Improving the Design of Existing Code

Author: Martin Fowler,Kent Beck,John Brant,William Opdyke,Don Roberts

Publisher: Addison-Wesley

ISBN: 013306526X

Category: Computers

Page: 455

View: 9203

As the application of object technology--particularly the Java programming language--has become commonplace, a new problem has emerged to confront the software development community. Significant numbers of poorly designed programs have been created by less-experienced developers, resulting in applications that are inefficient and hard to maintain and extend. Increasingly, software system professionals are discovering just how difficult it is to work with these inherited, "non-optimal" applications. For several years, expert-level object programmers have employed a growing collection of techniques to improve the structural integrity and performance of such existing software programs. Referred to as "refactoring," these practices have remained in the domain of experts because no attempt has been made to transcribe the lore into a form that all developers could use. . .until now. In Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code, renowned object technology mentor Martin Fowler breaks new ground, demystifying these master practices and demonstrating how software practitioners can realize the significant benefits of this new process. With proper training a skilled system designer can take a bad design and rework it into well-designed, robust code. In this book, Martin Fowler shows you where opportunities for refactoring typically can be found, and how to go about reworking a bad design into a good one. Each refactoring step is simple--seemingly too simple to be worth doing. Refactoring may involve moving a field from one class to another, or pulling some code out of a method to turn it into its own method, or even pushing some code up or down a hierarchy. While these individual steps may seem elementary, the cumulative effect of such small changes can radically improve the design. Refactoring is a proven way to prevent software decay. In addition to discussing the various techniques of refactoring, the author provides a detailed catalog of more than seventy proven refactorings with helpful pointers that teach you when to apply them; step-by-step instructions for applying each refactoring; and an example illustrating how the refactoring works. The illustrative examples are written in Java, but the ideas are applicable to any object-oriented programming language.
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Improving the Design of Existing Code

Author: Martin Fowler,Kent Beck

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 0201485672

Category: Computers

Page: 431

View: 6538

Users can dramatically improve the design, performance, and manageability of object-oriented code without altering its interfaces or behavior. "Refactoring" shows users exactly how to spot the best opportunities for refactoring and exactly how to do it, step by step.
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Author: Joshua Kerievsky

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 9780321630018

Category: Computers

Page: 400

View: 6298

In 1994, Design Patterns changed the landscape of object-oriented development by introducing classic solutions to recurring design problems. In 1999, Refactoring revolutionized design by introducing an effective process for improving code. With the highly anticipated Refactoring to Patterns , Joshua Kerievsky has changed our approach to design by forever uniting patterns with the evolutionary process of refactoring. This book introduces the theory and practice of pattern-directed refactorings: sequences of low-level refactorings that allow designers to safely move designs to, towards, or away from pattern implementations. Using code from real-world projects, Kerievsky documents the thinking and steps underlying over two dozen pattern-based design transformations. Along the way he offers insights into pattern differences and how to implement patterns in the simplest possible ways. Coverage includes: A catalog of twenty-seven pattern-directed refactorings, featuring real-world code examples Descriptions of twelve design smells that indicate the need for this book’s refactorings General information and new insights about patterns and refactoring Detailed implementation mechanics: how low-level refactorings are combined to implement high-level patterns Multiple ways to implement the same pattern–and when to use each Practical ways to get started even if you have little experience with patterns or refactoring Refactoring to Patterns reflects three years of refinement and the insights of more than sixty software engineering thought leaders in the global patterns, refactoring, and agile development communities. Whether you’re focused on legacy or “greenfield” development, this book will make you a better software designer by helping you learn how to make important design changes safely and effectively.
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Ruby Edition

Author: Jay Fields,Shane Harvie,Martin Fowler,Kent Beck

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 0321604172

Category: Computers

Page: 480

View: 7804

The Definitive Refactoring Guide, Fully Revamped for Ruby With refactoring, programmers can transform even the most chaotic software into well-designed systems that are far easier to evolve and maintain. What’s more, they can do it one step at a time, through a series of simple, proven steps. Now, there’s an authoritative and extensively updated version of Martin Fowler’s classic refactoring book that utilizes Ruby examples and idioms throughout–not code adapted from Java or any other environment. The authors introduce a detailed catalog of more than 70 proven Ruby refactorings, with specific guidance on when to apply each of them, step-by-step instructions for using them, and example code illustrating how they work. Many of the authors’ refactorings use powerful Ruby-specific features, and all code samples are available for download. Leveraging Fowler’s original concepts, the authors show how to perform refactoring in a controlled, efficient, incremental manner, so you methodically improve your code’s structure without introducing new bugs. Whatever your role in writing or maintaining Ruby code, this book will be an indispensable resource. This book will help you Understand the core principles of refactoring and the reasons for doing it Recognize “bad smells” in your Ruby code Rework bad designs into well-designed code, one step at a time Build tests to make sure your refactorings work properly Understand the challenges of refactoring and how they can be overcome Compose methods to package code properly Move features between objects to place responsibilities where they fit best Organize data to make it easier to work with Simplify conditional expressions and make more effective use of polymorphism Create interfaces that are easier to understand and use Generalize more effectively Perform larger refactorings that transform entire software systems and may take months or years Successfully refactor Ruby on Rails code
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Pattern Enterpr Applica Arch

Author: Martin Fowler

Publisher: Addison-Wesley

ISBN: 0133065219

Category: Computers

Page: 557

View: 9826

The practice of enterprise application development has benefited from the emergence of many new enabling technologies. Multi-tiered object-oriented platforms, such as Java and .NET, have become commonplace. These new tools and technologies are capable of building powerful applications, but they are not easily implemented. Common failures in enterprise applications often occur because their developers do not understand the architectural lessons that experienced object developers have learned. Patterns of Enterprise Application Architecture is written in direct response to the stiff challenges that face enterprise application developers. The author, noted object-oriented designer Martin Fowler, noticed that despite changes in technology--from Smalltalk to CORBA to Java to .NET--the same basic design ideas can be adapted and applied to solve common problems. With the help of an expert group of contributors, Martin distills over forty recurring solutions into patterns. The result is an indispensable handbook of solutions that are applicable to any enterprise application platform. This book is actually two books in one. The first section is a short tutorial on developing enterprise applications, which you can read from start to finish to understand the scope of the book's lessons. The next section, the bulk of the book, is a detailed reference to the patterns themselves. Each pattern provides usage and implementation information, as well as detailed code examples in Java or C#. The entire book is also richly illustrated with UML diagrams to further explain the concepts. Armed with this book, you will have the knowledge necessary to make important architectural decisions about building an enterprise application and the proven patterns for use when building them. The topics covered include · Dividing an enterprise application into layers · The major approaches to organizing business logic · An in-depth treatment of mapping between objects and relational databases · Using Model-View-Controller to organize a Web presentation · Handling concurrency for data that spans multiple transactions · Designing distributed object interfaces
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A Brief Guide to the Standard Object Modeling Language

Author: Martin Fowler

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 013486512X

Category: Computers

Page: 208

View: 9382

More than 300,000 developers have benefited from past editions of UML Distilled . This third edition is the best resource for quick, no-nonsense insights into understanding and using UML 2.0 and prior versions of the UML. Some readers will want to quickly get up to speed with the UML 2.0 and learn the essentials of the UML. Others will use this book as a handy, quick reference to the most common parts of the UML. The author delivers on both of these promises in a short, concise, and focused presentation. This book describes all the major UML diagram types, what they're used for, and the basic notation involved in creating and deciphering them. These diagrams include class, sequence, object, package, deployment, use case, state machine, activity, communication, composite structure, component, interaction overview, and timing diagrams. The examples are clear and the explanations cut to the fundamental design logic. Includes a quick reference to the most useful parts of the UML notation and a useful summary of diagram types that were added to the UML 2.0. If you are like most developers, you don't have time to keep up with all the new innovations in software engineering. This new edition of Fowler's classic work gets you acquainted with some of the best thinking about efficient object-oriented software design using the UML--in a convenient format that will be essential to anyone who designs software professionally.
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Author: William C. Wake

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 9780321109293

Category: Computers

Page: 235

View: 5773

& Most software practitioners deal with inherited code; this book teaches them how to optimize it & & Workbook approach facilitates the learning process & & Helps you identify where problems in a software application exist or are likely to exist
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Reusable Object Models

Author: Martin Fowler

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 9780201895421

Category: Computers

Page: 357

View: 2489

In his long-awaited book, Martin Fowler has done for application domain patterns what the Gang of Four [Gamma et al.] have done for general purpose design patterns in their book, Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software. This book is a must have for all analysts and designers doing object-oriented business modeling and business process re-engineering. —Donald G. Firesmith, Knowledge Systems Corporation Fowler shares with you his wealth of object modeling experience and his keen eye for identifying repeating problems and transforming them into reusable models. Analysis Patterns provides a catalogue of patterns that have emerged in a wide range of domains, including trading, measurement, accounting, and organizational relationships.
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Author: Kent Beck

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 9780132702553

Category: Computers

Page: 176

View: 8324

Software Expert Kent Beck Presents a Catalog of Patterns Infinitely Useful for Everyday Programming Great code doesn’t just function: it clearly and consistently communicates your intentions, allowing other programmers to understand your code, rely on it, and modify it with confidence. But great code doesn’t just happen. It is the outcome of hundreds of small but critical decisions programmers make every single day. Now, legendary software innovator Kent Beck—known worldwide for creating Extreme Programming and pioneering software patterns and test-driven development—focuses on these critical decisions, unearthing powerful “implementation patterns” for writing programs that are simpler, clearer, better organized, and more cost effective. Beck collects 77 patterns for handling everyday programming tasks and writing more readable code. This new collection of patterns addresses many aspects of development, including class, state, behavior, method, collections, frameworks, and more. He uses diagrams, stories, examples, and essays to engage the reader as he illuminates the patterns. You’ll find proven solutions for handling everything from naming variables to checking exceptions.
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Evolutionary Database Design

Author: Scott W. Ambler,Pramod J. Sadalage

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 9780321630179

Category: Computers

Page: 384

View: 5463

Refactoring has proven its value in a wide range of development projects–helping software professionals improve system designs, maintainability, extensibility, and performance. Now, for the first time, leading agile methodologist Scott Ambler and renowned consultant Pramodkumar Sadalage introduce powerful refactoring techniques specifically designed for database systems. Ambler and Sadalage demonstrate how small changes to table structures, data, stored procedures, and triggers can significantly enhance virtually any database design–without changing semantics. You’ll learn how to evolve database schemas in step with source code–and become far more effective in projects relying on iterative, agile methodologies. This comprehensive guide and reference helps you overcome the practical obstacles to refactoring real-world databases by covering every fundamental concept underlying database refactoring. Using start-to-finish examples, the authors walk you through refactoring simple standalone database applications as well as sophisticated multi-application scenarios. You’ll master every task involved in refactoring database schemas, and discover best practices for deploying refactorings in even the most complex production environments. The second half of this book systematically covers five major categories of database refactorings. You’ll learn how to use refactoring to enhance database structure, data quality, and referential integrity; and how to refactor both architectures and methods. This book provides an extensive set of examples built with Oracle and Java and easily adaptable for other languages, such as C#, C++, or VB.NET, and other databases, such as DB2, SQL Server, MySQL, and Sybase. Using this book’s techniques and examples, you can reduce waste, rework, risk, and cost–and build database systems capable of evolving smoothly, far into the future.
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Author: Kent Beck,Martin Fowler

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 9780201710915

Category: Computers

Page: 139

View: 8219

A guide to XP leads the developer, project manager, and team leader through the software development planning process, offering real world examples and tips for reacting to changing environments quickly and efficiently.
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Author: Michael Feathers

Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional

ISBN: 0132931753

Category: Computers

Page: 456

View: 4913

Get more out of your legacy systems: more performance, functionality, reliability, and manageability Is your code easy to change? Can you get nearly instantaneous feedback when you do change it? Do you understand it? If the answer to any of these questions is no, you have legacy code, and it is draining time and money away from your development efforts. In this book, Michael Feathers offers start-to-finish strategies for working more effectively with large, untested legacy code bases. This book draws on material Michael created for his renowned Object Mentor seminars: techniques Michael has used in mentoring to help hundreds of developers, technical managers, and testers bring their legacy systems under control. The topics covered include Understanding the mechanics of software change: adding features, fixing bugs, improving design, optimizing performance Getting legacy code into a test harness Writing tests that protect you against introducing new problems Techniques that can be used with any language or platform—with examples in Java, C++, C, and C# Accurately identifying where code changes need to be made Coping with legacy systems that aren't object-oriented Handling applications that don't seem to have any structure This book also includes a catalog of twenty-four dependency-breaking techniques that help you work with program elements in isolation and make safer changes.
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Author: Steve Freeman,Nat Pryce

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 9780321699763

Category: Computers

Page: 384

View: 8415

Test-Driven Development (TDD) is now an established technique for delivering better software faster. TDD is based on a simple idea: Write tests for your code before you write the code itself. However, this "simple" idea takes skill and judgment to do well. Now there's a practical guide to TDD that takes you beyond the basic concepts. Drawing on a decade of experience building real-world systems, two TDD pioneers show how to let tests guide your development and “grow” software that is coherent, reliable, and maintainable. Steve Freeman and Nat Pryce describe the processes they use, the design principles they strive to achieve, and some of the tools that help them get the job done. Through an extended worked example, you’ll learn how TDD works at multiple levels, using tests to drive the features and the object-oriented structure of the code, and using Mock Objects to discover and then describe relationships between objects. Along the way, the book systematically addresses challenges that development teams encounter with TDD—from integrating TDD into your processes to testing your most difficult features. Coverage includes Implementing TDD effectively: getting started, and maintaining your momentum throughout the project Creating cleaner, more expressive, more sustainable code Using tests to stay relentlessly focused on sustaining quality Understanding how TDD, Mock Objects, and Object-Oriented Design come together in the context of a real software development project Using Mock Objects to guide object-oriented designs Succeeding where TDD is difficult: managing complex test data, and testing persistence and concurrency
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By Example

Author: Kent Beck

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 0321146530

Category: Computers

Page: 220

View: 8551

Write clean code that works with the help of this groundbreaking software method. Example-driven teaching is the basis of Beck's step-by-step instruction that will have readers using TDD to further their projects.
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Author: Martin Fowler

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 9780131392809

Category: Computers

Page: 640

View: 5447

When carefully selected and used, Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) may simplify complex code, promote effective communication with customers, improve productivity, and unclog development bottlenecks. In Domain-Specific Languages , noted software development expert Martin Fowler first provides the information software professionals need to decide if and when to utilize DSLs. Then, where DSLs prove suitable, Fowler presents effective techniques for building them, and guides software engineers in choosing the right approaches for their applications. This book’s techniques may be utilized with most modern object-oriented languages; the author provides numerous examples in Java and C#, as well as selected examples in Ruby. Wherever possible, chapters are organized to be self-standing, and most reference topics are presented in a familiar patterns format. Armed with this wide-ranging book, developers will have the knowledge they need to make important decisions about DSLs—and, where appropriate, gain the significant technical and business benefits they offer. The topics covered include: How DSLs compare to frameworks and libraries, and when those alternatives are sufficient Using parsers and parser generators, and parsing external DSLs Understanding, comparing, and choosing DSL language constructs Determining whether to use code generation, and comparing code generation strategies Previewing new language workbench tools for creating DSLs
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Managing Technical Debt

Author: Girish Suryanarayana,Ganesh Samarthyam,Tushar Sharma

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 0128016469

Category: Computers

Page: 258

View: 5351

Awareness of design smells – indicators of common design problems – helps developers or software engineers understand mistakes made while designing, what design principles were overlooked or misapplied, and what principles need to be applied properly to address those smells through refactoring. Developers and software engineers may "know" principles and patterns, but are not aware of the "smells" that exist in their design because of wrong or mis-application of principles or patterns. These smells tend to contribute heavily to technical debt – further time owed to fix projects thought to be complete – and need to be addressed via proper refactoring. Refactoring for Software Design Smells presents 25 structural design smells, their role in identifying design issues, and potential refactoring solutions. Organized across common areas of software design, each smell is presented with diagrams and examples illustrating the poor design practices and the problems that result, creating a catalog of nuggets of readily usable information that developers or engineers can apply in their projects. The authors distill their research and experience as consultants and trainers, providing insights that have been used to improve refactoring and reduce the time and costs of managing software projects. Along the way they recount anecdotes from actual projects on which the relevant smell helped address a design issue. Contains a comprehensive catalog of 25 structural design smells (organized around four fundamental design principles) that contribute to technical debt in software projects Presents a unique naming scheme for smells that helps understand the cause of a smell as well as points toward its potential refactoring Includes illustrative examples that showcase the poor design practices underlying a smell and the problems that result Covers pragmatic techniques for refactoring design smells to manage technical debt and to create and maintain high-quality software in practice Presents insightful anecdotes and case studies drawn from the trenches of real-world projects
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Refactoring Test Code

Author: Gerard Meszaros

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 0132797461

Category: Computers

Page: 944

View: 1112

Automated testing is a cornerstone of agile development. An effective testing strategy will deliver new functionality more aggressively, accelerate user feedback, and improve quality. However, for many developers, creating effective automated tests is a unique and unfamiliar challenge. xUnit Test Patterns is the definitive guide to writing automated tests using xUnit, the most popular unit testing framework in use today. Agile coach and test automation expert Gerard Meszaros describes 68 proven patterns for making tests easier to write, understand, and maintain. He then shows you how to make them more robust and repeatable--and far more cost-effective. Loaded with information, this book feels like three books in one. The first part is a detailed tutorial on test automation that covers everything from test strategy to in-depth test coding. The second part, a catalog of 18 frequently encountered "test smells," provides trouble-shooting guidelines to help you determine the root cause of problems and the most applicable patterns. The third part contains detailed descriptions of each pattern, including refactoring instructions illustrated by extensive code samples in multiple programming languages.
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Author: William C. Wake,Kevin Rutherford

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 9780321647900

Category: Computers

Page: 288

View: 2177

The First Hands-On, Practical, All-Ruby Refactoring Workbook! Refactoring—the art of improving the design of existing code—has taken the world by storm. So has Ruby. Now, for the first time, there’s a refactoring workbook designed from the ground up for the dynamic Ruby language. Refactoring in Ruby gives you all the realistic, hands-on practice you need to refactor Ruby code quickly and effectively. You’ll discover how to recognize “code smells,” which signal opportunities for improvement, and then perfect your program’s design one small, safe step at a time. The book shows you when and how to refactor with both legacy code and during new test-driven development, and walks you through real-world refactoring in detail. The workbook concludes with several applications designed to help practice refactoring in realistic domains, plus a handy code review checklist you’ll refer to again and again. Along the way, you’ll learn powerful lessons about designing higher quality Ruby software—lessons that will enable you to experience the joy of writing consistently great code. Refactoring in Ruby will help you Recognize why poor code design occurs, so you can prevent it from occurring in your own code Master better design techniques that lead to more efficient, reliable, and maintainable software Fix code that’s too long, large, or difficult to follow Ferret out duplication, and express each idea “once and only once” Recognize missing or inadequately formed classes Simplify overly complex relationships between classes and their subclasses Achieve the right balance of responsibilities among objects Make your code easier to test and change Cope with incomplete library modules, and fix runaway dependencies Learn the next steps to take after you refactor
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Author: Kent Beck

Publisher: Prentice Hall

ISBN: 0132852128

Category: Computers

Page: 228

View: 1945

This classic book is the definitive real-world style guide for better Smalltalk programming. This author presents a set of patterns that organize all the informal experience successful Smalltalk programmers have learned the hard way. When programmers understand these patterns, they can write much more effective code. The concept of Smalltalk patterns is introduced, and the book explains why they work. Next, the book introduces proven patterns for working with methods, messages, state, collections, classes and formatting. Finally, the book walks through a development example utilizing patterns. For programmers, project managers, teachers and students -- both new and experienced. This book presents a set of patterns that organize all the informal experience of successful Smalltalk programmers. This book will help you understand these patterns, and empower you to write more effective code.
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