Author: Alex Graves

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642247962

Category: Computers

Page: 146

View: 2189

Supervised sequence labelling is a vital area of machine learning, encompassing tasks such as speech, handwriting and gesture recognition, protein secondary structure prediction and part-of-speech tagging. Recurrent neural networks are powerful sequence learning tools—robust to input noise and distortion, able to exploit long-range contextual information—that would seem ideally suited to such problems. However their role in large-scale sequence labelling systems has so far been auxiliary. The goal of this book is a complete framework for classifying and transcribing sequential data with recurrent neural networks only. Three main innovations are introduced in order to realise this goal. Firstly, the connectionist temporal classification output layer allows the framework to be trained with unsegmented target sequences, such as phoneme-level speech transcriptions; this is in contrast to previous connectionist approaches, which were dependent on error-prone prior segmentation. Secondly, multidimensional recurrent neural networks extend the framework in a natural way to data with more than one spatio-temporal dimension, such as images and videos. Thirdly, the use of hierarchical subsampling makes it feasible to apply the framework to very large or high resolution sequences, such as raw audio or video. Experimental validation is provided by state-of-the-art results in speech and handwriting recognition.
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Author: Alex Graves

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642247970

Category: Computers

Page: 146

View: 1442

Supervised sequence labelling is a vital area of machine learning, encompassing tasks such as speech, handwriting and gesture recognition, protein secondary structure prediction and part-of-speech tagging. Recurrent neural networks are powerful sequence learning tools—robust to input noise and distortion, able to exploit long-range contextual information—that would seem ideally suited to such problems. However their role in large-scale sequence labelling systems has so far been auxiliary. The goal of this book is a complete framework for classifying and transcribing sequential data with recurrent neural networks only. Three main innovations are introduced in order to realise this goal. Firstly, the connectionist temporal classification output layer allows the framework to be trained with unsegmented target sequences, such as phoneme-level speech transcriptions; this is in contrast to previous connectionist approaches, which were dependent on error-prone prior segmentation. Secondly, multidimensional recurrent neural networks extend the framework in a natural way to data with more than one spatio-temporal dimension, such as images and videos. Thirdly, the use of hierarchical subsampling makes it feasible to apply the framework to very large or high resolution sequences, such as raw audio or video. Experimental validation is provided by state-of-the-art results in speech and handwriting recognition.
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Author: Alex Graves

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642432187

Category: Computers

Page: 146

View: 2178

Supervised sequence labelling is a vital area of machine learning, encompassing tasks such as speech, handwriting and gesture recognition, protein secondary structure prediction and part-of-speech tagging. Recurrent neural networks are powerful sequence learning tools—robust to input noise and distortion, able to exploit long-range contextual information—that would seem ideally suited to such problems. However their role in large-scale sequence labelling systems has so far been auxiliary. The goal of this book is a complete framework for classifying and transcribing sequential data with recurrent neural networks only. Three main innovations are introduced in order to realise this goal. Firstly, the connectionist temporal classification output layer allows the framework to be trained with unsegmented target sequences, such as phoneme-level speech transcriptions; this is in contrast to previous connectionist approaches, which were dependent on error-prone prior segmentation. Secondly, multidimensional recurrent neural networks extend the framework in a natural way to data with more than one spatio-temporal dimension, such as images and videos. Thirdly, the use of hierarchical subsampling makes it feasible to apply the framework to very large or high resolution sequences, such as raw audio or video. Experimental validation is provided by state-of-the-art results in speech and handwriting recognition.
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Learning Algorithms, Architectures and Stability

Author: Danilo P. Mandic,Jonathon Chambers

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated

ISBN: 9780471495178

Category: Computers

Page: 285

View: 8516

New technologies in engineering, physics and biomedicine are demanding increasingly complex methods of digital signal processing. By presenting the latest research work the authors demonstrate how real-time recurrent neural networks (RNNs) can be implemented to expand the range of traditional signal processing techniques and to help combat the problem of prediction. Within this text neural networks are considered as massively interconnected nonlinear adaptive filters. ? Analyses the relationships between RNNs and various nonlinear models and filters, and introduces spatio-temporal architectures together with the concepts of modularity and nesting ? Examines stability and relaxation within RNNs ? Presents on-line learning algorithms for nonlinear adaptive filters and introduces new paradigms which exploit the concepts of a priori and a posteriori errors, data-reusing adaptation, and normalisation ? Studies convergence and stability of on-line learning algorithms based upon optimisation techniques such as contraction mapping and fixed point iteration ? Describes strategies for the exploitation of inherent relationships between parameters in RNNs ? Discusses practical issues such as predictability and nonlinearity detecting and includes several practical applications in areas such as air pollutant modelling and prediction, attractor discovery and chaos, ECG signal processing, and speech processing Recurrent Neural Networks for Prediction offers a new insight into the learning algorithms, architectures and stability of recurrent neural networks and, consequently, will have instant appeal. It provides an extensive background for researchers, academics and postgraduates enabling them to apply such networks in new applications. VISIT OUR COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY WEBSITE! http://www.wiley.co.uk/commstech/ VISIT OUR WEB PAGE! http://www.wiley.co.uk/
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Author: Marek R. Ogiela,Lakhmi C. Jain

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642240488

Category: Computers

Page: 200

View: 9967

This monograph presents selected areas of application of pattern recognition and classification approaches including handwriting recognition, medical image analysis and interpretation, development of cognitive systems for image computer understanding, moving object detection, advanced image filtration and intelligent multi-object labelling and classification. It is directed to the scientists, application engineers, professors, professors and students will find this book useful.
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Author: Barbara Hammer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1846285674

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 150

View: 2963

Folding networks, a generalisation of recurrent neural networks to tree structured inputs, are investigated as a mechanism to learn regularities on classical symbolic data, for example. The architecture, the training mechanism, and several applications in different areas are explained. Afterwards a theoretical foundation, proving that the approach is appropriate as a learning mechanism in principle, is presented: Their universal approximation ability is investigated- including several new results for standard recurrent neural networks such as explicit bounds on the required number of neurons and the super Turing capability of sigmoidal recurrent networks. The information theoretical learnability is examined - including several contribution to distribution dependent learnability, an answer to an open question posed by Vidyasagar, and a generalisation of the recent luckiness framework to function classes. Finally, the complexity of training is considered - including new results on the loading problem for standard feedforward networks with an arbitrary multilayered architecture, a correlated number of neurons and training set size, a varying number of hidden neurons but fixed input dimension, or the sigmoidal activation function, respectively.
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Systems for Extracting Semantic Information from Speech

Author: Gokhan Tur,Renato De Mori

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119993946

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 480

View: 3521

Spoken language understanding (SLU) is an emerging field in between speech and language processing, investigating human/ machine and human/ human communication by leveraging technologies from signal processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and artificial intelligence. SLU systems are designed to extract the meaning from speech utterances and its applications are vast, from voice search in mobile devices to meeting summarization, attracting interest from both commercial and academic sectors. Both human/machine and human/human communications can benefit from the application of SLU, using differing tasks and approaches to better understand and utilize such communications. This book covers the state-of-the-art approaches for the most popular SLU tasks with chapters written by well-known researchers in the respective fields. Key features include: Presents a fully integrated view of the two distinct disciplines of speech processing and language processing for SLU tasks. Defines what is possible today for SLU as an enabling technology for enterprise (e.g., customer care centers or company meetings), and consumer (e.g., entertainment, mobile, car, robot, or smart environments) applications and outlines the key research areas. Provides a unique source of distilled information on methods for computer modeling of semantic information in human/machine and human/human conversations. This book can be successfully used for graduate courses in electronics engineering, computer science or computational linguistics. Moreover, technologists interested in processing spoken communications will find it a useful source of collated information of the topic drawn from the two distinct disciplines of speech processing and language processing under the new area of SLU.
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Second International Conference, SLSP 2014, Grenoble, France, October 14-16, 2014, Proceedings

Author: Laurent Besacier,Adrian-Horia Dediu,Carlos Martín-Vide

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319113976

Category: Computers

Page: 285

View: 9819

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on Statistical Language and Speech Processing, SLSP 2014, held in Grenoble, France, in October 2014. The 18 full papers presented together with three invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 53 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on machine translation, speech and speaker recognition, machine learning methods, text extraction and categorization, and mining text.
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Paradigms, Algorithms, and Applications

Author: Ron Sun,C.Lee Giles

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 354044565X

Category: Computers

Page: 396

View: 1952

Sequential behavior is essential to intelligence in general and a fundamental part of human activities, ranging from reasoning to language, and from everyday skills to complex problem solving. Sequence learning is an important component of learning in many tasks and application fields: planning, reasoning, robotics natural language processing, speech recognition, adaptive control, time series prediction, financial engineering, DNA sequencing, and so on. This book presents coherently integrated chapters by leading authorities and assesses the state of the art in sequence learning by introducing essential models and algorithms and by examining a variety of applications. The book offers topical sections on sequence clustering and learning with Markov models, sequence prediction and recognition with neural networks, sequence discovery with symbolic methods, sequential decision making, biologically inspired sequence learning models.
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Author: Alex Cecchetti,Paul Becker,Francesco Pedraglio,Project X Foundation for Art and Criticism

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780988669437

Category: Artists' books

Page: 184

View: 6832

Thirty writers address the dead bodyConceived and organized by Paul Becker, Alex Cecchettiand Francesco Pedraglio.The first Project X Project PaperbackCadavere Quotidiano is structured as a straight anthology of writers and artists preoccupied with the lumbering nature of the object and its relation to the written word.With: Ed Atkins, Becky Beasley, Paul Becker, Matthieu Bulte, Alex Cecchetti, Arunja Cecchetti, Simone Ciclitira, M Dean, Tim Etchells, Johannes Fa, Melissa Gordon, Alex Graves, Bruce Hainley, Nadia Hebson, Fiona Jardine, Allison Katz, Valentinas Klimasauskas, Jesper List Thomsen, Shana Lutker, Nicholas Matranga, Katrina Palmer, Sion Parkinson, Francesco Pedraglio, Heather Phillipson, Kit Poulson, Chris Sharp, David Steans, Joanne Tatham, Luke Williams, Jonas ZakaitisPaperback184 pgs4.25 x 7 inchesISBN: 978-0-9886694-3-7
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Author: Yoav Goldberg

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 162705295X

Category: Computers

Page: 309

View: 593

Neural networks are a family of powerful machine learning models. This book focuses on the application of neural network models to natural language data. The first half of the book (Parts I and II) covers the basics of supervised machine learning and feed-forward neural networks, the basics of working with machine learning over language data, and the use of vector-based rather than symbolic representations for words. It also covers the computation-graph abstraction, which allows to easily define and train arbitrary neural networks, and is the basis behind the design of contemporary neural network software libraries. The second part of the book (Parts III and IV) introduces more specialized neural network architectures, including 1D convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, conditioned-generation models, and attention-based models. These architectures and techniques are the driving force behind state-of-the-art algorithms for machine translation, syntactic parsing, and many other applications. Finally, we also discuss tree-shaped networks, structured prediction, and the prospects of multi-task learning.
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Author: John F. Kolen,Stefan C. Kremer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780780353695

Category: Computers

Page: 421

View: 8069

Electrical Engineering A Field Guide to Dynamical Recurrent Networks Acquire the tools for understanding new architectures and algorithms of dynamical recurrent networks (DRNs) from this valuable field guide, which documents recent forays into artificial intelligence, control theory, and connectionism. This unbiased introduction to DRNs and their application to time-series problems (such as classification and prediction) provides a comprehensive overview of the recent explosion of leading research in this prolific field. A Field Guide to Dynamical Recurrent Networks emphasizes the issues driving the development of this class of network structures. It provides a solid foundation in DRN systems theory and practice using consistent notation and terminology. Theoretical presentations are supplemented with applications ranging from cognitive modeling to financial forecasting. A Field Guide to Dynamical Recurrent Networks will enable engineers, research scientists, academics, and graduate students to apply DRNs to various real-world problems and learn about different areas of active research. It provides both state-of-the-art information and a road map to the future of cutting-edge dynamical recurrent networks.
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A Practical Course

Author: Ivan Nunes da Silva,Danilo Hernane Spatti,Rogerio Andrade Flauzino,Luisa Helena Bartocci Liboni,Silas Franco dos Reis Alves

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319431625

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 307

View: 7234

This book provides comprehensive coverage of neural networks, their evolution, their structure, the problems they can solve, and their applications. The first half of the book looks at theoretical investigations on artificial neural networks and addresses the key architectures that are capable of implementation in various application scenarios. The second half is designed specifically for the production of solutions using artificial neural networks to solve practical problems arising from different areas of knowledge. It also describes the various implementation details that were taken into account to achieve the reported results. These aspects contribute to the maturation and improvement of experimental techniques to specify the neural network architecture that is most appropriate for a particular application scope. The book is appropriate for students in graduate and upper undergraduate courses in addition to researchers and professionals.
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Author: Gerald Tesauro,David S. Touretzky

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262201049

Category: Computers

Page: 1143

View: 4156

November 28-December 1, 1994, Denver, Colorado NIPS is the longest running annual meeting devoted to Neural Information Processing Systems. Drawing on such disparate domains as neuroscience, cognitive science, computer science, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and theoretical physics, the papers collected in the proceedings of NIPS7 reflect the enduring scientific and practical merit of a broad-based, inclusive approach to neural information processing. The primary focus remains the study of a wide variety of learning algorithms and architectures, for both supervised and unsupervised learning. The 139 contributions are divided into eight parts: Cognitive Science, Neuroscience, Learning Theory, Algorithms and Architectures, Implementations, Speech and Signal Processing, Visual Processing, and Applications. Topics of special interest include the analysis of recurrent nets, connections to HMMs and the EM procedure, and reinforcement- learning algorithms and the relation to dynamic programming. On the theoretical front, progress is reported in the theory of generalization, regularization, combining multiple models, and active learning. Neuroscientific studies range from the large-scale systems such as visual cortex to single-cell electrotonic structure, and work in cognitive scientific is closely tied to underlying neural constraints. There are also many novel applications such as tokamak plasma control, Glove-Talk, and hand tracking, and a variety of hardware implementations, with particular focus on analog VLSI.
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Author: Ian Goodfellow,Yoshua Bengio,Aaron Courville

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262337371

Category: Computers

Page: 800

View: 2364

"Written by three experts in the field, Deep Learning is the only comprehensive book on the subject." -- Elon Musk, cochair of OpenAI; cofounder and CEO of Tesla and SpaceX Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, online recommendation systems, bioinformatics, and videogames. Finally, the book offers research perspectives, covering such theoretical topics as linear factor models, autoencoders, representation learning, structured probabilistic models, Monte Carlo methods, the partition function, approximate inference, and deep generative models. Deep Learning can be used by undergraduate or graduate students planning careers in either industry or research, and by software engineers who want to begin using deep learning in their products or platforms. A website offers supplementary material for both readers and instructors.
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Creating Neural Networks with Python

Author: Palash Goyal,Sumit Pandey,Karan Jain

Publisher: Apress

ISBN: 1484236858

Category: Computers

Page: 277

View: 7785

Discover the concepts of deep learning used for natural language processing (NLP), with full-fledged examples of neural network models such as recurrent neural networks, long short-term memory networks, and sequence-2-sequence models. You’ll start by covering the mathematical prerequisites and the fundamentals of deep learning and NLP with practical examples. The first three chapters of the book cover the basics of NLP, starting with word-vector representation before moving onto advanced algorithms. The final chapters focus entirely on implementation, and deal with sophisticated architectures such as RNN, LSTM, and Seq2seq, using Python tools: TensorFlow, and Keras. Deep Learning for Natural Language Processing follows a progressive approach and combines all the knowledge you have gained to build a question-answer chatbot system. This book is a good starting point for people who want to get started in deep learning for NLP. All the code presented in the book will be available in the form of IPython notebooks and scripts, which allow you to try out the examples and extend them in interesting ways. What You Will Learn Gain the fundamentals of deep learning and its mathematical prerequisites Discover deep learning frameworks in Python Develop a chatbot Implement a research paper on sentiment classification Who This Book Is For Software developers who are curious to try out deep learning with NLP.
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Methods and Applications in Bio-/Neuroinformatics

Author: Petia Koprinkova-Hristova,Valeri Mladenov,Nikola K. Kasabov

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319099035

Category: Computers

Page: 488

View: 9604

The book reports on the latest theories on artificial neural networks, with a special emphasis on bio-neuroinformatics methods. It includes twenty-three papers selected from among the best contributions on bio-neuroinformatics-related issues, which were presented at the International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, held in Sofia, Bulgaria, on September 10-13, 2013 (ICANN 2013). The book covers a broad range of topics concerning the theory and applications of artificial neural networks, including recurrent neural networks, super-Turing computation and reservoir computing, double-layer vector perceptrons, nonnegative matrix factorization, bio-inspired models of cell communities, Gestalt laws, embodied theory of language understanding, saccadic gaze shifts and memory formation, and new training algorithms for Deep Boltzmann Machines, as well as dynamic neural networks and kernel machines. It also reports on new approaches to reinforcement learning, optimal control of discrete time-delay systems, new algorithms for prototype selection, and group structure discovering. Moreover, the book discusses one-class support vector machines for pattern recognition, handwritten digit recognition, time series forecasting and classification, and anomaly identification in data analytics and automated data analysis. By presenting the state-of-the-art and discussing the current challenges in the fields of artificial neural networks, bioinformatics and neuroinformatics, the book is intended to promote the implementation of new methods and improvement of existing ones, and to support advanced students, researchers and professionals in their daily efforts to identify, understand and solve a number of open questions in these fields.
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Representation and Applications

Author: Santanu Chaudhury,Anupama Mallik,Hiranmay Ghosh

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482236354

Category: Computers

Page: 288

View: 7964

The result of more than 15 years of collective research, Multimedia Ontology: Representation and Applications provides a theoretical foundation for understanding the nature of media data and the principles involved in its interpretation. The book presents a unified approach to recent advances in multimedia and explains how a multimedia ontology can fill the semantic gap between concepts and the media world. It relays real-life examples of implementations in different domains to illustrate how this gap can be filled. The book contains information that helps with building semantic, content-based search and retrieval engines and also with developing vertical application-specific search applications. It guides you in designing multimedia tools that aid in logical and conceptual organization of large amounts of multimedia data. As a practical demonstration, it showcases multimedia applications in cultural heritage preservation efforts and the creation of virtual museums. The book describes the limitations of existing ontology techniques in semantic multimedia data processing, as well as some open problems in the representations and applications of multimedia ontology. As an antidote, it introduces new ontology representation and reasoning schemes that overcome these limitations. The long, compiled efforts reflected in Multimedia Ontology: Representation and Applications are a signpost for new achievements and developments in efficiency and accessibility in the field.
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A Generalized Net Perspective

Author: Maciej Krawczak

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319002481

Category: Computers

Page: 182

View: 364

The primary purpose of this book is to show that a multilayer neural network can be considered as a multistage system, and then that the learning of this class of neural networks can be treated as a special sort of the optimal control problem. In this way, the optimal control problem methodology, like dynamic programming, with modifications, can yield a new class of learning algorithms for multilayer neural networks. Another purpose of this book is to show that the generalized net theory can be successfully used as a new description of multilayer neural networks. Several generalized net descriptions of neural networks functioning processes are considered, namely: the simulation process of networks, a system of neural networks and the learning algorithms developed in this book. The generalized net approach to modelling of real systems may be used successfully for the description of a variety of technological and intellectual problems, it can be used not only for representing the parallel functioning of homogenous objects, but also for modelling non-homogenous systems, for example systems which consist of a different kind of subsystems. The use of the generalized nets methodology shows a new way to describe functioning of discrete dynamic systems.
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