Author: Ronit Nikolsky,Tal Ilan
In this book various authors explore how rabbinic traditions that were formulated in the Land of Israel migrated to Jewish study houses in Babylonia.
The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity
Author: Moshe Lavee
In The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism, Moshe Lavee offers an account of crucial internal developments in the rabbinic corpus, showing how the Babylonian Talmud challenged and extended the rabbinic model of conversion to Judaism.
Author: Yishai Kiel
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This book explores sex and sexuality in the Babylonian Talmud within the context of competing cultural discourses, for students of comparative religion.
Author: Richard Kalmin
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The Babylonian Talmud was compiled in the third through sixth centuries CE, by rabbis living under Sasanian Persian rule in the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. What kind of society did these rabbis inhabit? What effect did that society have on important rabbinic texts? In this book Richard Kalmin offers a thorough reexamination of rabbinic culture of late antique Babylonia. He shows how this culture was shaped in part by Persia on the one hand, and by Roman Palestine on the other. The mid fourth century CE in Jewish Babylonia was a period of particularly intense "Palestinianization," at the same time that the Mesopotamian and east Persian Christian communities were undergoing a period of intense "Syrianization." Kalmin argues that these closely related processes were accelerated by third-century Persian conquests deep into Roman territory, which resulted in the resettlement of thousands of Christian and Jewish inhabitants of the eastern Roman provinces in Persian Mesopotamia, eastern Syria, and western Persia, profoundly altering the cultural landscape for centuries to come. Kalmin also offers new interpretations of several fascinating rabbinic texts of late antiquity. He shows how they have often been misunderstood by historians who lack attentiveness to the role of anonymous editors in glossing or emending earlier texts and who insist on attributing these texts to sixth century editors rather than to storytellers and editors of earlier centuries who introduced changes into the texts they learned and transmitted. He also demonstrates how Babylonian rabbis interacted with the non-rabbinic Jewish world, often in the form of the incorporation of centuries-old non-rabbinic Jewish texts into the developing Talmud, rather than via the encounter with actual non-rabbinic Jews in the streets and marketplaces of Babylonia. Most of these texts were "domesticated" prior to their inclusion in the Babylonian Talmud, which was generally accomplished by means of the rabbinization of the non-rabbinic texts. Rabbis transformed a story's protagonists into rabbis rather than kings or priests, or portrayed them studying Torah rather than engaging in other activities, since Torah study was viewed by them as the most important, perhaps the only important, human activity. Kalmin's arguments shed new light on rabbinic Judaism in late antique society. This book will be invaluable to any student or scholar of this period.
Accounting for Halakhic Difference in Selected Sugyot from Tractate Avodah Zarah
Author: Christine Elizabeth Hayes
Publisher: Oxford University Press
In this book, Hayes addresses the central concern in talmudic studies over the genesis of halakhic (legal) divergence between the Talmuds produced by the Palestinian rabbinic community (c. 370 C.E.) and the Babylonian rabbinic community (c. 650 C.E.). Hayes analyzes selected divergences between parallel passages of the two Talmuds. Proceeding on a case-by-case basis, she considers whether external influences (cultural or regional differences), internal factors (textual, hermeneutical, or dialectical), or some intersection of the two best accounts for the differences.
Navigating the Horizons in Bible Translations
Author: E. Ray Clendenen,David K. Stabnow
Publisher: B&H Publishing Group
In Genesis 3:1 the serpent asked the woman, "Did God really say, 'You can't eat from any tree in the garden'?" What has God really said? Before we can obey Him, we must know what He has said. The Psalmist prayed twice in his affliction, "Give me life through Your word" (Ps 119:25, 107). When Jesus was afflicted by the Devil in the wilderness (Mt 4:1-11), He defended Himself with the sword of the Spirit (Eph 6:17) - God's Word. But Christians must know what God has said if we are to find strength and healing from affliction and defense against the Devil. Bible translation is not a casual enterprise because it involves bringing the life-saving Word of God to people in their own language. And selecting a Bible translation is not on the order of picking out a sweater. It's more like picking a doctor - someone you can trust. This book is about how Bible translation is done. And it commends a particular translation - the Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB) - as a trustworthy guide to what God has really said.
Author: Günter Stemberger
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
English summary: This collection of essays focuses on the rabbinic understanding of the Torah as well as issues concerning the canon and hermeneutics. It contains articles on the rabbinic interpretation of biblical texts, including the Books of the Maccabees and the Book of Judith as well as studies of the portrayal of biblical themes in the synagogues. Several texts deal with the currents in Palestinian Judaism at the end of the period of the Second Temple, the question of a possible unity in mainstream Judaism and the origins of Christianity. Three of the essays describe the rabbinic concept of the priesthood and of the heavenly liturgy after the destruction of the Second Temple. The last part deals with the similarities and the differences in the Jewish and the Christian interpretation of the Bible, the polemics resulting from the rivalry surrounding the Bible text as well as the question of what Jewish and New Testament scholars can learn from one another. German description: Die Aufsatze dieses Bandes entstanden in den letzten zwanzig Jahren. Im Mittelpunkt steht das rabbinische Verstandnis der Tora und ihre Stellung im judischen Leben, die Frage nach dem Kanon und der rabbinischen Hermeneutik. Konkretisiert wird die Thematik in Aufsatzen zur rabbinischen Auslegung einzelner biblischer Texte oder Bucher einschliesslich der Makkabaerbucher und des Buches Judit, aber auch in Studien zur Darstellung biblischer Themen in den Synagogen der Zeit. Mehrere Aufsatze befassen sich mit den Stromungen im palastinischen Judentum der Spatzeit des Zweiten Tempels, der Frage nach einer moglichen Einheit in einem Mainstream Judaism und der Entstehung des Christentums aus diesem gemeinsamen Boden. Wieweit die Zeit des Zweiten Tempels im rabbinischen Judentum nachwirkt, wird in verschiedenen Aufsatzen angesprochen. Drei Aufsatze befassen sich mit den Vorstellungen vom Priestertum und von der himmlischen Liturgie in der Zeit nach dem Untergang des Tempels. Die letzte Gruppe von Aufsatzen ist dem Gemeinsamen und den Unterschieden in judischer und christlicher Auslegung der Bibel gewidmet, auch der Polemik, die sich aus der Rivalitat um den gemeinsamen Text ergibt. Was Judaistik und neutestamentliche Forschung voneinander lernen konnen, ist Thema des abschliessenden Aufsatzes.Alle Beitrage wurden soweit moglich formal vereinheitlicht, Uberschneidungen getilgt, im Einzelfall auch zwei ursprunglich selbstandige Aufsatze ineinander verschmolzen. Ursprunglich auf Franzosisch oder Italienisch erschienene Aufsatze wurden ubersetzt und alle Arbeiten zumindest in einem gewissen Umfang auf den heutigen Stand gebracht.
Studies in Language and Tradition
Author: Craig A. Evans
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
This volume assembles several important studies that examine the role of language in meaning and interpretation. The various contributions investigate interpretation in the versions, in intertestamental traditions, in the New Testament, and in the rabbis and the targumim. The authors, who include well-known veterans as well as younger scholars, explore the differing ways in which the language of Scripture stimulates the understanding of the sacred text in late antiquity and gives rise to important theological themes. This book is a significant resource for any scholar interested in the interpretation of Scripture in and just after the biblical period.
Ancient Jewish Folk Literature Reconsidered
Author: Galit Hasan-Rokem
Publisher: Wayne State University Press
At the beginning of the twentieth century, many perceived American Jewry to be in a state of crisis as traditions of faith faced modern sensibilities. Published beginning in 1909, Rabbi and Professor Louis Ginzberg’s seven-volume The Legends of the Jews appeared at this crucial time and offered a landmark synthesis of aggadah from classical Rabbinic literature and ancient folk legends from a number of cultures. It remains a hugely influential work of scholarship from a man who shaped American Conservative Judaism. In Louis Ginzberg’s Legends of the Jews: Ancient Jewish Folk Literature Reconsidered, editors Galit Hasan-Rokem and Ithamar Gruenwald present a range of reflections on the Legends, inspired by two plenary sessions devoted to its centennial at the Fifteenth Congress of the World Association of Jewish Studies in August 2009. In order to provide readers with the broadest possible view of Ginzberg’s colossal project and its repercussions in contemporary scholarship, the editors gathered leading scholars to address it from a variety of historical, philological, philosophical, and methodological perspectives. Contributors give special regard to the academic expertise and professional identity of the author of the Legends as a folklore scholar and include discussions on the folkloristic underpinnings of The Legends of the Jews. They also investigate, each according to her or his disciplinary framework, the uniqueness, strengths, and weakness of the project. An introduction by Rebecca Schorsch and a preface by Galit Hasan-Rokem further highlight the folk narrative aspects of the work in addition to the articles themselves. The present volume makes clear the historical and scholarly context of Ginzberg’s milestone work as well as the methodological and theoretical issues that emerge from studying it and other forms of aggadic literature. Scholars of Jewish folklore as well as of Talmudic-Midrashic literature will find this volume to be invaluable reading.
Author: Richard Kalmin
The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity explores the social position of rabbis in Palestinian (Roman) and Babylonian (Persian) society from the period of the fall of the Temple to late antiquity. The author argues that ancient rabbinic sources depict comparable differences between Palestinian and Babylonian rabbinic relationships with non-Rabbis.
Author: Holger M. Zellentin
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
Holger M. Zellentin seeks to probe how far the classical rabbis took their literary playfulness in order to advance their religious and societal causes. Building on the literary approaches to rabbinic Judaism of the past decades, this work considers the rabbis' attitudes towards their Byzantine and Sassanian surroundings. The author examines how the Talmud and Midrash in Palestine and Persia repeat previous texts with comical difference, oscillating between reverence and satire. The result shows rabbinic society and its literature engaging in the great debates of their times, commenting on issues such as pedagogy, abstinence, dream interpretation, inheritance law, ritual purity, and Christian triumphalism and asceticism. In constant conversation with the Bible, the rabbis reveal themselves as capable of critically reinventing the Jewish tradition, as well as of playfully engaging a few Gospel passages favoured by their Christian interlocutors. Rabbinic parodies cast deviant insiders as tantamount to outsiders and explore the limits of acculturation within the Jewish tradition - in the Talmud, even parody itself comes under parodic scrutiny.
Retrieving Women's History from Rabbinic Literature
Author: Tạl Îlān
This book suggests several methods with which rabbinic sources can be approached in order to obtain information about women's history. It is the first feminist book about rabbinic literature which treats the latter as a historical source. It contains many examples and discusses for the first time many sources relevant for the issue of women in rabbinics.
Author: William Horbury,John Sturdy
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This fourth volume of The Cambridge History of Judaism covers the period from 70 CE to 640 CE (the rise of Islam). It deals with the major historical, political and cultural developments in Jewish history and the history of Judaism in this crucial era during which Judaism took on its classical shape. It provides discussion and analysis of all the essential subjects pertinent to an understanding of this period, and is especially strong in its coverage of the growth and development of rabbinic Judaism and of the major classical rabbinic sources such as the Mishnah, Jerusalem Talmud, Babylonian Talmud and various Midrashic collections. In addition, it surveys the early encounter of Judaism and Christianity from both the Jewish and Christian sides and describes the rise of Jewish mystical literature, the liturgical literature of the developing synagogue, the nature of magical practices in classical Judaism and Jewish Folklore.
History, Tradition, Practice
Author: Michael L. Satlow
Publisher: Columbia University Press
How can we define "Judaism," and what are the common threads uniting ancient rabbis, Maimonides, the authors of the Zohar, and modern secular Jews in Israel? Michael L. Satlow offers a fresh perspective on Judaism that recognizes both its similarities and its immense diversity. Presenting snapshots of Judaism from around the globe and throughout history, Satlow explores the links between vastly different communities and their Jewish traditions. He studies the geonim, rabbinical scholars who lived in Iraq from the ninth to twelfth centuries; the intellectual flourishing of Jews in medieval Spain; how the Hasidim of nineteenth-century Eastern Europe confronted modernity; and the post-World War II development of distinct American and Israeli Jewish identities. Satlow pays close attention to how communities define themselves, their relationship to biblical and rabbinic texts, and their ritual practices. His fascinating portraits reveal the amazingly creative ways Jews have adapted over time to social and political challenges and continue to remain a "Jewish family."
Author: Eileen Schuller,Marie-Theres Wacker
Publisher: Kohlhammer Verlag
Als "Bücher am Rande der Bibel" werden die Schriften, die im Judentum der hellenistisch-römischen Zeit entstanden sind, oft gering geschätzt - oder als "Verschluss-Sache" mit Enthüllungspotenzial verzerrend überschätzt. De facto geht es dabei um Literatur, die "im Kontext der Bibel" entstanden ist, d. h. sich auf ein entstehendes Korpus von bereits normativ werdenden Schriften bezieht. Vorgefundene Konzepte, darunter auch Konstruktionen des Geschlechterverhältnisses, werden kreativ neuformiert. Der vorliegende Band sichtet eine Auswahl dieser frühjüdischen Schriften unter Genderperspektiven, geht auf die weiblichen Gründungsfiguren Israels und ihre Rezeption in unterschiedlichen Texten ein und analysiert mit Werken von Philo und Josephus sowie den Qumranschriften auch umfangreichere Textkorpora auf genderspezifische Fragen hin.
Intermarriage and Conversion from the Bible to the Talmud
Author: Christine E. Hayes
Publisher: Oxford University Press
In ancient Jewish culture the ideas of purity and impurity defined the socio-cultural boundaries between Jews and Gentiles. Hayes argues that different views of the possibility of conversion, based on varying ideas about Gentile impurity, were the key factor in the formation of Jewish sects in the second temple period, and in the separation of the early Christian Church from what later became rabbinic Judaism.
Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Perspectives on Kinship with Abraham
Author: Martin Goodman,Geurt Hendrik van Kooten,George H. van Kooten,J.T.A.G.M. van Ruiten
Jews, Christians and Muslims describe elements of their origins with close reference to the narrative of Abraham, including the complex story of Abraham's relations with Hagar. This volume sketches the significance of this narrative in the three traditions.