Author: Edward G. Carmines,Richard A. Zeller

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1452207712

Category: Social Science

Page: 72

View: 847

This guide explains how social scientists can evaluate the reliability and validity of empirical measurements, discussing the three basic types of validity: criterion related, content, and construct. In addition, the paper shows how reliability is assessed by the retest method, alternative-forms procedure, split-halves approach, and internal consistency method.
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Author: Graham Kalton,KALTON

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803921269

Category: Mathematics

Page: 96

View: 7815

Reviews sampling methods used in surveys: simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratification, cluster and multi-stage sampling, sampling with probability proportional to size, two-phase sampling, replicated sampling, panel designs, and non-probability sampling. Kalton discusses issues of practical implementation, including frame problems and non-response, and gives examples of sample designs for a national face-to-face interview survey and for a telephone survey. He also treats the use of weights in survey analysis, the computation of sampling errors with complex sampling designs, and the determination of sample size.
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An Introduction

Author: John Fox

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803939714

Category: Mathematics

Page: 92

View: 2145

With Regression Diagnostics, researchers now have an accessible explanation of the techniques needed for exploring problems that compromise a regression analysis and for determining whether certain assumptions appear reasonable. The book covers such topics as the problem of collinearity in multiple regression, dealing with outlying and influential data, non-normality of errors, non-constant error variance and the problems and opportunities presented by discrete data. In addition, sophisticated diagnostics based on maximum-likelihood methods, scores tests, and constructed variables are introduced.
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Author: Gudmund R. Iversen,Helmut Norpoth

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803930018

Category: Mathematics

Page: 94

View: 6439

The second edition of this book provides a conceptual understanding of analysis of variance. It outlines methods for analysing variance that are used to study the effect of one or more nominal variables on a dependent, interval level variable. The book presumes only elementary background in significance testing and data analysis.
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Handcrafting the Standardized Questionnaire

Author: Jean M. Converse,Stanley Presser

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803927438

Category: Reference

Page: 80

View: 2460

Survey Questions is a highly readable guide to the principles of writing survey questions. The authors review recent research on survey questions, consider the lore of professional experience and finally present those findings which have the strongest implications on writing these questions.
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Author: Gregory R. Hancock,Ralph O. Mueller

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135172994

Category: Education

Page: 448

View: 467

The Reviewer’s Guide is designed for reviewers of research manuscripts and proposals in the social and behavioral sciences, and beyond. Its uniquely structured chapters address traditional and emerging quantitative methods of data analysis.
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Author: Deborah L. Bandalos

Publisher: Guilford Publications

ISBN: 1462532136

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 661

View: 3864

Which types of validity evidence should be considered when determining whether a scale is appropriate for a given measurement situation? What about reliability evidence? Using clear explanations illustrated by examples from across the social and behavioral sciences, this engaging text prepares students to make effective decisions about the selection, administration, scoring, interpretation, and development of measurement instruments. Coverage includes the essential measurement topics of scale development, item writing and analysis, and reliability and validity, as well as more advanced topics such as exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, item response theory, diagnostic classification models, test bias and fairness, standard setting, and equating. End-of-chapter exercises (with answers) emphasize both computations and conceptual understanding to encourage readers to think critically about the material.
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Smoothing Scatterplots

Author: John Fox

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761915850

Category: Mathematics

Page: 83

View: 4681

John Fox introduces readers to the techniques of kernel estimation, additive nonparametric regression, and the ways nonparametric regression can be employed to select transformations of the data preceding a linear least-squares fit.
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Author: Bruce Bueno de Mesquita,Hilton L. Root

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300080186

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 266

View: 3883

How do political institutions help promote prosperity in some countries and poverty in others? What can be done to encourage leaders to govern not for patronage but for economic growth? In this book, such distinguished political economists as Douglass North, Robert Barro, and Stephen Haber answer these questions, providing a solution to one of the most important policy puzzles of the new century: how to govern for prosperity. The authors begin from a premise that political leaders are self-interested politicians rather than benign agents of the people they lead. When leaders depend on only a few backers to stay in power, they dole out privileges to those people, thereby dissipating their country's total resources and national growth potential. On the other hand, leaders who need large coalitions to stay in office implement policies that generally foster growth and political competition over ideas. The result is that those who promote policies that lead to stagnation tend to stay in office for a long time, and those who produce prosperity tend to lose their jobs. Analyzing countries in North and South America and Asia, the authors discuss the range of political regimes that permit or even encourage leaders to rule by mismanaging their nation's resources. And they show that nations must forge institutions that allow all social groups to participate in and benefit from the economy as well as force political leaders to be responsible for policy outcomes.
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Author: Paul E. Spector

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1506315968

Category: Social Science

Page: 80

View: 9305

Research Designs is a clear, compact introduction to the principles of experimental and non-experimental design especially written for social scientists and their students. Spector covers major designs including: single group designs; pre-test/post-test designs; factorial designs, hierarchical designs; multivariate designs; the Solomon four group design; panel designs; and designs with concomitant variables.
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Author: Ray Pawson,Nicholas Tilley

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 144623388X

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 4560

Realistic Evaluation shows how program evaluation needs to be, and can be bettered. It presents a profound yet highly readable critique of current evaluation practice, and goes on to introduce a `manifesto' and `handbook' for a fresh approach. The main body of this book is devoted to the articulation of a new evaluation paradigm, which promises greater validity and utility from the findings of evaluation studies. The authors call this new approach `realistic evaluation'. The name reflects the paradigm's foundation in scientific realist philosophy, its commitment to the idea that programmes deal with real problems rather than mere social constructions, and its primary intention, which is to inform realistic developments in policy making that benefit programme participants and the public. Ray Pawson and Nicholas Tilley argue with passion that scientific evaluation requires a careful blend of theory and method, quality and quantity, ambition and realism. The book offers a complete blueprint for evaluation activities, running from design to data collection and analysis to the cumulation of findings across programmes and onto the realization of research into policy. The argument is developed using practical examples throughout and is grounded in the major fields of programme evaluation. This book will be essential reading for all those involved in the evaluation process especially those researchers, students and practitioners in the core disciplines of sociology, social policy, criminology, health and education. `This book is a must for those engaged in the field, providing a fully illustrated text on evaluation with numerous examples from the criminal justice system. Unusually, it offers something for the academic, practitioner and student alike. I found Pawson and Tilley's latest work on evaluation an enjoyable and informative read. For myself their "realistic evaluation" clarified and formalised a jumbled set of ideas I had already been developing. Although not everyone will agree with the methodology proposed by the authors, this book is a valuable read as it will cause most of us at least to review our methodological stance' - International Journal of Police Science and Management `This is an engaging book with a strong sense of voice and communicative task. The voice is sometimes strident, but always clear. Its communicative qualities are evident equally in its structure: lots of signposting for the reader within and across chapters' - Language Teaching Research `This provocative, elegant and highly insightful book focuses on the effective incorporation of actual practice into the formulation of evaluation methodology. What a pleasure to read sentences like: "The research act involves "learning" a stakeholder's theories, formalizing them, and "teaching" them back to that informant who is then in a position to comment upon, clarify and further refine the key ideas". Pawson and Tilley have given us a wise, witty and persuasive account of how real practitioner experience might be encouraged to intrude on (and modify) researchers' concepts about program processes and outcomes. This holds important promise for achieving something that is devoutly to be wished: closer interaction among at least some researchers and some policy makers' - Eleanor Chelimsky, Past-President of the American Evaluation Association `This is a sustained methodological argument by two wordly-wise social scientists. Unashamedly intellectual, theoretically ambitious yet with a clear but bounded conception of evaluation. It is articulate, occasionally eloquent and always iconoclastic, whilst eschewing "paradigm wars". The Pawson and Tilley "realist" call to arms threatens to take no prisoners among experimentalists, constructivists or pluralists. It is the kind of book that clarifies your thoughts, even when you disagree with everything they say' - Elliot Stern, The Tavistock Institute
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An Introduction

Author: Michael Lewis-Beck

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803957725

Category: Medical

Page: 77

View: 5292

This accessible introduction to data analysis focuses on the interpretation of statistical results, in particular those which come from nonexperimental social research. It will provide social science researchers with the tools necessary to select and evaluate statistical tests appropriate for their research question. Using a consistent data-set throughout the book to illustrate the various analytic techniques, Michael Lewis-Beck covers topics such as univariate statistics, measures of association, the statistical significance of the relationship between two variables, simple regression in which the dependent variable is influenced by a single independent variable, and multiple regression.
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Author: Nunnally

Publisher: Tata McGraw-Hill Education

ISBN: 9780071070881

Category: Psychology

Page: 752

View: 2446

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Author: Pertti Alasuutari,Leonard Bickman,Julia Brannen

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1473971268

Category: Social Science

Page: 648

View: 4327

The SAGE Handbook of Social Research Methods is a must for every social-science researcher. It charts the new and evolving terrain of social research methodology, covering qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods in one volume. The Handbook includes chapters on each phase of the research process: research design, methods of data collection, and the processes of analyzing and interpreting data. The volume maintains that there is much more to research than learning skills and techniques; methodology involves the fit between theory, research questions research design and analysis. The book also includes several chapters that describe historical and current directions in social research, debating crucial subjects such as qualitative versus quantitative paradigms, how to judge the credibility of types of research, and the increasingly topical issue of research ethics. The Handbook serves as an invaluable resource for approaching research with an open mind. This volume maps the field of social research methods using an approach that will prove valuable for both students and researchers.
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A Comprehensive Guide

Author: Raymond-Alain Thietart

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412933625

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 432

View: 1871

`This book provides refreshing and powerful insights on the challenges of conducting management research from a European perspective. Particulalrly for someone embarking on a managment research career this book will provide valuable guidelines.' -- Ian MacMillan, Wharton School of Business, University of Pennsylvania `This comprehensive volume is distinguished by its balance and pragmatism. The authors who present the various research methods are not proponents but researchers who have applied these methods. The authors who discuss philosophical and strategic issues are not advocates but researchers who have had to confront these issues in their research' - Bill Starbuck, New York University `Doing Management Research is a fabulous contribution to our field. Thietart and his colleagues have put together a unique and valuable guide to help management scholars more deeply understand the issues, dynamics and contradictions of executing first class managerial research. This book will hold an important place on the researcher's desk for years to come' - Michael Tushman, Harvard Business School 'This is an excellent in-depth examination of the conduct of management research. It will serve as a valuable resource for management scholars and researchers and is a must read for Ph.D. students in management.' -- Michael Hitt, Arizona State University `This book will prove to be an excellent guide for those engaged in management research for the first time and an excellent refresher for more experienced scholars. Raymond Thietart and his colleagues should be thanked roundly for this comprehensive volume' - Gordon Walker, Southern Methodist University, Cox Business School `This textbook makes an outstanding contribution to texts on management research. For researchers considering management research it offers an extensive guide to the research process' - Paula Roberts, Nurse Researcher Doing Management Research, a major new textbook, provides answers to questions and problems which researchers invariably encounter when embarking on management research, be it quantitative or qualitative. This book will carefully guide the reader through the research process from beginning to end. An excellent tool for academics and students, it enables the reader to acquire and build upon empirical evidence, and to decide what tools to use to understand and describe what is being observed, and then, which methods of analysis to adopt. There is an entire section dedicated to writing up and communicating the research findings. Written in an accessible and easy-to-use style, this book can be read from cover to cover or dipped into, to clarify particular issues during the research process. Doing Management Research results from the 'hands-on' experience of a large group of researchers who have all had to address the different issues raised when undertaking management research. It is anchored in real methodological problems that researchers face in their work. This work will also become one of the most useful reference tools for senior researchers who are looking for answers to epistemological or methodological problems.
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Issues and Applications

Author: Richard G. Netemeyer,William O. Bearden,Subhash Sharma

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 150632018X

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 3218

Scaling Procedures: Issues and Applications examines the issues involved in developing and validating multi-item self-report scales of latent constructs. Distinguished researchers and award-winning educators Richard G. Netemeyer, William O. Bearden, and Subhash Sharma present a four-step approach for multi-indicator scale development. With these steps, the authors include relevant empirical examples and a review of the concepts of dimensionality, reliability, and validity. Scaling Procedures: Issues and Applications supplies cutting-edge strategies for developing and refining measures. Providing concise chapter introductions and summaries, as well as numerous tables, figures, and exhibits, the authors present recommended steps and overlapping activities in a logical, sequential progression.
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Author: Catherine S. Taylor

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199359245

Category: Psychology

Page: 224

View: 7029

The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Validity and Validation is an introduction to validity theory and to the methods used to obtain evidence for the validity of research and assessment results. The book pulls together the best thinking from educational and psychological research and assessment over the past 50 years. It briefly describes validity theory's roots in the philosophy of science. It highlights the ways these philosophical perspectives influence concepts of internal and external validity in research methodology, as well as concepts of validity and reliability in educational and psychological tests and measurements. Each chapter provides multiple examples (e.g., research designs and examples of output) to help the readers see how validation work is done in practice, from the ways we design research studies to the ways we interpret research results. Of particular importance is the practical focus on validation of scores from tests and other measures. The book also addresses strategies for investigating the validity of inferences we make about examinees using scores from assessments, as well as how to investigate score uses, the value implications of score interpretations, and the social consequences of score use. With this foundation, the book presents strategies for minimizing threats for validity as well as quantitative and qualitative methods for gathering evidence for the validity of scores.
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Theory and Applications

Author: Robert F. DeVellis

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1412980445

Category: Social Science

Page: 205

View: 9033

A best-seller in its previous editions, Scale Development: Theory and Applications, Third Edition has been extensively updated and revised to address changes in the field and topics that have grown in importance. Widely adopted for graduate courses in departments such as Psychology, Public Health, Marketing, Nursing, and Education, this book will prove beneficial to applied researchers across the social sciences.
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A Century of Public School Reform

Author: David B. TYACK,Larry Cuban,David B Tyack

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674044525

Category: Education

Page: 192

View: 5938

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An Introduction

Author: Paul E. Spector

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803943414

Category: Psychology

Page: 72

View: 2943

The goal for any social scientist doing a survey is to develop a rating on some attitude, value or opinion - a summated rating scale. Aimed at helping researchers construct more effective scales, Spector shows how to determine the number of items necessary, the appropriate amount of response categories and the most productive wording of items, how to sort good items from bad (including item-remainder coefficients and Cronbach′s alpha) and how to validate a scale, including dimensional validity from factor analysis. Written in a user-friendly manner, the book concludes with a step-by-step account of how to develop a summated rating scale based on classical test theory.
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