Scientific Approaches, Analyses, and Tools

Author: Andrew Simon,Sean J. Bennett,Janine M. Castro

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118671783

Category: Science

Page: 544

View: 3672

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 194. Stream Restoration in Dynamic Fluvial Systems: Scientific Approaches, Analyses, and Tools brings together leading contributors in stream restoration science to provide comprehensive consideration of process-based approaches, tools, and applications of techniques useful for the implementation of sustainable restoration strategies. Stream restoration is a catchall term for modifications to streams and adjacent riparian zones undertaken to improve geomorphic and/or ecologic function, structure, and integrity of river corridors, and it has become a multibillion dollar industry. A vigorous debate currently exists in research and professional communities regarding the approaches, applications, and tools most effective in designing, implementing, and assessing stream restoration strategies given a multitude of goals, objectives, stakeholders, and boundary conditions. More importantly, stream restoration as a research-oriented academic discipline is, at present, lagging stream restoration as a rapidly evolving, practitioner-centric endeavor. The volume addresses these main areas: concepts in stream restoration, river mechanics and the use of hydraulic structures, modeling in restoration design, ecology, ecologic indices, and habitat, geomorphic approaches to stream and watershed management, and sediment considerations in stream restoration. Stream Restoration in Dynamic Fluvial Systems will appeal to scholars, professionals, and government agency and institute researchers involved in examining river flow processes, river channel changes and improvements, watershed processes, and landscape systematics.
Read More

Author: G. Mathias Kondolf,Hervé Piégay

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118648560

Category: Science

Page: 560

View: 9017

Fluvial Geomorphology studies the biophysical processes acting in rivers, and the sediment patterns and landforms resulting from them. It is a discipline of synthesis, with roots in geology, geography, and river engineering, and with strong interactions with allied fields such as ecology, engineering and landscape architecture.ï¿1⁄2 This book comprehensively reviews tools used in fluvial geomorphology, at a level suitable to guide the selection of research methods for a given question. Presenting an integrated approach to the interdisciplinary nature of the subject, it provides guidance for researchers and professionals on the tools available to answer questions on river restoration and management.ï¿1⁄2ï¿1⁄2 Thoroughly updated since the first edition in 2003 by experts in their subfields, the book presents state-of-the-art tools that have revolutionized fluvial geomorphology in recent decades, such as physical and numerical modelling, remote sensing and GIS, new field techniques, advances in dating, tracking and sourcing, statistical approaches as well as more traditional methods such as the systems framework, stratigraphic analysis, form and flow characterisation and historical analysis.ï¿1⁄2ï¿1⁄2ï¿1⁄2 This book: Covers five main types of geomorphological questions and their associated tools: historical framework; spatial framework; chemical, physical and biological methods; analysis of processes and forms; and future understanding framework. Provides guidance on advantages and limitations of different tools for different applications, data sources, equipment and supplies needed, and case studies illustrating their application in an integrated perspective. It is an essential resource for researchers and professional geomorphologists, hydrologists, geologists, engineers, planners, and ecologists concerned with river management, conservation and restoration. It is a useful supplementary textbook for upper level undergraduate and graduate courses in Geography, Geology, Environmental Science, Civil and Environmental Engineering, and interdisciplinary courses in river management and restoration.
Read More

Author: Paul F. Hudson,Hans Middelkoop

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493923803

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 356

View: 2647

This volume provides a comprehensive perspective on geomorphic approaches to management of lowland alluvial rivers in North America and Europe. Many lowland rivers have been heavily managed for flood control and navigation for decades or centuries, resulting in engineered channels and embanked floodplains with substantially altered sediment loads and geomorphic processes. Over the past decade, floodplain management of many lowland rivers has taken on new importance because of concerns about the potential for global environmental change to alter floodplain processes, necessitating revised management strategies that minimize flood risk while enhancing environmental attributes of floodplains influenced by local embankments and upstream dams. Recognition of the failure of old perspectives on river management and the need to enhance environmental sustainability has stimulated a new approach to river management. The manner that river restoration and integrated management are implemented, however, requires a case study approach that takes into account the impact of historic human impacts to the system, especially engineering. The river basins examined in this volume provide a representative coverage of the drainage of North America and Europe, taking into account a range of climatic and physiographic provinces. They include the 1) Sacramento (California, USA), 2) San Joaquin (California), 3) Missouri (Missouri, USA), 4) Red (Manitoba, Canada and Minnesota, USA), 5) Mississippi (Louisiana, USA), 6) Kissimmee (Florida, USA), 7) Ebro (Spain), 8) Rhone (France), 9) Rhine (Netherlands), 10) Danube (Romania), and 11) Volga (Russian Federation) Rivers. The case studies covered in these chapters span a range of fluvial modes of adjustment, including sediment, channel, hydrologic regime, floodplains, as well as ecosystem and environmental associations.
Read More

Case Studies from the Lower Ganga Basin

Author: Balai Chandra Das,Sandipan Ghosh,Aznarul Islam

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319904272

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 7409

This edited book presents a novel collection of field-based empirical studies on the Quaternary geomorphology of the Lower Ganga Basin. The book covers a wide range of topics discussing various geomorphological facets of the Lower Ganga and its subsidiary rivers focussing on laterites, palaeoenvironment and palaeogeomorphology, palaeo-coastal landforms, neo-tectonism, tidal-fluvial dynamics, extra-channel geomorphology and channel-pattern adjustment among others. Various methodologies were applied ranging from historical records and religious texts to state-of-the-art remote sensing and GIS techniques. The book appeals to all scientists and post-graduate students of geomorphology and related areas who want to acquire detailed knowledge of the geology and geomorphology of the Lower Ganga Basin or are in search of new methodologies for studying the feedback mechanisms between forms and processes.
Read More

Author: John H. Cushman,Daniel M. Tartakovsky

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1498703054

Category: Science

Page: 1074

View: 1306

This new edition adds several new chapters and is thoroughly updated to include data on new topics such as hydraulic fracturing, CO2 sequestration, sustainable groundwater management, and more. Providing a complete treatment of the theory and practice of groundwater engineering, this new handbook also presents a current and detailed review of how to model the flow of water and the transport of contaminants both in the unsaturated and saturated zones, covers the protection of groundwater, and the remediation of contaminated groundwater.
Read More

A Guide to Restoring Riverine Processes and Habitats

Author: Philip Roni,Tim Beechie

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118406648

Category: Science

Page: 332

View: 8250

With $2 billion spent annually on stream restoration worldwide, there is a pressing need for guidance in this area, but until now, there was no comprehensive text on the subject. Filling that void, this unique text covers both new and existing information following a stepwise approach on theory, planning, implementation, and evaluation methods for the restoration of stream habitats. Comprehensively illustrated with case studies from around the world, Stream and Watershed Restoration provides a systematic approach to restoration programs suitable for graduate and upper-level undergraduate courses on stream or watershed restoration or as a reference for restoration practitioners and fisheries scientists. Part of the Advancing River Restoration and Management Series. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/roni/streamrestoration.
Read More

Managing the Uncertainty in Restoring Physical Habitat

Author: Stephen Darby,David Sear

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470867078

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 9516

River restoration projects are designed to recreate functional characteristics within a context of physical stability. They tend to focus on the development and application of geomorphic principles for river restoration design. Due to different models obtaining different results on the same problem, incomplete or absent data, and climatic/social/cultural changes, the designers and managers of such projects frequently face high levels of uncertainty. This book will provide a systematic overview of the issues involved in minimizing and coping with uncertainty in river restoration projects. A series of thematic sections will be used to define the various sources of uncertainty in restoration projects and how these show at different points in the life cycle (design, construction and post-construction phases) of restoration projects. The structure of the book will offer a rational theoretical analysis of the problem while providing practical guidance in managing the different sources of uncertainty. A wide range of case studies will be included from Europe, North America and Australasia
Read More

Processes, Measurements, Modeling, and Practice

Author: Marcelo H. GarcÁa

Publisher: ASCE Publications

ISBN: 0784471282

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1132

View: 2213

Prepared by the ASCE Task Committee to Expand and Update Manual 54 of the Sedimentation Committee of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of ASCE Sedimentation Engineering: Processes, Measurements, Modeling, and Practice presents extensive advances in methods of investigation, measurement, and analysis in the specialized field of sedimentation engineering. A supplement to the classic Sedimentation Engineering (Manual 54), this new volume not only documents the evolution of the field over a 50-year period, but also reports on the state of the practice. This manual addresses new topics in physical processes, measurements, modeling, and practice, mainly in the context of rivers and inland water bodies. With contributions from internationally recognized experts in various fields, MOP 110 will benefit hydrologists, geomorphologists, sedimentoloigists, land-use planners, and soil conservation specialists, as well as environmental, hydraulic, and agricultural engineers.
Read More

Methods and Their Application for Hazard and Risk Assessment

Author: Michelle Schneuwly-Bollschweiler,Markus Stoffel,Florian Rudolf-Miklau

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940074336X

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 7288

This book provides a detailed overview on methods used for the dating of past torrential activity on fans and cones and fosters the discussion on the impact of past and potential future climate change on torrential processes. The book has a clear focus on the practical applications of these methods, complemented by case studies. The limits of each dating method in case of excessive natural and human interventions on fans and cones are shown.
Read More

Author: Andreas Keiling,Caitr?ona Jackman,Peter Delamere

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118842294

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 7547

All magnetized planets in our solar system (Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) interact strongly with the solar wind and possess well developed magnetotails. It is not only the strongly magnetized planets that have magnetotails. Mars and Venus have no global intrinsic magnetic field, yet they possess induced magnetotails. Comets have magnetotails that are formed by the draping of the interplanetary magnetic field. In the case of planetary satellites (moons), the magnetotail refers to the wake region behind the satellite in the flow of either the solar wind or the magnetosphere of its parent planet. The largest magnetotail of all in our solar system is the heliotail, the “magnetotail” of the heliosphere. The variety of solar wind conditions, planetary rotation rates, ionospheric conductivity, and physical dimensions provide an outstanding opportunity to extend our understanding of the influence of these factors on magnetotail processes and structures. Volume highlights include: Discussion on why a magnetotail is a fundamental problem of magnetospheric physics Unique collection of tutorials on a large range of magnetotails in our solar system In-depth reviews comparing magnetotail processes at Earth with other magnetotail structures found throughout the heliosphere Collectively, Magnetotails in the Solar System brings together for the first time in one book a collection of tutorials and current developments addressing different types of magnetotails. As a result, this book should appeal to a broad community of space scientists, and it should also be of interest to astronomers who are looking at tail-like structures beyond our solar system.
Read More

Author: Venkataraman Lakshmi

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118872266

Category: Science

Page: 576

View: 1612

Remote Sensing of the Terrestrial Water Cycle is an outcome of the AGU Chapman Conference held in February 2012. This is a comprehensive volume that examines the use of available remote sensing satellite data as well as data from future missions that can be used to expand our knowledge in quantifying the spatial and temporal variations in the terrestrial water cycle. Volume highlights include: - An in-depth discussion of the global water cycle - Approaches to various problems in climate, weather, hydrology, and agriculture - Applications of satellite remote sensing in measuring precipitation, surface water, snow, soil moisture, groundwater, modeling, and data assimilation - A description of the use of satellite data for accurately estimating and monitoring the components of the hydrological cycle - Discussion of the measurement of multiple geophysical variables and properties over different landscapes on a temporal and a regional scale Remote Sensing of the Terrestrial Water Cycle is a valuable resource for students and research professionals in the hydrology, ecology, atmospheric sciences, geography, and geological sciences communities.
Read More

Research and Management for the 21st Century

Author: David J. Gilvear,Malcolm T. Greenwood,Martin C. Thoms,Paul J. Wood

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111864350X

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 7849

River Science is a rapidly developing interdisciplinary field at the interface of the natural sciences, engineering and socio-political sciences. It recognises that the sustainable management of contemporary rivers will increasingly require new ways of characterising them to enable engagement with the diverse range of stakeholders. This volume represents the outcome of research by many of the authors and their colleagues over the last 40 years and demonstrates the integral role that River Science now plays in underpinning our understanding of the functioning of natural ecosystems, and how societal demands and historic changes have affected these systems. The book will inform academics, policy makers and society in general of the benefits of healthy functioning riverine systems, and will increase awareness of the wide range of ecosystem goods and services they provide.
Read More

Common Methods

Author: Mark B. Bain,Nathalie J. Stevenson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781888569186

Category: Freshwater ecology

Page: 216

View: 1615

Abstract: Habitat is now the basis of most impact assessments and resource inventories, and it is the basis of many species management plans, mitigation planning, and environmental regulation. Habitats are relatively stable through time, easily defined in intuitive physical terms, and provide a tangible resource for negotiations and decision making. Numerous and varied methods of analyzing and reporting habitat conditions have been developed by federal, state, provincial, and private agencies. Habitat assessment approaches vary greatly among regions of the continent. The great variability in methods and an unusually wide range of practices have impeded the ability of agencies to share and synthesize information. A diversity of methods is desirable in the initial stages of a rapidly developing field, but enough time has passed to assess the state-of-knowledge and identify the best of the currently used methods and techniques. This manual is intended to provide fisheries biologists with a limited set of techniques for obtaining aquatic habitat data. The manual also describes the range of information collected and used in agency habitat analyses. Agencies planning habitat programs should review the synthesis of established and documented methods being used in North America (Appendix 1) and the planning recommendations in Chapter 2. Then, the remaining chapters should be reviewed to determine what types of habitat data should be included in the agency's program.
Read More

Author: Kenneth J Gregory,Andrew S Goudie

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446250105

Category: Science

Page: 648

View: 700

Geomorphology is the study of the Earth's diverse physical land-surface features and the dynamic processes that shape these features. Examining natural and anthropogenic processes, The SAGE Handbook of Geomorphology is a comprehensive exposition of the fundamentals of geomorphology that examines form, process, and applications of the discipline. Organized into five substantive sections, the Handbook is an overview of: • Foundations and Relevance: including the nature and scope of geomorphology; the origins and development of geomorphology; the role and character of theory in geomorphology; geomorphology and environmental management; and geomorphology and society • Techniques and Approaches: including observations and experiments; geomorphological mapping; the significance of models; process and form; dating surfaces and sediment; remote sensing in geomorphology; GIS in geomorphology; biogeomorphology; human activity • Process and Environment: including the evolution of regolith; weathering; fluids, flows and fluxes; sediment transport and deposition; hill slopes; riverine environments; glacial geomorphology; periglacial environments; coastal environments; aeolian environments; tropical environments; karst and karst processes • Environmental Change: including landscape evolution and tectonics; interpreting quaternary environments; environmental change; disturbance and responses to geomorphic systems • Conclusion: including challenges and perspectives; and a concluding review The Handbook has contributions from 48 international authors and was initially organized by the International Association of Geomorphologists. This will be a much-used and much-cited reference for researchers in Geomorphology, Physical Geography and the Environmental Sciences.
Read More

Author: Ellen Wohl

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118671686

Category: Science

Page: 573

View: 2907

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Water Resources Monograph Series, Volume 19. What are the forms and processes characteristic of mountain rivers and how do we know them? Mountain Rivers Revisited, an expanded and updated version of the earlier volume Mountain Rivers, answers these questions and more. Here is the only comprehensive synthesis of current knowledge about mountain rivers available. While continuing to focus on physical process and form in mountain rivers, the text also addresses the influences of tectonics, climate, and land use on rivers, as well as water chemistry, hyporheic exchange, and riparian and aquatic ecology. With its numerous illustrations and references, hydrologists, geomorphologists, civil and environmental engineers, ecologists, resource planners, and their students will find this book an essential resource. Ellen Wohl received her Ph.D. in geology in 1988 from the University of Arizona. Since then, she has worked primarily on mountain and bedrock rivers in diverse environments.
Read More

Author: R.S.E.W. Leuven,A.M.J. Ragas,A.J.M. Smits,G.van der Velde

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402053673

Category: Science

Page: 371

View: 2628

This book demonstrates an integrated perspective of trends and challenges in sustainable river science and management, as presented by experts in the fields that form its foundations - ecology, economy and sociology. Their contributions integrate current knowledge of the structure, functioning and management of ‘living rivers’. Also included are data and experiences concerning the rivers Allier, Meuse, Rhine, Sava and Tagliamento in Europe and the Illinois River in the USA.
Read More

Insights from Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations

Author: Thomas von Larcher,Paul D. Williams

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118855922

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 5870

Modeling Atmospheric and Oceanic Flows: Insights from Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations provides a broad overview of recent progress in using laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to model atmospheric and oceanic fluid motions. This volume not only surveys novel research topics in laboratory experimentation, but also highlights recent developments in the corresponding computational simulations. As computing power grows exponentially and better numerical codes are developed, the interplay between numerical simulations and laboratory experiments is gaining paramount importance within the scientific community. The lessons learnt from the laboratory–model comparisons in this volume will act as a source of inspiration for the next generation of experiments and simulations. Volume highlights include: Topics pertaining to atmospheric science, climate physics, physical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics Overview of the most advanced experimental and computational research in geophysics Recent developments in numerical simulations of atmospheric and oceanic fluid motion Unique comparative analysis of the experimental and numerical approaches to modeling fluid flow Modeling Atmospheric and Oceanic Flows will be a valuable resource for graduate students, researchers, and professionals in the fields of geophysics, atmospheric sciences, oceanography, climate science, hydrology, and experimental geosciences.
Read More

Author: Karen S. Harpp,Eric Mittelstaedt,Noémi d'Ozouville,David W. Graham

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118852680

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 5265

The Galápagos Islands are renown for their unique flora and fauna, inspiring Charles Darwin in the elaboration of his theory of evolution. Yet in his Voyage of the Beagle, published in 1839, Darwin also remarked on the fascinating geology and volcanic origin of these enchanted Islands. Since then, the Galápagos continue to provide scientists with inspiration and invaluable information about ocean island formation and evolution, mantle plumes, and the deep Earth. Motivated by an interdisciplinary Chapman Conference held in the Islands, this AGU volume provides cross-disciplinary collection of recent research into the origin and nature of ocean islands, from their deepest roots in Earth's mantle, to volcanism, surface processes, and the interface between geology and biodiversity. Volume highlights include: Case studies in biogeographical, hydrological, and chronological perspective Understanding the connection between geological processes and biodiversity Synthesis of decades of interdisciplinary research in physical processes from surface to deep interior of the earth In-depth discussion of the concept of the island acting as a natural laboratory for earth scientists Integrated understanding of the Galápagos region from a geological perspective Collectively, The Galápagos presents case studies illustrating the Galápagos Archipelago as a dynamic natural laboratory for the earth sciences. This book would be of special interest to a multidisciplinary audience in earth sciences, including petrologists, volcanologists, geochronologists, geochemists, and geobiologists.
Read More