception group (MLP) at Microsoft Research, Cambridge, England. Peter V. Gehler is a Senior Researcher in the Perceiving Systems group at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Tübingen, Germany. Jeremy Jancsary is a Senior Research Scientist at Nuance Communications, Vienna. Christoph H. Lampert is Assistant Professor at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria, where he heads a group for Computer Vision and Machine Learning. Contributors Jonas Behr, Yutian Chen, Fernando De La Torre, Justin Domke, Peter V. Gehler, Andrew E. Gelfand, Sébastien Giguère, Amir Globerson, Fred A. Hamprecht, Minh Hoai, Tommi Jaakkola, Jeremy Jancsary, Joseph Keshet, Marius Kloft, Vladimir Kolmogorov, Christoph H. Lampert, François Laviolette, Xinghua Lou, Mario Marchand, André F. T. Martins, Ofer Meshi, Sebastian Nowozin, George Papandreou, Daniel Pruša, Gunnar Rätsch, Amélie Rolland, Bogdan Savchynskyy, Stefan Schmidt, Thomas Schoenemann, Gabriele Schweikert, Ben Taskar, Sinisa Todorovic, Max Welling, David Weiss, Thomáš Werner, Alan Yuille, Stanislav Živný
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Theory and Application

Author: Mykel J. Kochenderfer

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262029251

Category: Computers

Page: 352

View: 8362

This book provides an introduction to the challenges of decision making under uncertainty from a computational perspective. It presents both the theory behind decision making models and algorithms and a collection of example applications that range from speech recognition to aircraft collision avoidance. Focusing on two methods for designing decision agents, planning and reinforcement learning, the book covers probabilistic models, introducing Bayesian networks as a graphical model that captures probabilistic relationships between variables; utility theory as a framework for understanding optimal decision making under uncertainty; Markov decision processes as a method for modeling sequential problems; model uncertainty; state uncertainty; and cooperative decision making involving multiple interacting agents
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Author: Mehryar Mohri,Afshin Rostamizadeh,Ameet Talwalkar

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262304732

Category: Computers

Page: 432

View: 4481

This graduate-level textbook introduces fundamental concepts and methods in machine learning. It describes several important modern algorithms, provides the theoretical underpinnings of these algorithms, and illustrates key aspects for their application. The authors aim to present novel theoretical tools and concepts while giving concise proofs even for relatively advanced topics. Foundations of Machine Learning fills the need for a general textbook that also offers theoretical details and an emphasis on proofs. Certain topics that are often treated with insufficient attention are discussed in more detail here; for example, entire chapters are devoted to regression, multi-class classification, and ranking. The first three chapters lay the theoretical foundation for what follows, but each remaining chapter is mostly self-contained. The appendix offers a concise probability review, a short introduction to convex optimization, tools for concentration bounds, and several basic properties of matrices and norms used in the book.The book is intended for graduate students and researchers in machine learning, statistics, and related areas; it can be used either as a textbook or as a reference text for a research seminar.
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Foundations and Learning Algorithms

Author: Jonas Peters,Dominik Janzing,Bernhard Schölkopf

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262037319

Category: Computers

Page: 288

View: 4788

The mathematization of causality is a relatively recent development, and has become increasingly important in data science and machine learning. This book offers a self-contained and concise introduction to causal models and how to learn them from data. After explaining the need for causal models and discussing some of the principles underlying causal inference, the book teaches readers how to use causal models: how to compute intervention distributions, how to infer causal models from observational and interventional data, and how causal ideas could be exploited for classical machine learning problems. All of these topics are discussed first in terms of two variables and then in the more general multivariate case. The bivariate case turns out to be a particularly hard problem for causal learning because there are no conditional independences as used by classical methods for solving multivariate cases. The authors consider analyzing statistical asymmetries between cause and effect to be highly instructive, and they report on their decade of intensive research into this problem. The book is accessible to readers with a background in machine learning or statistics, and can be used in graduate courses or as a reference for researchers. The text includes code snippets that can be copied and pasted, exercises, and an appendix with a summary of the most important technical concepts.
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